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L I B R. A R. Y 




58 0. 6 



University ofllUnoisUbrary 






From November 1919 to June 1920. 

L o N 1) o N : 




KEi> Liox counr, fleet street, e.c. 4. 


Wii/i^O' .3'^i^?-'i 



List of Publications issued iv 

Proceedings of tlie l;j2nd Session i 

Presidential Address 25 

Obituaries 37 

Abstracts of Papers 59 

Benefactions, liiOl-lOi'O 66 

Additions to the Library 71 

Index Si 


Conmiemoration of .Sir Joseph Banks, Bart., F.R.S. 

PUBLICATIOXS: SessioxJuly 191!)-.] urA" 1920. 

Journal, Botany. 

Vol. XLIY. No. ;50H. 10/- 
„ Xr.V. „ 301. 20/- 

Journal, Zoolog)^ 

Vol. XXXIV. Xo. 227. 14/- 

Proceediiigs, 131st Session, Octobei- 1!)19. 6/- 

List of [Fellows, Associates, and Foreign Members], Nov. 1919. 





November Otli, 1919. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodwaub, F.R.S., President, 
ill tho Cliair. 

The ^[inutes of the General Meeting of tlie 19th June, 1919, 
were read and eoiifinned. 

Tlie re[)ort of the Donations received since the last Meeting was 
laid before the iVdIows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Miss Florence Annie Mockeridge, D.Sc, was admitted a Fellow. 

Certificates in favour of tlie following were read for the second 
time: — Mr. Arthur Rohert- Thompson, liieut. R.A.F., Miss Mary 
Ross Hall Thomson, Mr. Humphrey John DenlKun, B. A.(().xon.), 
Mr. Ethelbert Ainljrook Southee. Mr. BiMiaiali Colson AdUin, 
M.A. (Cantab.). George Parker Biilder, M.A., Sc.D. (Cantab.), 
Miss N'era Adelaide Irwin-Smith, B.Sc. (Sydney), Mr. James 
Robert Matthews, and INIiss Beatrice Buckland Taylor. 

The following W(n-e proposed as Fellows : — Air. Narayanan 
Padmanahha Panikkar, B.A. (Madr.), James Davidson, D.So. 
(riiverp.),F.E.S., Mr.Sahay Ram Bose, M.A.(Calc.), Mr.Tribhawan 
\atli Bhan, Thomas Robertson Sim, Hon. l)..Sc. (Pretoria), 
Mr. Frank Hanry Taylor, F.E.S., William Rushtou ParJu/r, 
M.A., AI.D. (Cantab.). Mr. Ja('(|ues do Vdmorin, ]\[r. Arthur 

LINX. see. PROCEEDINGS. — SESSION 1919-1920. h 


Lionel Crooddav, Lit>ut. K.G.A./^>eofTr«y Doni^las Halo Carppiitor, 
:M.H.I":.,M.A.J").M.(()xoii.), .Mr.ArtlmrSlaiil.'y Hirst, Mr. William 
(Jraril Cruil), .M.A.(Al)((rcl.), JNIr. Sydney ['ercy- Lancaster, and 
31r. llerhert Wiliiam Pugsley, H. A. (Loud.)- 

The Prt'siilciit read tlic rollowiiifi; proposed alterations in the 
liye-Laws, tor the tirst lime: — 

In Chapter II. Sections 2,15: "That the [)rivilege of Com- 
pounding tor the Annual Contrihution he suspended." 

In Chapter XV', Section .'i, to leave out the words : " Five 
years shall have elapsed from." | The whole section stands 
thus, tiie words proposed to he left out heing in italics: — 

" No Fellow of the Society shall he entitleil to receive, gratis, 
any copy of the ' Transactions,' or other serial Publications, 
after Five i/cars shall have elajmed from the Time of their 
Publication, unless the Council shall otlierwise direct."] 

The iirst paper, by Colonel H. E. Kawsox, C.B., F.L.S., 

" Plant-sports i)roduced at will," was illustrated by the Episcope. 

Prof. J. B. Farmer and L)r. II. E. Grates discussed the paper, 
and the Author replied. (See Abstract, ]). 64.) 

Tlie second pap(;r was by Mr. Lancelot Hoguen, ]i.A., B.Sc, 
and entitled "Nuclear Phenomena in the Oocytes of XeHroienis, a 
(Jail-fly," which was communicated by ])r. Eric Drabble, F.L.S. 

Dr. k. E. (^ates added a few remarks on the paper. 

The last pa])er, "A Eevision of the genus liaphia, Afzel.," by 
Mr. L. \ . Lkstkii-Gaiu-ani), M.A., F.L.S., was summarized by 
the Author. 

Mr. E. (t. Baker commented on the geographical distribution 
c/f the species. 

November 20th, 1919. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

TheiMinutes of the General Meeting of the 0th November, 1919, 
were read and coniirm(\l. 

Tiu' report of the Donations received since the last Meeting was 
laid !)efore tlu^ Fellows, antl the thanks of the Society to the several 
Donors were ordered. 

Mr. Eobert Selhy Hole, Mr. Alfred AVilliam Sheppard, 
Mr. Humphrey Godwin Billinghiirst, and Prof. Eobert Colquhouu 
j\Icl>ean, M.A., D.Sc, were :;dmilted Fellows, _ 


'Mr. Josepli Oiner-Coopor and ^liss Lucy Ellen Cox w ere pro- 
posed as Fellow.s. 

The tVrtilicato in favoui- ot Mv. Xarayaiuui Padinaiiablia 
Panikkar, B.A,, \\as read for the second time. 

Mr. Arthiu" Robert Thompson, fiieut. It.A.F., Miss Mary Ross 
Hall Thomson, Mr, Humphrey John Henliam, B.A. (Oxoii.), 
Mr. Efhelbert Ambrook Southee, Mr. Jienaiah Colson Adkin, 
M.A. (Cantab.), George Parker Bidder, IM.A., 8c.D. (Cantab.), 
Miss Vera Adelaide Irwin-Smith, B.Sc. (Sydney), Mr. James 
Robert INIatthews, JM.A. (Kdin.), and Miss " Beatrice IJuckland 
Taylor were elected Fellows. 

The proposed alterations in Chapters il.&XV. of the Bye- 
Laws were read from the Chair for the second time. 

!Mr. T. Kerr J'attox exbibiletl 34 plants from ^[esopotamia 
and 78 from Southern Lidia, collected whilst on service, and 
mounted on post-cards. He s|)oke of the soil in Mesopotamia 
being easily dii<:j with the spade to a depth of tliirty feet, and the 
rapiil growth of crops after being sown. 

^fr. L. V. Lester-tJarland and Mr. C. C. Lacaita contributed 
farther remarks, and Mr. Patton replied. 

Mr. C. C. Lacaita showed specimens of Orchis macidala col- 
lected on Monte iJargano, Italy. ]Jr. G. C. Druce made some 
observations, to which Air. C. C. Ijacaita replied. 

Dr. (}. C'LARnxiE Dri'CK exhibited sjjecimens and read the 
following account : — 

"On tlie Occurrence in Britain as Native Plants of yijii[/a 
'leaevens'is and Cenlaurium sdUoides, Uruce, var. portense ( IJrot.).'' 

Although there are ])revious records of Ajtuja r/euevensis from 
Britain the records are probably mistakes \'or pi/ruitiidalis or other 
species, and in one instance due to a garden-escape of the true 
plant ; this discovery of f/eiuven.sis on the Berkshire downs is an 
undoubted evidence of it as a British species. Jt was discovered 
i)y Miss Fry in May 1018, and the exhibitor went with her in 
the nt;xt week to examine the habitat. Here there seems little 
likelihood of accidental introdm-t ion. The plant grows on the 
grassy chalk-downs near furze-hushes, but is limited to a small 

CeiildUi-inm sc'iUoldcs is the Enjthvira diffusa of Joseph Woods, 
who discovered it near Morlaix in Brittany. As a somewhat 
dilVerent form it had been previously discovered by Masson in the 
Azores, where it is said to be always a white-flowered form. 'I'he 
younger Linna)us (Suppl. 175, 1781 )describi;d the latter as Gcnthmu 
sc'dloidcs with yellow llowers, a mistake which misled botanists to 

6 2 

4 pnocEKniNGS of the 

think it was a form of the yellow-flowered 7»aritimiim. Brotero 
(Fl. Liisit. i. 27J^, ls<t4) {jave lo the iiiainhuid form the name of 
O'entiaua 2'0)'t*:»sis, so calleil from ()|)()rto, near whicii place 
it oi-eiirs. 

Since our plant is tlie pink-flowered plant of the mainland it 
has been named as above, JJrotero's being the earliest trivial 
name. Tlie ])lant was sent me in September 11)18, when 1 was 
away from home, by Mr. Arnett of Tenby. This year 1 went to 
visit the locality where the friend of Mr, Arnett discovered it, 
and was informed it was limited to a piece of ground about two 
yards s()uare, on a headland near Newport, Pembroke. However, 
1 was glad to .see it growing on tlu; edge of a grassy cliff over 
some considerable area in addition to the small patch first dis- 
covered. There it seems undisputably native. The bay beneath 
is open lo gahjs which J. was told bring in some considerable 
quantity of wi-eckage, but the plant grows with other native 
species above the reach of ordinary driftage. The (juestion arises, 
can the sn)all seeds of |)Iant8 be conveyed in sea-spume, and may 
this be the cause of the occurrence of FranJcenia and Lhnonium 
h/chnidifoliiuii on the .lersey cliffs, and incidentally the cause of 
other members than this interesting Centauriion, of the so-called 
Atlantic species, being introduced in remote tin:es into the British 
Isles. The record and description of the Pembroke plant as 
Ei'iith)\ea sciUoides was made by Mr. A. J. Wilmott in Journ. Bot. 
Ivi. 11)18, ]). IJ21. As in the case of xXmAjurju, there is a previous 
record of this Centani-iniit as a Hritish plant, and that on the higli 
authority of Nyman (Consji. 502). But Nymau blindly followed 
Grisebach (DC. Prod. i.x. p. 5!)), w ho simply mis-read " Pr. Morlaix 
Britt., Woods," to mean Britannia instead of Brittany, where 
Morlaix is situated and where Joseph AVoods found it. 

Mr. A. J. Wilmott, Mr. C. E. Salmon, and Mr. K. (1. Baker 
discussed various points. Dr. Druce replying. 

[Note received L'-4th November, 1919. — Specimens in the 
herbaria of JJuddle and of Petiver in the British Museum (Natural 
llistorv) and of Stonestreet, at Oxford, are not contemporaneous 
with Thomas Johnson, bulr probably were collected fifty v^'fii's 

Dr. DiiucK also showed a few highly finished water-colour 
drawings of British liuhi by Miss Tuowku. 

The last communication was by Prof. 11. C. McLeax, entitled 
" Sex and Soma," of which the following is an abstract: — 

The Author enlarged npon the recently discovered phase of 
multinucleosis in the developing soma cell of higher plants. The 
genetic interest of the phenomenon has not received sulllcient 
consideration, and the present paper was designed to direct atten- 
tion to the |)ossibilities involved. The Author maintained, in 
opposition to Arbcr and Beer, that there is evidence of nuclear 


reunions laking phifoiii the imiltiniiolcar ciill<, and lir cliarattcrizfcl 
tliese fusions as uiodifitMi sexual conjugations consequent upon tlie 
lonpr series of vt'i;etal)io divisions in llio lineage oF a sonui cell, and 
necessary to avoitl I lie degeneration which ex[)ei'inicnt shows to 
be attendant upon prolonged vegetative propagation. The de\ e- 
lopiiient of the plant body may thus be regarded as endjracing 
two phases of stimulus: lirst, tiie normal sex stimulus which 
initiates the period of maximum cell proliferation, and, secondly, 
this somatic nuclear union, initiating the period of maximum 
dilTerentiation. Tissue dill'tirentialion, it was suggested, niay be 
associated with some process of segregation subsecjuent to this 
nuclear fusion. The separation of sex characters in the develop- 
ment of montecious organisms was pointed to as evidence of the 
existence of such segregation during development. 

It was finally suggested that g'l-minal moditicafions as well as 
somatic segregations may be deriveil from a mechanism of nuclear 
fractionizatiou and subse<iuent partial reunion in somatic cells. 

December 11th, lUllJ. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodwaiu), F.K.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the (lencral .Meeting of the 20th November, 
1U19, were read and contirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting was 
laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered, a special vote being accorded to 
Mr. JluGii I'lNOox, F.L.S., for his gift of Kirkman's ' British 
Bird 13ooIi.' 

Dr. (Jeorge Parker Bidder, M. A. (Cantab.), Mr. Arthur Ivohort 
Thom[).son, Jiieut. K.A.F., Mr. Stuart Hogg, and 3Ir. Beiiaiali 
Colsun Adkin, M. A. (Cantab.), were admitted Fellows. 

The following were proposed as Fellows: — Dr. George Ken- 
neth Sutherland, M.A. ( Aberd.), Mr. Jlarry Bertram Harding, 
]\[rs. I-llinore Fgerton llarde, Oeorge Albert Boiilenger, LL. D., 
D.Sc, F.K.S., and Mr. Edmund Gustavus Bloomlield iMeade- 

The Certilicate in favour of Dr. James Davidson was read for 
thy second time. 

^Ir, Xarayaium Pailmanahha Pauikkar, B.A., was elected a 

6 tllutEEUlNUS OF TllK 

Tlie proposed alterations in the Bve-Law.s, wliicli had been read 
from the Chair on the 6tl» and 2Uth November, were submitted to 
the BaUot and carried. 

Prof. W. A. lliiKbMAN, For.Seo.K.S., F.L.S., read liis paper 
entitled " Notes on the abundance of ^Jarine Animals and a 
quantitative survey of their occurrence," which was illustrated by 

Prof. Deiuly and Sir 11. 11. llowortli, K.C.l.E. (visitor), con- 
tributed further observations, and the Author replied. 

Mr. J. Bkoxth Gatenuy, 13. A. (Cantab.), B.Sc, read his paper, 
'' The (jterin-CL'Us and carlv iJuvtdopnient of Urantia co)npressii,^' 
which was conimunicaled by Mr. E. iS. Goodrich,, Zoological 

l*rof. i)endy reviewed his earlier observations on this sponge, 
and congratuhited Mr. Gatenby on his good fortune iii securing 
individuals in a condition to afi'ord such good results — a somew iiat 
rare condition. Dr. (i. P. Bidder continued the discussion by 
adverting to liis own observations and deductions from the 
appearances presented to his view. Mr. Gatenby replieil. Many 
lantern-slides were employed by all these speakers in elucidation 
of their remarks. 

January 15th, 1920. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.E.S., Presideut, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 11th December, 1019, 
were read and confirmed. 

The rei)ort of the Donations received since the last Meeting was 
laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered, a special vote being accorded to the 
Institute of Preventive Medicine for its gift of a large number of 
volumes on Sponges formerly the property of the late Prof. E. A. 
MiNCHiN,, Sec.L.S. 

Mr. James Kobert Matthews was admitted a Fellow. 

The follow ing were proposed as Fellows : — Mr. Pyari Mohan 
Debbannan, B.Sc, JM.E.A.S., and Dr. Otto A^eriion Darbishire. 

The Certificates in favour of the following were read a second 
time:— Prof. Salkuy Bam Bose, JNI. A. (Calcutta), Mr. Tribhawan 
Natli Blian, Dr. Thomas Kobertson Sim, Mr. Frank llem-v Taylor, 
F.E.S., and William Kushtou Parker, M.A., M.D. (Cantab.). ' 


James Davidson, D.Sc. (Liverp.), F.E.S., was elected a FelJow. 

The President spoke on the foundation of the "Goodenoiigh 
Fund," and .stated that a circular explanatory of its purpose 
would dliortly he issued. 

Dr. A. 13. Kendlb, F.E.S., Sec.L.S., read an appeal for contri- 
hutions in aid of a fund to purchase Monsieur Jules Cardot's 
Herharium of Mosses for the Paris Museum of Natural History. 
He referred to Monsieur Cardot's misfortunes early in the war, 
and pointed out that the Herharium is a valuable one, containing 
as it does the types of a large iiumher of new species — those 
described by L'ardot jointly with F. llenauhl, a large number from 
India and tropical West .Africa, the materials on which are based 
his ' jNIousses de Madagascar,' ' Sphaignes d'Furope,' ' Recherches 
Anatomiques sur les Leucohryacees,' ' Moiuigra[)hie des Fontina- 
lacees,' ' Diagnoses Preliminaires de Mousses Mexicaines,' etc. 

The General Secretary gave a lantern lecture entitled "jMethods 
of Botanic Illustration during Four Centuries " ; of which the 
following is an abstract : — 

The Lecturer explained his meaning with regard to the word 
"Illustration," namely, a representation in printiug-ink or some 
similar medium, capable of identic reproduction in considerable 
numbers, thus excluding all drawings which need hand-copying, 
and all purely photographic prints. Colour could hardly be 
touched upon, as it is not easy to display in the lantern. Thus 
defined, illustration may be held to consist of three maiu 
methods :— 

(1) When the design projects from the surface, and the ink 

is applied only to the elevations; 
{'2) When the design is cut into the surface, and the ink 

remains only in the depressions ; 
(3) When the surface is practically level, the design being 

reproduced by chemical action as in lithography. 

1. Siu'face design. Wood engraving was the ( metliod 
employed, the early foi'ms being known as block-books, drawing 
and legeiul being printed from the same block. On the introduc- 
tion of movable type the woodcuts were at lirst confined to the 
ornamental part, then to copying the pen-drawings found in some 
of the old Codices of Dioscorides and similar authors. These 
drawings were crude ; a few are selected Irom the work entitled 
' Jlerl)arius ' from the iirst word of the work; it was printed at 
Maiutz in 1484, These bi'ginnings did not long satisfy the peo])le 
of the lienaissance ; accordingly in loJJO a volunu; came out with 
representations of ])lants, by Otto Brunfels, a (Jerman school- 
master. Eecently Dr. A. Jl. Church has inihlished a sympathetic 
account of this precursor of botanic illustration, commenting on 


Ills fidelity of (Iraughtsiujuisliip even of delet-ts ui' the fspt'ciiiieiis 
before liim. Jii 1542 tin- .s[)leiulid folio of Leoiiliard Fiiclis 
appeared, with woodcuts wliicli liave been deservedly praised for 
Iheir accuracy and style ; be gave the [)ortraits ol U\» three 
bel|)ers, tuo drauglilsinen and the engraver, at the end of his 
book. Within the next generation we find 1^'inhert Dodoens, 
I'ierre Pena, with his coih-ague Alathias de I'Obel, followed by 
many workers, including Charles do I'Eschise, our ou)i John 
Gerard, the Valgrisi (Venetian printers), Cainei'arius, Bock, and 
John Parknison, whose large blocks were cut "plank-wise" — that 
is, ilown the grain- — generally of pear-wood, often supplemented 
by an under layer of deal. With the advent of Thomas Bewick 
(i7o;j-181^8) wood-engraving entered upon a new phase ; this 
celebrated man en)ployed the white line and the fiat black in a 
. most skilful manner. Japanese and Frejjch 8[)ecimens show the 
latest state of what is almost a lost art. 

2. Coi)per plates. Contemporary with the later herbalists, 
copper-plate etching made its appearance; the etching was simply 
])rinted, none of the usual iinesse of the copper-])late printer 
being used. Colonna, licneaulme, and vVlpini may be instanced as 
having successfully employed etching, and much later, Dillenius. 
Dry-point, the use of a needle on the plate to produce a burr, was 
much employed by Dv. John Hill ; this burr rapidly v ore away, 
and accounts for the poor appearance of many of llill's plates, for 
the plan of " steeling'"' is a comparatively recent invention. 

Engraving by trained craftsmen followed the use of etching ; 
beautiful work may be seen in Yaillant's folio on the plants grow- 
ing about Paris, and after Ehret, in the 'Jlortus Clillbrtiaiuis.' 
iSole's plates in his 'British Rlinls ' display the most elaborate 
attempt to show texture and colour, in a black plate. Mezzotint 
to a small extent was tried by John Martyn. 

The second period of copper-plale engraving was largely that 
of stippling, as used by lledoute, and in our own time by Bornet 
and Tburet. 

3. Lithography depends upon the mutual repulsion of oil and 
water; a drawing upon a certain kind of limestone, made with 
greasy ink or chalk, will repel wat'^', and the latter when soaked 
into the stone will repel ink, printing being an alternation of 
inking and wetting the stone before a])plying the paper and 
subjecting it to pressure. 

Ectype, jS'ature-printing or Bradburytype, and Woodburytype 
Avere next considereil, and then current processes were discussed. 

Zinco, or line j)rocess blocks, depend upon the property of 
bichromate salts in conjunction with gelatine or albumeii of 
causing the compound to become insoluble under the action of 
light. A negative of a dniwing is placed upon a metal ])lale thus 
sensitised, and after exposure, the gelatine which has been exposed 
to light remains hard, but the protected gelatine is washed away. 
The spaces between the lines are etched away with weak acid, 


broad spaces are inecliaii.ually " routed, " and the plate is mounted 
on wood nearly type-high. This process is only suited to drawings 
ill line or stipple. 

Half-tone is a more delicate, and eaii be emjjloyed in 
copying various degrees of sliading. At the present time a 
sciven of two sheets of ruled glass, crossed and cemented, is 
pl.u-ed in the camera near the sensitive plate; this screen is ruled 
fiH)m about 70 lines to the inch, for ne\vsi)aper work, to 20U for 
the highest kiiid on art p;ii)er. The crossing of the two series of 
lines produces a series of dots, white in the darks, black in the 
liglits, acting as pin-hole lenses. 

Photogravure was next described, but its place in botanic 
illustration is small, o\\ ing to its cost. 

Collotype is printing from a gelatine film, giving beautiful and 
graduated results without any perceptible grain. 

.Specimens of the blocks and of plates resulting from the 
described processes were shown on the table. 

The President having spoken, Mr. A. J. W ilmott referred to 
the sti]:)ple-process and the usage of W. Curtis in ])rinting the 
outlines of his 'Flora Londinensis ' in colour, thus aiding the 
after application of colour. 

The Lecturer, in reply, regretted that the large amount of 
material which bad to be compressed into one lecture instead of 
several, hail caused many of his sections to be omitted ; he then 
instanced Hedoutc's work in stipple, which was printed in the 
colours ap])ropriate to each part of the plate, the print being 
linisbed by hand-colouring. 

February oth, 1'J2U. 

Dr. A. Smitu Woodavard, F.Ii.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the loth January, 
19-!0, were read and conlirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
w;is laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

^Ir. Leonard John Sedgwick Mas admitted a Fellow. 

The PresidenI announced the vaciincies in the list of Foreifrn 
ALembers, caused by the deaths of Prof. AVilliam Gibson Farlow, 
Prof. Ernst Heinrich Pbilipi) August llaeckel. Prof. Gustaf 
]\lagnns lietzius, Prof. Simon >Sch\\ endener, and Prof. Hermann 
von Vochtint;-. 


.Mr. William Hic'kat.s»)u Dykes, M.A.(()xoii.), Jj. is L. (Paris), 
was proposed as a Fellow. 

The following were elected Fellows : — Prof. 8aliay Ram 13ose, 
M.A.(Caleutta), Tribhawaii Nath ^iJhaii, L)r. Thomas liobertsou 
Sim, Frank lleury Tavlor, F.E.S., and William Kuslilon Parker, 
M.A., iM.JD.(Caiitab.).' 

A paper entitled " On the E.xistence of Two Fiimlamentally 
Different 'J'ypes of Characters in Organisms " was read by Dr. li. 
KuGGLES Itatks, F.L.IS., ot wliicli the following is an abstract : — 

The experimentalist point of vie\\- regarding evolution, resulting 
from the work in mutation and Mendelism, is frankly antagonistic 
to the views of palreontologists, anatomists, and others w ho deal 
with orthogenesis and the inheritance of acquired characters. 1 
wish to show that while these two factors bear entirely difierent 
relations to evolutionary clianges, both are necessary to account 
for evolution as it has taken place. 

The conclusion is reached that higher organisms exiiibit two 
contrasted types of characters, which differ tuudamentally (1) in 
llieir manner of origin, (2) in tlieir relation to the structni-e of 
the organism, (o) in their relation to such phenomena as 
recapitulation, ada])tation, and inheritance, (4) in their relation 
to geographic distribution. 

To the tirst category belong cell-ciiai'acters, which arise as 
imitations, are represented in every cell of the individual, and are 
usually inherited as distinct entities. Since they are borne in the 
nuclei, it is proposed to call them karyogenetic characters. To 
the second category belong organismal ciiaracters, which arise 
gradually through impact of the environment or through ortho- 
genetic changes, may modify only localized portions of the life- 
cycle, and may not be incor|iorated in the germ-plasm from the 
tirst. They may imply an increase or, in the gamerophytes of 
plants, a shortening in length of the life-cycle. 

The development of organismal characters is to be explained in 
connection with the principle of recapitulation. Embryonic re- 
capitulation has arisen in connection with the adaptation of the 
organism to a new set of conditions, and implies the inheritance 
of acquired characters. Orthogenetic recapitulation, as in the 
Juvenal plumage of birds, implies a change which is germinal in 
oi'igin but added terminally to the life-cycle. 

The antithetic alternation of generations in plants, implying 
the gradual development of the sporophyte by its intercalation 
between two gametophyte generations, is the same jjrocess as the 
development of orthogenetic recapitulatory characters. Tho homo- 
logous alternation in certain Algtc has probably arisen through 
a sudden change which is essentially mutational. 

The cell theory of mutations leads to the concept of the species 


cell. -But there ai'e definite limitations to the eell theory of 
organic structure, as pointed out by iSedgwick, Wliituian, and 
otiiers. The facts of recapitulation also limit the cell theory, for 
recapitulatory characters arise as lengthenings or shortenings of 
the life-cycle, and not through chromatic alterations present in 
every nucleus. 

The usual objections to the biogenetic law are based on (I) dis- 
similarities in related eggs and embryos, (2) the fact that specific 
characters often appear very early in the ontogeny. Both these 
situations are to be expected if mutations occur in organisms which 
show recapitulation. This affords a definite basis for contrasting 
((/) karyogenetic, nuclear, or mutational characters with (6) organ- 
isnial, recapitulatory, or orthogenetic characters. 

The President liaving opened the discussion, the following 
speakers engaged in it: — Dr. J. K. Leeson, Prof. E. 8. (xoodrieh, 
P.E.8., Dr. W. Bateson, P.E.S., Dr. F. A. Bather, P.K.8. (visitor), 
Dr. G. A. Boulenger, F.K.!S. (visitor). Prof. F. E. Weiss, F.R.S. 
(who suggested the term " cytogenetic " as preferable to " karyo- 
genetic "), Mr. \Y. B. Brierley, Mr. E. S. liusseJl, B.Sc. (visitor), 
and the Author replied. 

February 19th, 1920. 

Dr. A. Smith Woobwaku, F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The ^Minutes of the General Meeting of the 5th February, 
1920, were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donatiotis received since the last Meeting 
Mas laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

The President announced from the Chair that intelligence had 
been received that ujorning of the death of Prof. Pier' Andrea 
Saccardo, thus causing another vacancy among the Foreign 

The following proposed alterations in certain Bye-Laws were 
rrad from the Chair for the first time: — 

Ciiap. II. Sect. 2, for " Three Pounds " substitute " Four 

Chap. II. Sect. 0, delete " who owe more than two 
Aiuiual Contributions," and insert in jdace thereof " whose 
Annual Contiibutions are due and owiriL!." 


The 8ai(l sections as ulturod will run thus, tlie alleraLiuu.s heiiig 
sliow M in italic type: — 

Chap. II. Sect. 2. ]"]very Fellow sliall also before he is 
admittetl pay the First Annual Contribution ot Fuiir Pounds, 
and lie shall j^ay the like ISuni anmuilly in advance on each 
successive 24tii Day of May, so long as he shall continue a 
Fellow ; provided, however, tliiit Fellows elected between the 
1st Day ot" March and the 24th Day of May in any year, 
shall not be lial)le tor a second Amnial Contribution until 
the lJ4th Day ot May in the year following that in which 
they were elected. 

Chap. II. Sect. (j. In tlie month ot Xoveinber in each 
year tlie Council shall cause to be suspended in the Library 
of the Society a list of the Fellows whose Annnid Contribu- 
tions tire due and owiufj, and notice thereof shall forthwith 
be forwarded to every Fellow whose name ajjpears in such 
list. If the contributions due from any Fellow nanied iu 
the said list shall not have been paid within three months 
after tlie first suspension of the list the Council may remove 
such Fellow from the Society, but notwithstanding such 
removal the obligation of any Fellow so I'emoved may be put 
in suit for the recovery of any money due from him to the 
Society. The Council may remit in whole or in part the 
contributions due from any Fellow. 

Iklr. J. S. Huxley, M.A., Fellow of New College, Oxford, and 
Mr. D. F. Leney exhibited living specimens of sexually mature 
Axolotls metamorphosed into the Amblystoma form by I'eeding 
with thyroid gland, and of Urodele larva? precociously metamor- 
phosed by treatment with iodine solution. 

A discussion followed in which the President, Prof. E. S. 
Goodrich, F.E.S., Sec.L.S., Mr. E. Boulengtr (visitor), Lt.-Col. 
J. 11. TuU Walsh, Dr. W. liateson, F.K.S., and Dr. J. K. Leeson 
engaged, Mr Jluxley replying. 

Major 11. C. Gukto^' read a paper entitled " Entomological- 
Meteorological liecords of ecological facts in the life of Uritish 
Lepidoptera,'' which was communicated by the General Seci-etary. 

The Author believed that interesting facts would be obtained 
by I'ecording and plotting the results of observations made hy a 
number of entomologists in various localities. The scheme ex- 
hibited was derived from his notes from February to December 
1919, within a radius of four miles from (ierrard's Cross, Ducks, 
which includes oak and beech woods, heath, marsh, and cultivated 
land. Special signs are used to denote the occurrence of species 
of iriacro-lepidoptera, on sallow-bloom i3i the spring, on ivy in the 
autumn, on sugar, and towards light. Thirty-tive species of 
butterflies and two hundred and forty species of moths are thus 


tabulated and correlated with ineteorolo<>;ical data. The diagram 
places inanv facts before tlie eye, as the long coutiiiuauee of 
certain species, the ])reseiice of more tlian one brood and the like. 
Sugar hardly a])pea]s wiien lioney-dew is abuiulant, and artificial 
light is inelfoctive during bright moonlight. 01 her ])robleius, as 
of iujungration, still await solution. 

j\Jr. Staulev luhvards contributed further remarks. 

Marcli 4th, 1020. 

Dr. A. S.AriTii AYoodwaud, F.Il.S., President, 
in tlie Chair. 

The ]Minutes of the General Meeting of the lOtli February, 
1920, were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the hist Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Dr. William Rnshton Parker was admitted a Fellow. 

Certificates in favour of the followiug were read for the first 
time : — Shankar Purushottam Agharkar, M.A., Ph.D., John 
Wishart, M.D., D.Sc, Ch.B., Mr. Howard Hamp Crane, Mr. 
Eric Fitch Daglish, Ph.D., Capt. R.F.A., and Mr. Bertram 
Henry Buxton ; with the following for the second time : — Mr. 
Jacques de Yilmorin, Mr, Arthur Lionel Goodday, Lieut. E.G. A,, 
Geoffrey Douglas Hale Carpenter, B.A., D.M., M.B.E., and Mr. 
Arthur Stanley Hirst. 

The following were nominated as Foreign JMembers : — Prof. 
Gaston Bonnier (Paris), Prof. Victor Ferdinand Brotherus 
(Helsincjfors), Prof. Giovanni Bnttisfa De Toni (Modena), Prof. 
Louis Dollo (Brussels), Prof. Paul Marchal (Paris), and Prof, 
lloland Thaxter (Cambridge, Mass.). 

Mr. Ernest \yilliain Swanton was proposed as an Associate. 

The President read for the second time from the Chair, tlie 
])roposed alterations in Sections 2 & Q of Chapter 11. of the 

Mr. T. A. Dymes, by favour of the President and on the ground 
that he would be unable to be present at the following meeting, 
read a statement concerning the proposed alterations. 


The Ot'iicral St>ci't'tai-v, on ht'liall" of Mr. fJEnAM) W. K. Lodkr, 
drew attention to ton out of the (h'st twelve nmubers of Cuftis's 
'Botanical Maj^azine' in the original blue-grey wrai)pers, and 
pointed out tlie infonnation which is lost when the wra|)pero are 
destroyed by the bookbinder. 

In the present case, no. 1 belongs to the reprint of 1703; it 
contains tlie regulations for the use of tlie Jiroinpton Botanic 
(Jarden, and on the fourth page, the contents of No. 77 of 
the 'Flora LondimMisis ' namely, Scilld autumnalls, Jfieracinm 
umhellatum^ Carduns /loh/dcioithus, C. tenuiflorus, Valeriana offici- 
iiali.'i, and Pr'iDnila qffiviiialis. 

The connnunioation brought before the Society was entitled 
" A Contribution to our knowledge of the J>otaiiy of New 

The subject of this communication is the collection made by 
Prof. 1{. JI. CoMPTON in New Caledonia and the Jsle of Pines 
during 1914, with the aid of money grants from the Eoyal 
Society, the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund, and the Wort's Trav- 
elling Fund oT Cambridge University. The specimens collected 
have been presented to the British Museum, and the greater part 
have been worked out in the Department of Jiotany at that 
institution. Since his return, Mr. Compton has been appointed 
Professor of Botany in the Cape Town University, and Director 
of the new botanic gardens at Stelleiibosch. The various groups 
have been elaborated by the following botanists: Ferns and Gym- 
nos])erms by Prof. E. IT. Comi'TOX, Flowering Plants by ^Jr. 
E. G. Baker, Mr. Spencer Moore, and Dr. A. B. Kenule, 
Mosses by Mr. I. Tiieimot, ITepatics by Prof. J. B. Farmer, 
Maritime Alga) by Mr. A. Gepp, Fi-eshwater Alj^ic by Dr. Nellie 
Carter, Fungi by Miss E. M. Wakefield, Lichens by Miss A. 
LoRRAiJf Smith, Characece by Mr. James Groves, and Mycetozoa 
by Miss G. Lister, 

Dr. liEXDLE gave a short account of the position and physical 
characters of the island ; and referred to previous work on its 
flora and its general characters. Important features are the 
igneous rocks which form a mountain chain of gneiss in the 
north-east, and the serpentine formation which covers the southern 
portion and occurs i7i larger or smaller areas throughout the 
island. The climate is niesothermic ; the rainfall is relatively 
abundant, but owing to evaporation and the porous nature of the 
soil, many ])arts of the country have an arid appearance. 

The flora is rich, and the proportion of endemic forms exception- 
ally high. The relative proportions of the different families of 
flowering plants in the present collection are very similar to 
those recently worked out by Mr. Guillaumin for the flora as a 
whole, the four families which contain the highest number of 
species being Euphorbiaeea^, llubiacea?, Orchidaceie, and Myrtaceie 
in each case. The main allinities of the flora are with Indo- 
]\ralava and South-East Australia, the former represented chiefly 


in tlie forest regions and the latter in tlie scrub and savannah 
regions ; and a study of it suggests that ISew Caledonia is a very 
ancient land mass which has been isolated for a very long period. 

Dr. IIexdle also gave a resume of Mr. Compton's account of 
the Ferns and Gymnosperms. The latter are of great interest ; 
they luunber about 27 and are all endemic. Mr. Baker referred 
to a number of interesting specimens among the Dicotyledonous 
flowering plants which included many novelties. Miss IjORKAIn 
Smith gave an account of the Lichens, which include a new genus 
and a fair proportiou of new species. Miss E. M. Wakefield 
referred to the Fungi, the geographical distribution of which 
showed points of interest ; and Miss G. Lister described the 
small collection of ]\[vcetozoa. 

The President, Miss A. L. Smith, JNIr. C. C. Lacaita, Mr. IT. N. 
Piidley, Dr. J. C Willis, and Mr. T. A. Sprague commented on 
the collections. 

March ISth, 1920. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 4th March, 1920, 
were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors \\ere ordered. 

Mr. Edward Heron-Allen, F.E.S., Prof. Vernon Herbert 
Blackmail,, and Dr. James Davidson were admitted 

Dr. Otto Rosenlieim, F.C.S., and INfr. William Harold Pearsall, 
M.Sc.(]Manch.), were proposed as Fellows. 

A Certificate in favour of Professor William Grant Craib, 
M.A.(Aberd.), was read for the second time. 

The following were severally balloted for and elected Fellows : — 
Mr. Jacques de Vilmorin, Mr. Arthur Lionel Gooddav, Lieut. 
E.G.A., Geoffrey Douglas Hale Carpenter, M.B.E., B.A., D.M., 
and ^Ir. Arthur Stanley Hirst. 

The proposed alterations in Chap. II. Sections 2 and G, read 
from the Chair on the 19th February and 4th March, were again 


read by the President, who Hxpluined the reasons which liad 
obliged the Council to submit, these aUerations to a ballot by the 
Fellows, and invited discussion. 

Prof. WiiTSs, F.R.S., commented on the proposed cliangcs, and 
suggested a relerence to the Council, which was at a later stage 
embodied as a motion ; he was followed by the Treasurer (wlio 
ein])hasized the need ol' a strengtluMiing of the powers of the 
Council in the matter of Fellows in arrear), iMr. J. C. 81ieiistone, 
and Dr. A. 15. Jlendle, F.K.S., Sec. L.S. 

Tlu! Fellows i)resent then proceeded to ballot, and the votes 
having been counted, the President declared that both proposed 
alteration*! had beciu aj)|)roved b}' the l^'ellows ; as regards Sect. 2, 
by 37 in favour and against, 49 Fellows being present, and 
that Sect. had been approved by 37 in favour with 3 against, in 
each case by a two-thirds majority of Fellows present. The 
alterations were thereupon declared by the President as passed 
by the Fellows. 

Prof. Weiss thereupon moved : — " That the Council be asked 
to consider the question of a reduction of payment in the case of 
Fellows who do not desire to take the publications," wOiich being 
seconded by IVIiss M. Carson, was put to the vote by show of 
hands, and carried. 

Prof. James S>r.\LL, D.Sc, F.L.S., then gave a lantern demon- 
stration of "The Chemical Reversal of (}eotro|)ic liespouse in 
Roots and Stems." (Printed as a pa[)er in ' Tlie New Phyto- 
logist,' xix. nos. 3 & 4, 1920.) 

In the discussion which followed, Prof. Weiss, F.R.S., Capt. A. 
W. Hill, Prof. V. 11. Blackmail, F.R.S., and Prof. E. S. Groodrich, 
F.R.S., Sec.L.S., took part. 

April 15tl., 1^20. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The ^linutes of the General Meeting of the 18th March, 1920, 
were read and coniirmed. 

The report of the Doiialions received since the last Meeting 
was hiid b'^fore the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

The following were proposed as Fellows : — Mr. Raymond 
Alfred Finlayson, and Mr. Tom Russell (loddard. 

Certificates in favour of the following were read for the second 
j^i,„e:— Mr. Sydney Percy- Lancaster, Mr. Herbert William 


Pugslev, B.A.(Loiul.), Mr. Joseph Oiner-Cooper, Miss Lucy Ellen 
Cox, B.Sc. (LoiicL), (leorge Kenneth 8ulherl:iu(l, M.A., D.iSc. 
(Aberd.), Mr. Harry Bertram Harding, and Mrs. Herbert 
Spencer Harde (Eliuore Egerton Harde). 

Professor William Grant Craib, M.A. (Aherd.), was elected a 
Fellow, and Mr. Ernest William Swanton, an Associate. 

The President read the following Resolution which had been 
referred to the General Meeting for discussion and adoption ; — 
This Meeting of tlie Linnean Society views willi alarm 
and indignation the proposal to introduce a private Bill into 
Parliament with the object of securing the enclosure of por- 
tions of Wanstead Flats and Epping Forest for permanent 
allotments and calls upon the Government to o])pose this 
attempt to nullify the provisions of the Epping Forest Act 
of 1878, which requires the Forest to be preserved " un- 
enclosed ... as an open space for the recreation and 
enjoyment of the public " for ever. 

Mr. E. Paulson, President of the Essex Field Club, explained 
the reason for this appeal, and the discussion was continued 
bv the Eev. Canon Bullock- Webster. Mr. II. R. Darhngton, 
Mr. Lester-Garland, Lt.-Col. J. H. Tull Walsh, Mr. Stanley 
Edwards, Dr. A. B. Ilendle, and Dr. W. R, Parker. 

Upon a vote being taken it was decitled to ])ostpone action until 
more dBfinite infcn-mation could be obtained of the proposed Bill. 

Capt. F. KiXGDON Waru, B.A., F.R.G.S., gave an account of 
his '• IN^atural History Exploration on the North-East Frontier 
of Burma," which was illustrated by a series of lantern-slides. 

Mr. H. N. E-idiey, Dr. O. Stapf, and the President contributed 
additional remarks, and the Lecturer replied. 

Mr. E. Paulson, F.L.S., showed lantern-slides illustrating 
definite stages in the Sporulatiou of Gonidia within the thallus of 
the lichen Euernia Prunastri^ Ach. 

Captain J. Eamsbottom spoke in support of the views jiut 
forward by the author. 

May 6th, 1920. 

Dr. A. Smitu Woodward, F.E.8., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 15th April, 1920, 
were I'ead and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
sevei'al Donors were ordered. 

lilNN. SOC. PKOCEEDINGS. — SESSION 1919-1920. C 


^fr. Arthur Lionel (Toodday was adinitipd a Fellow, 

y\r. AVilliain Hciirv Kiti-liing, Mr. Cliiiitaman .Alaliadcr Temlx', 
Mr. liowlaiid Maiirii-i; K'icliards, Louis, A^icomlc de .Sil)our, F.Z.S., 
^Ir. Jiuslom llonnasji J).i.stur, JJ. 8c. (Bombay), and Mr. .lolin 
William IJodgcr, wvvv ])ro|)ost'd as Fellows. 

Certificates in i'avour of the i'ollowiuij; weie read for flie second 
time: — JNIr. lOdniund (iustavus I^Iooiiideld Meade- Waldo, JNlr. 
Pyari iNIoliau l)el)liarman, JJ.Se., I'rol. Otto \'eriioii Darhishire. 
Ji.A., PI..1)., Mr. William Hiekalsou Dykes, .ALA.(()xon.), L.esL^ 
(Paris), Prof. Sliaiduir J'urushottam Agliarkar. ^[.A., Ph.D., 
Dr. John Wisliart, Howard Haiiip Crane, Capt. Eric Fitch, Ph.D., Mr. Bertram Henrv Buxton, and Prof. Otto 
Ro.senheiiu, IMi.D., F.C.S. 

The following were balloted for and elected: — FcUoivs: Mr. 
Sydney Percy-Lancaster,, Herbert William Pugsley, 
B.A.(Lontl.), Mr. Joseph Omer-Cooper, Miss Lucy Ellen Cox, 
B..Sc.(Lond.), Dr. George Kenneih Sutherland, M. A., Mr. ILirry 
Bertram Harding, F.K.AL.S., and -Mrs. Elinore Egerlon Harde; 
Foreign Members: I'rof. Gaston J3onnier, Prof. A'ictor Ferdinantl 
Brotherus, Prof. Giovanni Baltista de Toni, Prof. Louis Dollo, 
Prof. Paul Marchal, and Prof. Poland Tbaxter, Ph.D. 

Tlie President remarked upon the recent issue of two new 
volumes of the Ray Society, which were shown on the table, 
namely, ' British Orthoptera,' by Mr. Lucas, and the first volume 
of the ' British Ciiaroi)liyta,' by jMr. Groves aiul Canon Bullock- 

The following Auditors were proposed, and elected by show of 
hands: — For the Council: ]Mr. Fj. T. Browne, Mr. Stanley 
Edwards; for the Fellows : ^fr. T. A. Dymes, Mr. P. Paulson. 

Dr. G. P. Bidder, F.L.S., read three comnnmications on 
Sponges, entitled : — (I )" Tiie Fragrance of Cahinean Sponges,'' 
{2) '■^ Syncnjpta spo^giarum" and (3) " Xotes on the Physiology 
of Sponges." 

The discussion which followed was maintained by Prof. Dendy. 
Ah'. Jlarold Kussell, and Mr. J. J}, (iatenby (visitor), the Author 

Mr. Edwaki) J. BedI'Oiid showed a series of thirty exquisite 
water-colour drawings of Jiritish Marsh and Spotted Orchids, 
with tlieir numerous varieties and liybrids, further illustrated by 
"<• lantern-slides from his photogra|)hs of the growing ])lants in 
situ, and enlarged views of tlie li|), front and side \iews (See p. 65.) 

Mr. H. \V. Pugsley and Mr. T. A. Dymes contributed further 
remarks: the latter exhibited a series of fruit cai)sules, and 
remarked on the characters afforded by these variable plants in 
their fruits and seeds; yiv. Piedfonl briefly replying. 



May 27tli, 1920. 

Anniversanj Meeting. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.K.S., President;, 
ill the Chair. 

The Millu^es of tlie General Meeting of the 6th May, 1920, 
were read and coiitirined. 

The report of the Donations received sijice the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of tlie Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Dr. Vedfiranyesnara Vaidyanatha Ramana-Sastrin, and Lieut. - 
Col. Anthony Hurt WoUey-Dod, li.A., were proposed as Fellows. 

The number of Fellows was reported to be 700, with 10 for 
ballot at the next ensuing General Meeting. 

The Treasurer made his Annual Keport on the Accounts of tlie 
Society, and the Statement (see pp. 22-24), duly audited, was 
received and adopted. 

Dr. ,T. R. Leeson dz*evv attention to the great need of a new 
Catalogue of the Library. 

The General Secretary stated that the MS. was practically ready 
for printing, and in reply to further questions, said that the 
edition of 189G was out o'i print, the whole of the 1000 copies 
printed having been sold. 

The General Secretary reported that since the last Anniversary 
the following had died or their deaths been ascertained, namely : — 

16 Fellows. 

The Et. Hon. Alexander Peck- 
over, Baron Peckover of Wis- 

Sir Peter AVyatt Squire. 

Henry Charles Stephens. 

Prof. .lames William Helenas 

John Sidney Turner. 

William James Tutcher. 

Prof. George Stephen West. 

Alfred Prentice Young. 

Lt.-Col. Linley Blathwayt. 
Henry G. Flanagan. 
Ernest Gibson. 
Frank Hicks. 
John Hopkinson. 
Henry Owen Huskisson. 
Valavauur Subramania lyei 
Rev. Eilward Shearburn 

8 Foreign Members. 
William Gilson I'^irlow. Pier' Andrea Saccardo. 

Ernst Heinrich Haeckel. Simon Schwendener. 

Wilhelm Pfeffer. Franz Steindachner. 

Mairnus Gustaf Retzius. Hermann von V()chtin<r. 

20 rnofF.EDTKns of 'inE 

That tlie followiiic; 10 Fellows had withdrawn : — 

Oliver AVrnoii Apliii. Bfiijaini!! Thompson I.owiio. 

Kobert Wiliiiim AscTol't. (Ji-cgorv Macalisfer iMathews. 

Bernard I'l-mcis Cavanaj^h. All)ert Davidson .Alichael. 

Catherine, l.ady Crisp. An)ertClKirles]<'iederiokj\lor<;an. 

lianiilton Ilcrbcrl Charles Miss Winifred Nniitli. 

.lanu's I )ni('e. Cleor<j;e JireKinghani Sowerhy. 

Kev. Wolx'rt ( Jardner-Sniith. IMrs. ^farv Xewnian Treinearne. 

Arthur Woldi'iiiar (JelVrUen. .lames Walter White. 

Williaiii Henry .It.linson. John Charles AVilson. 

All'reil Ern(>st'K night. William Wise. 

And that the Council had reniovt'd the followin*;; from the List, 
in accordanee with the liye-Laws, Cha]), II. 8ect. 0: — 

Alfred Kastham. i Jose])h Crosby Smith. 

James Thomas Hamilton. I 

During the same pei-iod 4U Fellows have been elected, of u horn 
33 have (pialitied up to the present. Also (J l-'oreign ^lembers 
and 1 Associate have been elected. 

The Lilirai'ian's report was read, showing that donations from 
])rivatc individuals and editors amounted to -10 volumes and 
232 |)am[)hlets and parts, l)y exchange 15.3 voliunes and 375 de- 
tached parts, by ])urchase 50 volumes and 2(i3 ])arts ; in all, the 
accessions amounted to 243 volumes and 870 pamphlets and 
separate parts. 

Books bound amounted to 504: 28 in half-morocco, 29 in 
buckram, 133 in half-buckram, 89 in cloth, with 285 rebacked. 

The (Jeneral Secretary having read the Bye-laws governing the 
Elections, the President o[)ened the business of the day, anil the 
Fellows present proceeded to balU)t. 

The Ballot for the Council having been closed, the President 
a])poiuted Brof. Weiss, Mr. T. A. Dy mes, and Mr. \V . S. Kowntree 
Scrutineers; and these, having examined the ballot-papers and 
cast up the votes, reported to the President, who declared the 
Council to be as follows : — 

EoMUNu G. Baker, Esq. ; Prof. Margaret Benson, D.Sc. ; 
E. T. Browne, IM.A. ; ^IIenry Bury, J\I.A. ; .SiANiiEV Eowarus, 
F.Z.S. ; Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S.; Prof. E. S. G()oniticii,F.R.S.: 
*Capt. A. W. Hill, M.A., D.Sc; Dr. B. Daydon Jackson; 
C. C. Lacaita, M.A. ; Gerald W. E. Loder, M.A. ; Horacic W. 
MoNCKxoN, F.G.8. ; B. I. PococK, F.B.S.; Dr. A. B. Bendle, 
F.B.S. ; *The Kt. Hon. JiioNEL Waltk.r, Baron EoxnscnJLi), 
F.R.S. ; *Dr. PI J. Salisbury ; "^Charles Edoar Salmon, E^q.; 
Miss A. LoRRAiN SMrrii ; Lt.-Col. ,1. 11. Tlll Walsh; Dr. A. 
Smith Wooowaro, F. K.S. 


(New members are shown by an asterisk. The retiring C^oun- 
cillors were: Dr. W. Bateson ; li. H. ]3uenb, Esq.; Di'. D. H. 
IScoTT ; A. "VV. Sutton, Esq. ; and Dr. Harold Wagek.) 

The Ballot for the Officers liaving been closed, the President 
appointed tlie same Scrutineers; and these, having examined the 
Ballot-papers and cast up the votes, reported to the President, 
wlio declared the result as follow s : — 

President: Dr. Arthur Smith AVoouward, E.E.S. 

Treasurer: Horace W. Monckton, E.G.S. 

Secretaries : Dr. B. Daydon" Jackson. 

Prof. E. S. Goodrich, 
Dr. A. B. Eendle, F.E.S. 

The President then delivered an Address, on certain groups of 
fossil Fishes, illustrated by a series of lantern-slides (see p. 25). 







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During his various tnivels, especially in Oeland, Gothland, and 
Scania, Liniiceus became niucli intereisted in tlie ])etriHed remains 
of animals and plants which he and his students collected from 
the stratified rocks. He made careful observations on their mode 
of occurreuce, compared his results with those already published 
by naturalists in other countries, and eventually, in the 12th 
editiou of his ' Systema Naturae,' devoted an important section 
to the arrangement and interpretation of the numerous " jjetri- 
factions " by that time known. He quoted with approval the 
Italian Eamazziui's remark that the layers of rock should be 
considered as representing a succession of ages rather than as 
"the tumultuous jumble of the general deluge." In the quaint 
words of Dr. William Turton's translation, he concluded : — " The 
intelligent investigator will not therefore straiten the limits of an 
useful science, by disregarding the ancient inhabitants of the 
globe, though unknown to modern naturalists." 

Since this wise and far-seeing observation of LinUcTeus in 1768, 
" the ancient inhabitants of the globe" have indeed been much 
" regarded," and it has become increasingly clear that they must 
aKvavs be taken into account when the wider problems of life are 
being considered. Not long after the foundation of the Ijinnean 
Society towards the end of the eighteenth century, the succession 
of extinct animals and plants was sufficiently understood to show 
that there had been a gradual progression of hfe on the earth 
from the lowest to the highest, and that the existing world was 
only the consummation. When the details of the extinct forms 
were studied, the differences between the past and the present 
appeared to be even more marked. Still later, especially after the 
work of Dai'win, when explorations and collections muUiplied, 
many definite progressive and retrogressive sei'ies of animals were 
recognised as they were traced through geological time. Even- 
tnallv, during more recent years, curious parallel developments 
have been noticed in many groups of different classes, which 
suggest that certain changes are inevitable and are the successive 
marks of immaturitj', dominance, and old age in each race. It is, 
in fact, difficult to be sure of the real meaning of the characters 
and distribution of any group of organisms as it exists to-day 
without some knowledge of its ancestry in the past. 

Unfortunately, in most cases, this ancestry is unattainable ; 
for organic remains are only preserved in rocks by accident, and 
animals at any rate are rarely represented by more than their 
skeletons. The vast majority of the most interesting genei'alised 
tvpes of past ages must have lacked hard parts which could be 
fossilised ; and even those which are represented by skeletons are 
not easily interpreted unless they happen to have close allies 
among existing life. 


As ,111 illustration of tlui dilliculties and limitations in the study 
ol' extinct animals, 1 would refer to tlie earliest f^eological evi- 
dence of the Vertebrata whicli 1 have long had the opportunity 
of investigating. The oldest fossils which are comparable with 
\ertebrate skeletons can scarcely belong to animals lower in i;rade 
than the existing Cyclostomes, and they are all either too viiguely 
shown or loo highly specialised to give an}' satisfnctory clue to the 
invertebrate group from which they were descended. In outward 
shape n}any of the armoured forms much reseudjle the contem- 
porary Merostouiata and the later marine Arachnids, but to 
recognize any genetic connection, such as is advocated by Gaskell* 
and fatten t, involves more assumptions than are justifiable. 
The most generalised forms found as fossils are all distinctively 
fish-shaped, and there can be no doubt that the really annectant 
types which j)receded them were soft-bodied and not likely to be 

These earliest vertebrates occur abundantly in some of the 
uppermost Silurian deposits of western and northern I'^urope, but 
most of them have so slight a skeleton that they ap[)ear as mere 
stains on the surface of the rock. Interesting,' though tantalis- 
ing new specimens have lately been collected by .Mr. William 
Md'herson for the liritish Museum from the Downtonian shales 
of Ayrshire. Even those genera in which the skin is provided 
with well-calcitied shagreen or scales show very little beyond their 
general contour. Fortunately, however, they are followed in the 
overlying Devonian formations both of Europe and North America, 
and even of the southern hemisphere, by numerous nu)re specialised 
members of the same group, in w hich many of the dermal tubercles 
have coalesced with a deeper-seated calcification into symmetrically- 
arranged plates, which often bear marks of subjacent internal 
organs, it is thus possible to make some attempt at their 

JSome have doubted whether all these primitive organisms 
belong to a single group, but 1 still think Cope was probably 
right when he included all those known to him in his subclass 
Ostracodermi (or Ostracophorj). The genera without armour- 
plates discovered in more recent years seem to pass by gradations 
into the others, and therefore presumably had the same funda- 
mental characters. The anterior visceral arches are not modified 
into ordinary jaws — at least, if they were so, we should expect to 
find them either calcified or covered with a corresponding exo- 
skeleton. The gill-arches, in an extensive gill-chamber, are far 
forwards. There are no paired iins; while in the median fins 
there are )io ordinary lin-rays. but rows of scales instead. The 
dermal plates, when present, are highly vascular, and tiiey always 
retain as a superficial layer the tubercles of dentine which are the 
sole covering of the more generalised fornis. 

* ^Y. ir. Gaskell, 'The Origin of Vertebrates ' (London. 1908). 
t W. Piitten, 'The Evohition of the Yeitebratcs and their Kin' (Phihi- 
delphiii, iyi2). 



The most isolated and least-known order of the Ostracodernis 
is that ol: the Anas])ida, which are either fusiform free-swimmers 
or elongated and almost eel-shaped. They ai'e usuallj^ only from 
10 to 15 cm. in length, and with one exception they are known 
only from the Do wnt on ian Passage Beds at the top of the Silurian 
System. They are prohably to he regarded as the latest survivors 
of the. ancestral Ostracoderms. which were beginning to acquire 
a hard dermal skeleton at the end of Silurian times. 

The Anaspida were first described from Ayrshire and Lanark- 
shire by Traquair *, who recognised two genera, Birkcnia and 
Lasankis. Birkenia is completely covered with scales, which are 
fusiform and rather irregularly arranged on tlie head, but deep 
and narrow and disposed in oblique lines inclined forwards and 
downwards on the trunk. A single row of enlarged scutes 
extends along the lower border of the trunk ; and small scales 
take the place of fin-rays on the single dorsal fin and on the 
lower lobe of the distinctly heterocercal tail. Low on the side of 
the head there is the orbit, surrounded by large plates resembling 
the circumorbital plates of the AcanLhodian fishes ; behind the 
head aii oblicpie line of pores may be interpreted as gill-openings; 
while a douhle scute at about the mitidle of the ventral series 
])robably marks the cloaca. Otherwise, there are no indications 
of the internal parts of the animal. Lasanius occurs as a mere 
stain on the rock, bounded below by the single series of ventral 
scutes, and partially armoured only in the foremost part of the 
trunk by a few oblique rows of scales, which are fused into rods 
showing a triangular expansion only at the point where they are 
crossed by the lateral line. The forked heterocercal tail is dis- 
tinct, but I have never seen any ordinary fin-rays in its lower 
lotie. The eye is marked by a dark stain ; and slight dermal 
cnlcifications seem to indicate the position of the row of supposed 
branchial openings corresponding with those of Birkenia. 

A fraguient, either of Birkenia or of a relatetl genus, has been 
found in rocks of the same age in New Brunswick, Canada T, and 
three other Anaspida are now known from the Downtonian 
formation of southern Norway j. The latter have not yet been 
fully described, but one of them (Pterolejns nitidus) is specially 
interesting because its dorsal fin is armed with an anterior spine. 
Detached fin-spines [Oncltvs) of Silurian age have generally been 
regarded as referable to Elasniobranch fishes, but this new dis- 
covery shows that they may belong to vertebrates of much lower 

» R. H. Traquair, Trans. Roy. Soe. Ediub. vol. xxxix. (189!)), pp. 837-843, 
pi. 5 ; also loc. cit. vol. xl. (I'JOij), pp. S8()-7, pi. •-'. figs. 4-8. 

t CtnKipfciiron ncrepii^oi^i', tr. F. I\Iattlie\v, Trans. Hoy. Soc. Canada, ser. 3, 
vol. i. (1!H)7}, sect. 4, p. 7, pi. 1. 

\ J. Kiasr, Skritt. Videusk.-Seltk. Kri.'^tiania, Mat.-natiuv. XL 1911, no. 7, 
pp. 17-19. 


That SDine Anaspida survived unchanged until the end of 
Devonian times seems to be ])roved by hhiplianerups lowfirvas from 
tbe Upper Devonian of Canada *. Tliey must, however, have 
been very rare or h)ral, for hitlu-rt(j they are iuiown oidy by one 
specimen of the species just mentioned. 


The next order of Ostrueoderms comprises famibes adapted for 
bfe n)aiidy at I be botloui of the shores, estuaries, or lakes in 
which, they dwelt. 'I'bey have a relatively large depresseil head, 
and a small mobile tail ending in a heterocej'cal tin. Most of 
tbem are larger than the Anaspida, and they range upwards 
tbrougb tbe Devoinan fornuitious, increasing in size until in tbe 
L [iper Devonian some of them (Psuiiimosteus) are more than half 
a metre in length f. These are the largest Ostracoderms linown. 

Fis:. 1. 

Restoration of I'helodus scoficiis, from tho l^owntoiiian Passage Eeds 
of Laiiarksliire, about one-liall' iiat. size. Tlie liead shown IVoiti jibove, 
the tail twisted to be seen mainly in side-view. (After Traqwair.) 

Tbe most abundant early members of the order in tbe Down- 
toniaii Passage Beds and tbe Up]jer tSilurinn are protected only 
bv a nearly uniform covering of shagreen closel)^ similar to that 
of sharks. Wben tbe isolated dermal tubercles of T/nlodus were 
tirst discovered, indeed, they were regarded as belonging to 
Elasmobranch fishes; but it is now clear that this simplest type 
of vertebrate armature was also assumed by primitive tisb-like 
organisms Avhicb show no other real resemblance to Elasnio- 
brancbs. As described by Traquair +, Thclodits (tig. 1) anil 
Laiutrhia, when crushed in their fossilised state, exbibit a broad 
head-region, rounded in front and truncated at tbe hinder bonier, 
from the middle of which tbe comparatively slender body-region 

* A. S. Woodward, Ann. & Maj;. Nat. Hist. \1\ vol. v. (lUOO), p. 410, pi. 10. 

t A. S. Woodward, Ann. & -Mag. Nat. Jfist. [8] vol. riii. (1911), p. 649, 
])1. U. For niid'o. slriu'tiire sec J. Ivia-r, Rep. 2nd Norweg. Kxped. ' Fram ' 
18i»8-l<.l(ll2, no. ;53 (191.")), pp. 1.'4. -^8, :>;">. pi. ;5. (igs. .'i, 4, jil. li. text-ligs. a. 8. 

X R. 11. Traquair, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb. vol. sxxix. (1899), pp. 8-J9-So4, 
pis. 1-4 ; and loc. cit. vol. xl. (1905), pp. 880-883, text-figs. 1, 2, 


is continued ; the head heiiij:; doubtless seen I'roui above or below, 
while the body is usuilly twisted and disphiyed in side-view. Tlie 
oidy traces oi' internal organs observed by Traquair wei'e stains 
marking the position of the lateral eyes, paired parallel bars sug- 
gesting branchial arclies, and (in a single specimen of Lanarkia *) 
curious square spaces near the lateral border of the head appa- 
rently corresponding with the vacuities in the head-shield of 
Kiilpraspia which 1 regard as being in tlie roof of tlie ])rant'hial 
cl)auil)ers. Jn addition, I have observed in the lower lobe of the 
caudal lin of Thelodns undoubted indications of the stout carti- 
laginous lueinal spines of the vertebral axis. 

Through Kallostracon and Toliiptlepia or Tohjpa^pix'^, the 
priuiitive lleterostraci just described seem to pass into Ci/afJunt/iix, 
J'dhf'aspis, and I'/erdsjiin '^, in wliicli the shagreen-granules on the 
head are united into a few symmetrically-arranged plates by 
fusion with underlying calcified tissue. The shape and arrange- 
ment of these plates were probably determined by the dispositioii 
of the sensory canals which traverse them. Their superficial 
tubercles are fused into more or less concentric ridges ; their 
middle layer is coarsely chambered for vascular spaces ; their basal 
layer is usually laminated. In no part of the armour are there 
any bone-cells. The orbits are distinct at the sides of the base 
of the rostrum, and a pair of larger openings in the dorso-lateral 
plates near the hinder end of the shield are probably the outlets 
of the branchial chambers. The inner or visceral face of the 
large median dorsal plate, especially in Cyafliaspis^, shows a small 
median pit just behind the position of the orbits e\idently for the 
reception of a pineal body. Eurther back are a |)air of > -shaped 
markings \\liich may be due to the semicircular canals of the otic 
capsules. Near each lateral margin is a row of pittings which 
are probably the impressions of branchial pouches. One ventral 
shield of Cijailmspis, described by Leriche j|, also bears corre- 
sponding impressions of the supposed branchial pouches. The 
body behind the shield is imperfectly known, but in Pieraspif! it 
is scaly, and there can be no doubt that the body-cavity extended 
into it with the cloacal opening far back. 

The Pteraspidians thus described, showing marks of internal 
soft ])arts, do not range upwards above the Lower Devonian. As 
they become fewer they are gradually replaced by another group 

* II. H. Traquair, loc. cit. vol. xl. (1905), p. S82. pi. 2. fl^s. 2, .".. 

t J. V. Eohon, M('iii. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pt'tersbourg [7], vol. \li no 5 
(1803), ]). 70. 1.1. i. tigs. 42, 4.'), 47, and pi. 2. fig.-<. 54. .50. 

X E. ilay Lunkesier, in Powi-ie & Lankester, ' AMonograpli of the Fishes of 
the Olii Red Sandstone of Britain,' pt. i. (Pahcont. 8oe. iStiS) ; also Geol. Mao'. 
vol. X. (1«7-"!), p. 241, pi. 10. A. 8. \A'oo(i\vanl, ' Calalogueof the Fossil Fishes 
in the Britisii Mnseun;,' pt. ii. (IS'.ti), pp. 1.5i) 17G, with figs. (1. LindstWhn. 
Billing K. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Hand], vol. xxi. (1N95), sect. iv. no. .'I. wiili 
2 pis. {Ci/n/Iiaspis}. 

§ A. S. Woodward, op. cit. 1891. p. 172. jil. 9. fig. 4. 

I| M. Leriche, Mem, Soc. Geol. Nord. vol. v. no. 1 (1900), p. 25. ])1. l.ljV. 5 
text-lig. 7. 

30 pnocF.r.Dixns oe tiik 

of lletorostraci, reiiresented b}' larpjer species, wliidi are also 
armoiireil with ])iale.s and scales, but sbow little or no trace of tbe 
iintl(M'lyinu; soft parts. iJrejmiiaspis (fig. 2), from the Lower 
Devonian of (^iniinden, Eifel, is tbo best known genus, and several 
s]ieciiuons liave been found with nearly all the dermal plates in 
their natural i)osition. It is a luueli dejjivsscd, almost sKatc- 
sha]ied fish, with a very short rostrum and the orbits piercing a 
pair of small antero-lat<M-al jilates which iire dii-ected both 
lat(M-ally anil upwards. As in the I'teraspidians, the greater |)art 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 



Fig. 2. — Restoration of Drepcniaxpix (jrtmtoidoiensis, dorsal aspect, from tlie 
Lower of Giiiliiulen. Eil'el, about oiie-qiiarter iiat. size. 

Fig. 3. — Drawing of nearly complete fossil o!' Phi/llolcpin coiicnUrica. dorsal 
aspect, from the Upper Old Red Sandstone, Dnra Den, Fifcsliire, about 
oue-tliird nat. si/e. The lines radiating from the centre of the anterior 
median dorsal plate probably represent seusorj- canals. British Museum 
no. P. 11912. 

of the back is covered by two mediati plates, of whicJi the binder 
is the larger and cleft bfliind for the insertioii of a small spine. 
Smaller jilates surround these in front as well as at the sides, and 
the hindmost laterals seem to enclose a pair of branchial openin"-s. 
Again, as in the Pteraspidians, tlie greater part of the; ventral 
surface is covered by one large median plate, and in front of this 
a number of small plates surround the mouth in an uiuletermined 
nmiiner. The small .scaly tail is laterally compres.sed, and the 
large fulcral scales on its dorsal border form a close series 


beginning immediately behind the dorsal spine already mentioned, 
while the corresponding ventral series of fnlcral scales stops at a 
short distance rroin the iiinder border of the median ventral plate, 
leaving a gap doubtless for the cloaeal opening. 

When Traquuir * ilrst interjjreted Dtrpanaspis he reversed the 
dorsal and ventral aspects as just described, l)ecause he observed 
that the stronger and longer lobe of the tail was apparently on 
the same aspect as the single median plate, while the cleft in the 
liinder of the two opposing median plates might be regarded as 
the cloaeal opening. The inter]->retation of Deanf and Kia^r;]:, 
however, now adopted, seems to be confirmed by the recent dis- 
covery of a nearly complete specimen of PhylJolepis (fig. 3) §, 
which is evidently an Upper Devonian representative of the same 
group. Here the dorsal aspect is undonbtedly that on which the 
two median i)lates occiir, and the ventral aspect bears only one 
large plate (perhaps paired) with an extensive gap in front for 
the mouth-parts. In front and round part of the sides of 
the median dorsal plates there is a single row of marginal plates, 
ending behind in a pair of backwardly-directed coruua ; but the 
orbits do not pierce any of these plates, and their exact position, 
though evidently lateral, is uncertain. The small tail is scaleless, 
and in tlie fossil it shows remains of the superficially calcified 
neural and liosmal arches of the notochordal axis. 


Another order of Ostracoderms with a large depressed head is 
armoured in this region with small polygonal plates, which are 
variously fused together. Bone-cells are conspicuous in all the 
hard tissue except the superficial layer of tubercles. The eyes 
are close together in the middle of the top of the head. The tail, 
as a rule, is relatively larger than that of the Heterostraci, ending 
in the usual heterocercal fin ; and it is covered with scales, w'hich 
are more or less deepened on the flank. The Osteostraci range 
from the Upper .Silurian to the Upper Devonian, but are very 
rare above the Lower Devonian. 

The armour of the typical widely-ranging genus Cepliahtapls 
(fig. 4)11 bears several indications of the underlying soft parts. 
The litrle plate between the orbits is marked by a pit, evidently 
for the pineal body; and in front of it there are otlier markings 

* K. II. Traqiuiii-, Trans. Rov. Soc. Edinb. vol. xxxix. (lSi)9), p. S44, text- 
fig. 5; loc. cit. vol. xl. (l'JO'3), p. 725, pi. 1. (Igs. l~'.l pis. 2-4, text-fi<rs, 1-3- 
loc. cif. vol. xli. (190.^), p. 4G9, pis. 1-3; Gool. Ma^. [4] vol. vii.°(l<)00)' 
p. 158, figs. 1-3 ; loc. cit. vol. ix. (1!)02), p. 289, figs. 1, 2. 

t B. Dean, Science, n. s. vol. xix. (1904), p. 64. 

{ J. Kiar, Rep. 2nd Norweg. Arctic Exped. ' Frani ' 1898-1902, no. 33 (1915) 
pp. 29, 33, pi. 3. ligs. 5. 0, pi. 4. iig. 2, text-figs. G, 7. 

§ A. 8. Woodward, Rep. Brit. Assoc. (Australia, 1914), 1915, p. 122, pi. 2. 

11 See especially E. Ray Lankester in Powrie & Lankester, ' Fisiies' of tiie 
Old Ked Sandstone,' pt. i. concluded (1870), and A. S. Woodward ' Catal 
Enss. Fishes MM.: pt. ii. (1891), pp. 177-19.3, with (i<rg. 


not yet interpreted, perhaps related to the olfaciorv apparatus. 
A coiispieuoiis ovoid plate behind the orbits tills a vaciiiiy in the 
roof of the brain-case. Along each side of the head-shield there 
extends a lono; narrow vacuity lilled with loose polygonal ])lates, 
whicli form a llexihie roof to a chamber within the inroUed rim of 
the shield. I regard this chamber as bianchiai, for it opcMis 
behind just within tlie cornu (or postero-lateral angle) of the 
head-shield, where a flexible Map stilVened by polygonal plates 
may ho regarded as an opercidnm. In some specimens of the 
closelv-allied genus Aucheudspis (or I'lii/tsles) there are indeed 
traces a]>i)arentlv of the branchial arches close to the cham])er on 
each side*. The month must have been j)laced far forwards 
on the surface, but no hard parts related to it have been 
observed. The body-cavity extended far back in the scaly tail, 

Fig. 4. 

Restoration of Ccpludaspis murchisoni from the Downlonian I'ass.tge Heds of 
irerefordshire. about one-half nat. size. The head shown from above 
liie tail twisted to be seen mainly in side-view. 

where the remote cloacal opening has been seen. CepJiahtspis has 
only one dorsal iin, but the median scales in front of it form a 
curious elevated ridge along the back, and two dorsal tins have 
been observed in the allied genera Ai-erasj>is and i\Iia-asj)is +. AW 
the tin-membranes are scaly, without true fin-rays. 

Auchenaspis (or T}iyesies)+ is closely similar to Oej>hiihtsi>is, 
only having some of the anterior body-scales fused with the 
hinder border of the head-shield. Eul-eraspis is interesting as 
showing the flexible roof of the pair of branchial chambers sub- 
divided by cross-bars; while in Tremi(tas2ns'i} tiiis roof is reduced 

* J. V. Rohon, Yerhandl. russ. k. min. Ores. St. Petersb. [2] vol. xxxiii. 
(189r»), p. 17; also Bull. Acad. tmp. Sci. SL-l'ttersb. vol. iv. ^1S9(>). p. --'31, 
with (igs. 

t J. Ki.-vr, Skrift. \ icensk.-Selsk. Kristiania. Mat.-naturv. Kl. I'Jll, no. 7, 
pj). IG, 17. 

+ J. v. Rohon. Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-lVtersb. [7J vol. xxxviii. no. 13 
(1892), pp. 12-37, with ligs. 

§ W. Patten, M6m. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-1'etersb. [8] vol. xiii. no. 5 (1903). 


on each side to two widely- separated areas, which have been 
mistaken for marks of sense organs *. One I'emarkably j^reserved 
specimen of Tremataspis exhibits a small vertebrate brain of 
iilinost diagrammatic simplicity t; and several known shields of 
this genus are pierced above the position of the auditory oi'gans 
by a pair of foramina which may represent the ductus endo- 
lymphiiticus of each side. In Treumtaspis and Didi/ruaspis some 
ot' the anterior body-scales are fused nito a pliite both dorsally 
and ventrally, and tbis armour is firmly united with the head- 
shield. The extent of the dermal plates in these two genera is 
therefore as great as in tha Heterostracan geneva. Drejninaspis and 

The Osteostracans are connected witli the most primitive 
Heterostracans, such as 2'helodiis, by Ateleaspis t, from the Upper 
Silurian Passage Beds, in which the polygonal phites of the liead- 
■shield are not fused together into a rigid covering. Indeed, if 
:geologists are not mistaken as to the age of the rocks in which 
tliey occur, nearly similar polygonal plates are among the earliest 
known fish-remains, even so ancient as the Ordovician period. 
The plates named Astraspis desiderata §, said to be found in the 
•()rdovici;in near Canyon City, Colorado, U.S.A.. are essentially 
■similar in microscopic structure to tiiose ot" the Osteostracans, 
•except that \\\ej lack the laminated inner layer — the part of the 
4irmour which theoretically would be latest in development. 


The most highly specialised order of Ostracoderms occurs onlv 
in Middle and Upper Devonian formations, and its ancestral 
forms remain unknown. The head and the greater part of the 
trunk are covered with plates symmetrically arranged according 
to the xlisposition of the sensory canals ; and a pair of movable 
lateral appendages, also encased in plates, is fitted anteriorly to 
the armour of the trunk. The small tail, ending in a heterocercal 
itin, is either scaly or naked. Bone-cells are present in all layers 
of the armour. The species of the Middle Devonian genus 
Ptericidhys^iiinnWaLV by the restoration of Traquair, attain a length 
•of about 20 cm., while some species of the Upper Devonian genera 
Bothrlohpis and Asteroh'pis are much larger |{. They were first 
grouped as Antiarcha by Cope, when he supj)Osed he saw some 
relationship between them and the Ascidians. 

* C. WiniRii, Bull. Geol. Tnst. Upjisala, vol. xvi. (1918), p. 94. 

t C. Wiman, loc. rit. 1918, p. 86, with text-fig. 

+ R. H. Traquair, Trans. Roy. 8oc. Ediub. vol. xxxix. (1899), p. 8.'54, pi. 4. 
figs. 6-12, text-fig. 2 ; also loc. c'U. vol. xl. (190.')), p. 883, pi. 2. figs. 9, 10, 
pi. 3, text-fig. 3. 

§ C. D. Waleott, Bull. Geol. Soc. America, vol. iii. (1892), p. 166, pi. 3. 
figs. 6-14, pi. 4. figs. 1-4. C. R. Eastman, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mue. vol. Iii. 
(1917), p. 2;i8. pi. 12. figs. .5, 6. 

II R. H. Traquair, ' A Monograph of the Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 
of Britain,' pt. ii. (Palajont. Soc. 1894-1913). 



'I'lie eyes in these (Istnieoderiiis are median as in the Osteo- 
straci, but the small plate between them, pitted on its inner face 
for tiie pineal body, is loose, and close to it there is a ))eeuliar 
complication of jKivts which cainiot yet be explained. Two 
external plates in front of the mouth nre denticulated, as if they 
were related to the niar<;in of the mouth itself; and they are 
notched at the outer Literal ends, as if for nostrils. At the postero- 
lateral anodes of the head, where tlie i)ranchi:il cliambers seem tO' 
open in other Ostrju-odeinis, there is a loosely-hinged plate on 
each side which may be regarded as an oi)erculum. JNlarlungs 
on the inner face of some of the head-plates si ill await explanation. 

The inner surfaces of the plates of the trunk as a rule exhibit 
no features specially related to tlie soft parts ; but in one species,. 
Pterkhthys rhmuinus, from the Middle Devoniaii of the Eifel, 
Germany, there is a peculiar structure which lias hitherto escaped, 
general consiileralion. It Mas first noticed by ]iohon * in a 
specimen which I studied with him in Petrograd in 18'J2, and [ 
have since observed it in a s-econd s])ecimen in the liritish 
Museum (no. P. 8882). This structure is a nearly horizontal thin 
lamina of bone, marked by a longitudinal nu-dian suture^ and 
thus evidentlv paired, extending lirndy fixed across the hjise of 
the anterioi- median dor.-al plate anil ending abiuplly just in 
advance of the posterior border of the plate. In fact, it bounds- 
below a large dorsal chamber w hich is widely open behind. The 
nature of this chamber is uncertain, but the vertebral axis must 
have been well below it ; and it denotes a fundamental difference 
between the Antiarclii and the Arthrodira (such as Coccosfeits), 
which are sometimes still regarded as related. 

The tail in Ptenchthi/s is covered with rhombic scales and 
clearlv heterocercal, with a single sn)all dorsal tin ; but in the 
other genera it must have been scaleless, and it has only been 
observed in one species of Boihriolepis peculiarly preserved as a 
stain on the rock from one formation and locality f. 

The discovery of the tail ot Bothriohpis iji specimens from one 
very thin layer of rock in a cliff which iiad already been examined 
by many skilled collectors, illiistrati's well the accidental nature of 
advances in our knowledge of fossils. AVbole shoals of the same 
species had been fouiul in other layers of the same section, but 
without a trace of the tail. In the course of this brief address I 
have mentioned several cases in which our present acquaintance 
with important fads depends on one or two la\onrabIy preserved 
or fortunately broken ^pecimens. 1 lia\e tried to show how a 
palieontologist correlates tliese isolated facts and arrives at least 
at a phiusilile conclusion. Our knowledge of all groups of extinct 
(Mganisms has to be acquired in the same slow and laborious 

* J. V. Rolioii. Vrrliaiull. rus.s. k. min. Ges. St. Petersb. [2] to!, xxviii. 
(1891), p. 31)8, pi. 7. figs. 1,2. 

■[ \V. I'atien, Tiol. Bulletin, vol. vii. [\904), p. 113, with flgs. 


ProF. F. E. Wkiss then moved: — "That the President be 
thanked for his excellent address, and that he be requested to 
allow it to be printed and circulated amongst the Fellows," which 
resolution, having being seconded by Mr. H. N. Ridley, was put 
and carried with acclamation. 

The President liaving acknowledged the vote of thanks, pro- 
ceeded to addi-ess Dame Helex Gwynne-Vaughak', hauding to 
her the Trail Award and Medal, lie said : — • 

Dame Heli:^- (T^VYN^;E-VAUGHAN, — 

The Council of the Liiniean Society gives to you the Trail 
xA.ward and Medal as a mark of its appreciation of the researches 
in Avliich you are at present engaged on the morphology and 
cytology of the fungi. For several years you have been a pains- 
taking worker in cytology, especially in relation to fungi, and 
your early papers on the Ascomycetes may be particularly men- 
tioned as itnporlant contrilnitions to our knowledge. Among 
higher ])hints you have also s'udied to good purpose the vegetative 
divisions and the meiotic divisions of Vicia Faba. You have not 
only worked yoiu'self, but have also stiiDulated others to follow 
the same fruitful course of research, and so have deserved well of 
our science. The Council looks forward with interest to the earlv 
publication of your new volume on the fungi, and I have much 
pleasure in handing to you this award and medal with its best 
wishes for your continued success. 

The recipient returned her thanks. 

The President then addressed Sir Kay La"nkestee, K.C.B., 
reciting his services to the study of Zoology, and handing to him 
the Linnean Medal in gold. He said : — 

Sir Eay Lankestek, — 

The Council of the Linnean Society has awarded to you the 
Linnean Medal as a token of its admiration for your life-work in 
the advancement of zoological science. Tou ha\e so completely^ 
traveisetl the whole field, not touching any subject without 
adorning it, that it is impossible briefly to enumerate your several 
services. You began early to combine a stutly of extinct animals 
Avith those now living, and your pajiers on fossils from the East 
Anglian Crag deposits and your classic monograph of Pteraspidian 
and Cepiialas])idian fishes, published half a century ago, are pioneer 
works that will always retain their valtie. At the same time you 
devoted close attention to the Protozoa, especially gregarines and 
blood-parasites, aiul in 1871 you discovered the first known intra- 
corpuscular parasite (Dre/ianidium) in the frog. Tour early 
researches on the earthworm and other worms did much to 
elucidate the significance of the excretory orgaiis (whicli vou 
named nephiidia), the coelom.and the vascular system iu Annelids. 



You made fuiKlameiitally iinportant obsi-rvations on the develop- 
ment oHhe Mollusca ( Limna'a, I'ahiclimi, Ct/c'as, etc.), determining 
ain()n<;; other insitters the origin of the genii-layer.s ; anil you first 
clearly distingiiislied the true hlood- vascular svstein Iroin the 
c'oeloniii- spaces in iMollusc.i and Arthropoda. You studied and 
described lihufxlo/ileimi, an interesting colonial form in some 
respt'cts inleiinediate l)et\\ef'n Polyzoa and Vertebrata (Prolo- 
cliordata). Among Art hro|)()d>i, vour \aluable work on Afinn was 
followed bv voiir misterly exposition of ibe structure of fjininlus, 
proving its relationshi[) to >\-or/ii<) and thus separating it from 
the Crustacea. At the same time you contrihuteil much to a 
proper understanding and classification of the Arachnida. Your 
researches 0:1 the structure and larval development of Ami>hio.vus 
are of primarv importance in vertebrate morphologv ; and your 
memoirs on (Uapia Rwd ^Eliirojnis are noteworthy contributions to 
our knowledge of the higher mammals. Since 1809 you liave 
edited continuously the 'Quarterly Journal of Microscopical 
Science,' and kept it in the forefi-ont of jonrnals of zoology. You 
have also ])lanne(l, edited, and partly written several volumes of 
an exhaustive Treatise on Zoology. You have st mulated work in 
others not only by your brilliant professional teachiiig and per- 
sonal intercourse, hut also by your more general writings, among 
which I may specially mention your ai-ticles in the ' Encyclopaedia 
Britannica.' They are modf^ls of clear exposition, concentrating 
attention on the really essential and int. resting points, with the 
omission of uunecessarv detail. As one honoured by your friend- 
ship for the past thirty years, I can testify personally to the 
inspiring influence you have always exerted, and it c\\'es me the 
greatest pleasure to be the means of handing to you this mark of 
esteem from the Council of the Linnean Society, 

The recipient made an acknowledgment in reply as follows: — 
^Ir. President and Fellows of the Linxeax Society, — 

I beg permission to say a few words in order to express to you 
my deep sense of the great honour 3'ou have done to me in con- 
ferring upon me the Linnean Medal. I feel sensible not only of 
the distinguished honour given by your selection of me as its 
recipient, but of the great personal kindness and good-will wh.ich 
have influenced you. You, Mr. President, are an old friend and 
colleague of long-standing, and so are others whom I see here — 
and many have been associated with me as pupils and frllow- 
workers in the laboratory. The Linnean Society has been a 
constant source of help and advantage to me since many years 
ago I first used its library and published papers in its 'Trans- 
actions.' I became a Fellow forty-four years ago. My actu'il 
recollection of the Society goes back to the year 1855, when I 
went with my father to fetch books from its house — formerly that 
of Sir Joseph J3anks — in Soho Square. Froju that time onwards 
I have known and been kindly helped in every way by its officers. 


My father's friend, the distinguished surgeon, Mr. Greorge Busk, 
was Secretary of the kSociety for some years, and taught me in 
his own study, when 1 was a school-bov, to dissect the earthw orm. 
Huxley, Hooker, Alhiian, Lubbock, Gwyu .Jeffreys, and (iunther 
were my advisers and senior friends. They were succeeded as 
leaders of the Society by my coevals, and now a younger 
generation are joining in the government of the Society and in 
iiindness to me. 

I cannot sit down without especially thaidcing my friend our 
President for the selection of the Ostraeoderm Irishes as the 
subject of his address to-ilay. It was delightful to me to hear 
his references to my work on these fossils, done more than fifty 
years ago — and many entrancing pictures of cornstone quarries, 
of the exciting discoveries of novel specimens, of dear old friends, 
collectors, and colleagues — of gooil-luck and adventuie — the 
romance of the h.-immer — have been floating through my mind. 
I have never heard a lecture which gave me so much pleasure. 
Dr. Smitii Woodward's own investigations on the Ostraeoderm 
fishes have been of great importance, and the high value of his 
judgment in all that relates to them aiul other extinct groups is 
>o well establishetl, that [ am most <;rati{ied to lind tliat after all 
the additions to our knowledge of Ostraroderms since 1870 he is 
still able to speak of my pioneer work with kindly consideration. 

The President reminded the JNIeeting that the General Secretary 
had that day completed 4U years as a Secretary, and the latter 
bowed in acknowledgment. 

The General Secretary having laid on the table certain obituary 
notices, the proceedings terminated. 


Lieut.-Col. LiNLEY Blathwayt, who died at Eagle House, Bath- 
easton, liis home lor '67 years, was a member of the well-knov/n 
family, the Blathwayts ot Dyrham Park. He was the son of the 
iiev. C. B. Blathwayt, Eector of Langridge, where our late Eellow 
was born on 7th September, 1839. He entered Marlborough 
College in August 1850 and remained there till 1854, served in 
the Indian Mutiny Campaign with the 79th Highlanders, \\as 
])resent in China in 1860-02, t!ie Bhutan Expedition in 18G4-65, 
and then in civil employ in Assam and Chota Nagpnr luitil his 
retirement in 1880. 

On settling in 1882 at Batheaston, Col. Blathwayt took up 
scientilic pursuits. In 188.'3 be joined the Bristol and Gloucester 
Archaeological Society, our own Society ;3rd December, 1885, and 
the Somerset Archaeological Society in 1891; in the latter year 


he was chosen Pre>idt'nt of the B:itli Mic-roscopical Society ; he 
was also a Fellow ot the Eiiioniolu^iriil Society, lie helped to 
(h'aw up :i list of the insects of Somersetshire for the A'ictoria 
History of that county, iiatterly he had interested himself in 
bamhou culture, and made a list of 42 Jiamhtl^ece in his garden. 
He left a wi(lo\\ and one son and one daughter. By his special 
request he was cremateil. [13. D. J.J 

William Gilsox Faulow died at his home in (^uincey Street, 
Cainbiitlge, Massacluisetts, on 3rd June, liJlD, after an illness of 
tliree weeks. He was a frequent visitor to our country before 
the war, and his striking personality, his iriejjressihle humour 
and wide humanity, as well as his scientific distinction, secured 
him a joyfid welcome. A keen sense of personal loss is felt by 
liis many friends here. 

Fiirlow was Lorn in 1844, and graduated from Harvard College 
in ISTO with the degrees of A.jM. and M.D., the medical course 
having been taken as a pre|>aratio)i for a scientific career. Botany 
and music were the pursuits that attracted hiui most during his 
student days. He had, indeed, already showed a strong predilec- 
tion for cryptogamic botany, and after graduation he acted as 
assistant to Asa Gray. His first i)ublications were ' Cuban Sea- 
weeds ' (187 J) and ' List of the Sea-weeds and Marine Algw of the 
isouth Coast of New England ' (1871-1872). He relinquished his 
post in 1872, at Gray's advice, in order to continue his botanical 
studies in Europe. He first diivcted his course to Scandinavia, 
where he visited the elder J-'ries, Areschoug, and J. G. Agardh, and 
had the opportunity of examining their herbaria. His next journey 
took him to St. Petersburg to see the lluprecht Herbarium of 
Algae. iMost of his time, however, during these " wander years '' 
was spent in a detinite course of botany under the direction 
of de Bary at Strassbin-g. The students in de Barv's laboratory 
were given a decided bias towards cryi)togainic botany, more 
■especially fungi, and harlow shared in the enthusiasm for this 
side of botanical research, though his first published investigation 
was on apogam}' in Ferns : ' An asexual growth from the pro- 
thallus of Pteris cretlca'' (1874). Before lenving Europe, he 
devoted some weeks to an intensive study of lichens at (Geneva 
with .Tean Mueller. Finally, a French tour took him to Antibes 
and the French algologists, Bornet and Thuret. 

On returning to America in 1874, Farlow was appointed to an 
assistant professorship at Harvard. His work during the follow- 
ing years de.dt largely with plant ])athology, and he publislied a 
series of papers on \arions destructive parasites. In 187'J he 
became Professor of Cry|)togamic Botany, a position he occupied 
until his death, though lie retired from active teaching in 1896 
and devoted himself to the care and development of the herbarium 
and library. His publications during these years of activity were 
many and various; they ilealr not only with scientific discovery, 
but with (juestions such as the ' Conception of Species ' and the 


* Laws ot Xomenclat lire,' His book ' Tlie Marine Algie of Xew 
England' (1881) gives desci-iptions of genera and species and 
an ai-tiricial key to the genera. He compiled a 'Provisional Host 
Index of United States Eungi' (188S-^>1), and along with Se_vuiour 
edited the ' Bibliograpliical Index of North xlmerican Fungi' 
(1905). He had al>o prepared and printed plates for a work on 
rieshy fungi, which h:is been left uncompleted. 

Professor Farlow was intimately associated with ]>ritish workers, 
find when the 'Annals of Botany' was founded he at once accepted 
the post of American editor. He did miicli to maintain friendly 
relations between the botanists of English-speaking countries. 
Among the many honours awarded to him were the Foreign 
Fellowship of the Linnean Society (ISUl!) and the Honorary 
Degree of LL.H. of Glasgow University (1910). [A. L. Smith.] 

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August HAKCicEr, was born at Potsdam 
in 1834. He came of a long line of legal families on both sides. 
Before he was a year old, his father, a Government law oilicial, 
was transferred to Merseburg, in Saxony, and there all his school- 
days wei'e passed. Before they were over, however, his father 
had retired from Government service and removed with his family 
to Berlin. 

As a child he showed the love for nature and th*^ fondness for 
drawing which were intensified as he grew older. Botany was his 
tirst love, and ir is interesting to read that as a boy of eleven he 
spent a whole day on the Siebengebirge, hunting for Erica cuierea. 
At about this age he began to form an herbarium, and made a 
fruitless effort to determine and distinguish the " good and bad 
species " of willows and blackberries. In his school holidays he 
met Sehleiden in Berlin, and was much attractetl to and influenced 
by him. Schleiilen was Professor of Botany at Jena, and the 
young Haeckel visited biin there, and made arrangements for a 
course of botanical study. After his final school examinations 
were passed he went to Jena, but his stay and botanical studies 
were cut short, owing to a bad attack of rheumatism, the result of 
searching i'or Scilla hifolia in the damp meadows of Saale on a 
cold March dav. He had to go home to Berlin to be nursed, and 
did not see Jena again for manv a long day. 

Haeckel worked at botany under Braun in Berlin, but his 
fatlier could not look upon scientitic research as a calling, so to 
please his father he went in 18r)2 to Wiirzburg as a medical 
student. Plere he cam^ under the influence of KiiUiker, Virchow, 
and Leydig, and here, too, he came in contact with Gegenbaur, 
who had recently returned from Messina, where, along with 
KoUiker, he had been working on Medusa). Gegenbaur's account 
of the work done at Messina and the wonders of marine life so 
enthralled the young and enthusiastic Haeckel that he resolved 
to go there and do likewise on the first opportunity. In 1854 he 
returned to Berlin, and for a year or more w^orked at zoology 
under Johannes Miiller, who took him to Heligoland to study 

40 I'llOCKEDlNGS or Till!; 

marine animals, llaeckel liad many great teachers, but Johannes 
Miiller infUieiiced him more (lian any of Lliein. 

In 1855 JIaeekel returned to Wiirzbnrg to get on with his 
medical studies, much against his inclination, hut in 1856 he 
manai;etl to get to Nice along with Kiilliiver ajid otliers tor further 
marine investigations, lie afterwards returiu'd home to Berlin 
to ))rei)are his dissertation for the doctorate, whicii was on a piece 
of zoologic-il work, ' J^e felis ([uihuschim Astaci iluviiit ills.' On 
ol)taining liis degree he was sent hy his father to A'ienna— a safe 
distance from the sea — where he walked the hospitals, and managed 
to pass the State examination in Medicine in 1858. IJe was now 
qualified to practise, and he settled in Berlin so as to have access 
to Johannes iMiiller's laboratory. Unfortunately, Miiller's sudden 
death upset all Haeckel's plans, but lie began to practise, and not 
wanting to be disturbed in his zoological work by too many 
patients, he fixed his consulting hours from 5 to 6 a.m. ! The 
result was that during a whole year he had only three patients, 
and none of tiiem died. " This success was enough for my dear 
father," says Haeckel, and the old man consented to his son . 
having one more year to seriously study marine animals. Early 
in 1859 Haeckel reached Italy, travelling slowly and sketching as 
he w'ent along, lie reached Sicily in the autumn, and settled 
down at Messina for six months to the study of the Kadiolaria. 
On this journey he discovered his talent for landscape painting, 
and was nearly diverted from zoology to live the life of an 

In 1861 Haeckel was still depending on allowances from his 
father, and something had to be done ; so he went to Jena to see 
his old friend Gegenbaur, who was now occupying the Chair of 
Zoology there. By his advice he settled in Jena as a Privat- 
docent. In the following year he was appointed Extraordinary 
Professor of Zoology, and published his first monograph on the 
Tlaciiolaria ; and in that year, too, he married his cousin Anna 
Sethe. In 1865 a special Chair of Zoology was founded for him 
at Jena ; and though he received many invitations to fill other 
Chairs of Zoology, he made Jena his home for the rest of 
Ins life. 

Haeckel read the ' Origin of Species ' in 1860, after his return 
from Messina, in a German translation bv Br<mn. The book 
" profoundly moved '' him. He was not long in accepting Darwin's 
views against the immutability of species, and planned the classi- 
fication of the Hadiolaria on lines of evolution, and also constructed 
a genealogical tree, llaeckel was the first to champion the cause 
of Uarwinism in Germany against the sti'ongest opposition. He 
became an enthusiastic evolutionist and devotee of Darwinism, 
which thoroughly permeated all his teaching and all his writings. 

In 1864 his wife died, and in order to assuage his grief he 
wrote his ' Generelle jMor|)liologie ' (1866), bearing the sub-tirle 
• (ieneral elements of the science of organic forms, mechanically 
grounded on the theory of descent as reformed by (.'liarles 


Dai'wiii.' For genenil biolo;^if;il clsssificatioii it inaugurated a 
new epoch, and Huxley described it as "one of tlie greatest 
scientilic works ever ])ublished." In this work he repeated!}' 
insists on the importance of the " I'lmdamental Biogenetic Law," 
which may be briefly stated in liis own words, " Ontogeny repeats 
Phylogeny."' Tlie book ditl not attract much attention from the 
general public, so lie wrote a resume of a part of it in popular 
form under the title of' Natiirliche fcjchopfungsgesciiichte,' and it 
was a great success. It naturally brought storms about his head,, 
but it also brought him a following apart from that formed by 
his scientific friends and pupils. An English translation under 
the editorship of Sir E. E;iy Lankester iijjpeared in 1870, inider 
the title of ' The History of Creation.' 

In 1866 Haeckel went to the Canaries, visiting England and 
Darwin at Down on the way. There he worked at the Medusa?,, 
aiul especi;illy the Siplionophores. It was during this visit that 
he became uiterestetl in Sponges, but it was not until 187:i 
that his great monograph on tlie Calcispongise was published. 
Ill this he formulated his Gastraea-theory, which was really a 
special ap])lication of the Biogenetic law. \vl subsequent years 
he elaborated his studies on the Gastra^a, and published them in 
one book in 1877. 

In 1867 he married Agnes Huschke, the daugliter of the 
distinguished anatomist at Jena. They had tliree children, a son 
who became an artist, and two daughters. 

Another large treatise appeared in 1874 under the title of 
' Anthropogenic,' and in it Haeckel applied his fundamental 
Biogenetic law to the evolution of Man. The book is in two 
parts ; the first being on Ontogeny, practically a philosophical text- 
book on Human Embryology, while in the second part Phylogeny 
treats of the foundations of Anthropology. (The 5th Edition was 
translated into English under the title of 'Tiie Evolution of Man,' 
1905.) After giving an account of the evolution of (he various 
tissues and organs of Man's body, he goes on to the evolution of 
Man's soul, the psychic organ being the brain. " The human soul 
or psyche, as a function of the medullary tube, has developed 
along with it ; and just as brain and spinal cord now develop from 
the simple medullary tube in everj'- human individual, so the 
human mind or the psychic life of the whole human race has 
been gradually evolved from the lower vertebrate soul." Logically, 
therefore, both proceed from the very ])rimitive soul of" Man's 
Protozoon ancestors. In 1876 he published a short essay, ' Die 
Perigenesis der Plasfidule.' This is one of his most remarkable 
pieces of work. Hering in 187') had shown that memory must 
be considered a general function of organic matter, and that 
reproduction and inheritance can only be ex])lained by admitting 
the existence of this unct)nscious memory. In the above men- 
tioued essay Haeckel elaborated this idea. He resolved cells into 
plastidules (molecules), and applied the physical ))rinciple of 
transmitted motion to them. In his own words : "I concluded 


tliat Jleredity is the iiieiuorv of tlu; plastidules and variabilify 
tlieir power of c-oiiipivlieiisioii." Tliis work was followed in 187S 
by ' (-Vli-Souls and kSoid-CVIls ' and other essays on Evolntion. 

In 187!* Ilaeekel puhiished his 'System der Medusen,' a large 
folio work, coni[)risiiig not only his own researches, but those of 
all others who had gone before biin. On tiie return of the 
' Challenger ' Expedition he received from the British Government 
the collections of Hadiolaria, Keratosa, .Siphonophora, and JNIedusic. 
In the Report on the Siphonophora tlie o|)j)oi'tunity was taken to 
include the results of his visit to Ceylon and other places, and 
most of the beautiful figures wliifli ilUi^trate the specimens were 
<lra\vn from life by him. In jud<;iug Jiaerkel's systematic work it 
is necessary to bear in mind that he was a 'man who possessed a 
very fertile imagination, an artistic temperament, and a great 
keenness for Evolution. In all his mon()grai)lis he drew u|) new- 
classifications based upon Evolution, and once be got his iniagiiiai-y 
scheme completed, tiien it was only a question of making the 
specie"* fit into it. He was an expert at reconstructing an animal 
out of a fragment, and it was wonderful, wben finished, bow well 
it fitted into his classification. A previously described species 
that would spoil or interfere with bis system of classification 
received an amended description, owing to its author, as Ilaeckel 
considered, having overlooked the essential characters which were 
wanted. Jlaockel's strong imaginative powers and his enthusiasm 
for Evolution were against him as a good systematic zoologist. 
He was too fond of reconstructing imaginary species out of bad 
material to fit bis views on Involution, and under the infiuence of 
his artistic temperament the pencil would tend to convert ugly 
things into beautiful ones. . It was not delibei-ately done, but liis 
enthusiasm for E\oliiti()n and Art led him astray. The climax iu 
monographs was reached with the ' Challenger ' Jiadiolaria (1887). 
The text consisted of 2700 pages and the figures covered 
340 plates. Over 30U0 new species were described. 

In 1881 Haeckel went to Ceylon for a few months w itb all the 
outfits of a marine zoologist, botanist, photographer, and artist. 
This trip be thoroughl}^ enjoyed, and he gave an interesting 
account of his work and experiences in a book translated under 
the title of 'A \'isit to Ceylon.' In subsequent years he visited 
most of the countries in Eurojie, Italy being bis favourite, 
api)ealing most to his artistic tastes. He also made expeditions 
to North Africa, Asia Minf)r, Red Sea, and the Knst Indies. As 
lie gre« older his love for painting was more indulged in on his 
travels, for he could not resist painting, either in oil- or water- 
colours, a landscape that held him iu enchantment, any more than 
collecting animals and plants for his nniseum. 

On the completion of the ' Challenger ' monogr;ij)hs Haeckel 
practically gave up systematic work and tiu-ned his attention 
more closely to his works on Evolution and his philosophy of 
Monism, in which he acknowledges nothing supernatural, but 
conceives a (lod who embraces Nature and at the same time is 


one with Nature, organic aiul inorganic. A great work, ' Die 
Systematisrhe Pliylogenie,' ajipearetl in 18'J4-9(). It was a 
tiketch of a natural svsteni of oryanisms on tiie biisis of their 
-stein-liistorv, and licaiing w il ii the Prutists, jJants and aiiinials. 
In the 'Kiddle of the Universe " l;e published a popular study of 
his Moinstic philosophy, and the hook had an imnit-iise sale, being 
translated into over a dozen different languages. It was followed 
by a supplementary volume, 'The Wonders of Ijife.' Haeckel 
was a linn believer in the Inheritance of Acquiied Characters, and 
regarded it/ as " one of the most important principles in evolu- 
tionary science." He was consequently a strong opponent of 
Wjeismann's theory of the Continuity of tiie Germ-plasm, and 
not a supporter of De Vries's Mutation-theory. 

He was an adept at coining names, usually deri\ ed from Greek, 
for use in his systematic classitication and for text-books. To 
him zoologists are indebted for many w ords now in connnon use, 
•such as: — Ontogeny, Phyliun, Protozoa, Protista, Metazoa, 
Plankton, Cceloni, and (siastrula. 

It is impossible within the limits of an obituary notice to give 
more than a brief outline of Haeckel's activities, for he was a 
prodigious and vigorous worker. Students flocked to his class- 
rooms at Jena, and his courses of semi-popular lectures on Evolu- 
tion were fully attended by all sorts and conditions of |)eople, 
from far and near. In tlie prime of life he was a fine, handsome 
man, with a strong but charming personalit}', fearless in express- 
ing his Evolutionary views, which were by no means favoiu-ably 
received by the nndtitude, ami attempts were even made to eject 
him from his Chair of Zoology. 

At the time of the outbreak of the Great War, llaeckel had 
reached the age of eis^htv, and was resting, with the infirmities of 
old age upon Idm, after the labours of his long and strenuous life. 
The I act that Britain hon<mred her treaty with Belgium and 
declared war upon his Fatherland aroused into activity his latent 
Prussian Houl-cells, and he attacked England, with his pen, with 
more bitterness and hatred than he ever did his strongest oppo- 
nents on Evolution and Monism. This eruption may be passed 
over and put down to " Sendity," for it was against his later 
years' motto: "The good, the true, and the beautiful, are the 
ideals, yea the gods, of our Monistic philosophy " ; and besides he 
had many old friends in England, and had received most of the 
honours that she could eive him, including the Honorarv Foreign 
Membersiiip of the Linnean Society and its Gold Medal. He 
lived to see the end of the war, and, after a prolonged illness, 
died in his beloved town of Jena on 8th August, 191 5*, at the 
age of 85. [E. T. Bkowne.] 

John Hopkinson was born at Leeds on the ir)tb November, 
184'4; his father and uncle having recently and sut-cessfuUy estab- 
lished the iirm of J. &■ J. Hopkinson, ]):anoforte makers, 
transferred it iu 18-K) to London, whither in 185(5 the whole 


family iiii<;i;ited. The subject of tliis notice first went to a day- 
school in London, and hiter to a boarding-scliool at Berkhanisted. 
Here it was, when 15 years old, he began to show a bent towards 
science, amongst other things collecting plants, and displayintr so 
keen a liking for botany, tliat wlw^n some years afterwards his old 
schoolmaster was about lo leave Eni^land he gave his herbarium, 
containing many specimens collected by the liev. C. A. Johns, ta 
his fonm-r pu|)il. 

In 186(», at the age of IG, John llopkinson passed direct from 
school to his father's business, and remained in its active prose- 
cution for 53 years; dui-ing this long period his evenings wera 
given up to scientific pursuits. The first society he joined was 
that of the Geologists' Association in 18(55; two vears later the 
Eoyal Microscopical Society, and in ISGl) the Geological Society 
of London. It was in 18(38 that he read his first paper on 
British Graptolites before the Quekett Club ; the subject took 
up much of his attention for several years, until the claims of 
administration of a local society obliged liim to concentrate his 
attention u|ion the latter. In 1874 he removed to Watford, and 
in tlie late autumn of tiiat yeai-, in conjunction with Dr. Alfred T. 
Bretr and Mr. Arthur T. Cottani, a preliminary meeting of local 
naturalists ^^ils held, leading in January 1875 to the establishment 
of the Watford Natural History Society, with Mr. John Evans 
(afterwards knighted) as the first president and Mr. Hopkinson as 
secretary, librarian, and editor; the last-named oHice he retained 
to the closing day of his life. 

He was elected into the Linnean Society on the IStli February, 
1875, and served on the Council from "l908 till 1911. As tlie 
years passed on, he came to use the li'Drary moi-e extensively, and 
in recent times he was in our rooms several times each week, 
largely for the volumes issued by the Kay Society. 

in 1877, he married Miss Kathei-ine Willshiu, of St. Albans, 
who survives him, with two married daughters. 

In 1879 the Watford Natural History Society enlarged its 
scope and chang^-d its name to the present one, The Hertfordshire 
Natural History Societv', of which renamed society Mr. Plopkinson 
'•emained the active and energetic officer to the end of his life. 
In the sam^ yt^'ir, at the British Association meeting at Sbeifield, 
lie urged that an annual conference of delegates of various 
provincial societies should take place, and the originatt^r of the 
plan presidetl over the first conference, which was held at Swansea 
the following year. These gatherings were at first nut officially 
recognist d, but they now form a part of the progranune at each 
meeting of the Association. 

Another suggestion which took some years to develop was 
that of a local museum at St. Albans; in 18iM) a temporary 
building was o])ened and the new permanent one tiie next vear. 
In 19U0 Mr. Hopkinson transferred the greater number of his 
meteorological instruments to the museum, together with his her- 
barium (previously mentioned), his local collection of mollusca and 


liis fossils, except a special selection of gfaptolites which he gave 
to the Woodsvardiau Museum, Cambridge. At this time he left 
St. Albans and settled again at Watford iu the house built by his 
faihei", M hich was liis home to the end. 

The affairs of the Hay Society became of increasing interest to 
Mr. Hopkinsoii : in lb8*J he became a member of the Council, iu 
1899 the treasurer, and iu 1902, upon the death of the Kev. Thomas 
Wiltshire, its secretary and centre of its activities. 

In 1913 he retired from business, when his Urm was turned 
into a company, remaining on the board as a director; from this 
time he was free to employ his full tiuie in the service of the two 
societies so dear to him. During the war he was compelled to 
relinquish evening meetings as, owing to the reduced lighting and 
his ow-n extreiue short-sight, In.' was hainliiappeil in walking. 

To the last our late Fellow was alert and \ igurous, and probably 
his last visit to any of the societies to which he belonged was to ' 
our Society on the afternoon of Friday, July 4th, 1919, when he 
•discussed a point of administration of the Kay Society; a few 
hours later he was dead of heart failure, early on the morning of 
the 5th July, leaving a gap in the band of earnest naturalists 
not easily to be filled, lie was buried on Thursday afternoon, 
10th July, at AVatford Cemetery, Mr. Charles t)ldham and 
JMr. Wilfred Mark Webb representing the Linuean Society. 

[B' D. J.] 

The ranks of critical British botanists have sustained a severe 
loss by the unexpected death of the Eev. Edavaul) Siiearbukn 
Maesuall, on the 25tli Kovember, 1919. 

Born iu Park Lane on the 7th March, 1858, our late Fellow 
was privately educated in England and Germany, entering Marl- 
borough College in September 1873, where he remained nearly 
four years, obtaining an Old Marlburian Scholarship ( 1876) ihe 
vear alter be left, an Exhibition, and a Scholarship at Brasenose 
■College, Oxford. At the University he took a Second Class in 
•Classical Moderations in 1879 and u Third Class in History 
in 1881, the year he graduated B.A., proceeding M.A. in 1884. 
He w'as at Wells Theological College in 1882, ordained deacon in 
1883, and priest in 1885, the Marlborough Mission at Tottenham 
sup|)lying his title to orders. 

From this curacy he moved to another at Witley, Surrey, and 
whilst there he married on Kith August, 1887, Fainiy Isabel 
Foster, a niece of Birket Foster, the water-colour artist. In 1890 
lie became A'icar of Milford, \\here he stayed ten years: from 
1900-02 he was Curate-iu-charge of Lavington-cum-Graffbani, 
Sussex, then Vicar of Keevil in AViltshire, and in 1904 he became 
Hector of West Monkton, his last clerical post. 

He had complained for some years of lits of depression, which 
increased in intensity and frequency; in the middle of 1918 he 
suffered from a nervous breakdown, even fainting in the pulpit. 
Acting on medical advice, he made arrangements for withdrawing 


from |):ist()r;il work, aiul iii lOl!* Iin l)ou<;lit :u\ estate at Tideuliatii, 
near Cliepstow, iiaiiiiug it ' Offa's Dyke.' It was hoped tliat the 
release troiii parish work would relieve the depression, but family 
cares ilecpeiied the gloom ; the loss of his only brother, due to an 
accident, followed by llie illness and dearh of his wife, and doubts 
about Ids policy in having bought a large estate with jjossible 
tiiianc-ial trouble — a purely imaginary trouble — resulted in his 
being foumi dead in his room on the 2oth \ovember, due to tht> 
acliQii of poison. 

Although our late Fellow was at Marlborough at the time 
when the llev. T. A. Pieslon ( l.SIi:i-lUUo) was active as a 
naturalist in the JSchool <^Proc. Linn. 8oc. 11>04-U5, pp. 49-50), it 
is piiictically certain that his attraction to botany was acquired 
at Oxford. His first contribution was a modest ])aragraph in the 
'Journal of Botany' for 1885, on Pinguicida alpina in Scotland, 
the first of a series of articles in the same journal which amounted 
to 24(5, extending over thirty volumes of that serial, and embracing 
reviews, catalogues of plants observed in various parts of the 
kingdom, as well as critical remarks (ju such genera as Epilobiuni, 
Carex, and tiie like. 

The chief contribution to the botany of his native land was his 
ciirrving through the publication in 1899 of the 'Flora of Jvent,^ 
which had been in progress in the hands of Mr. F, J. Itanbnry 
since 1872: to the same pen is due the summary of the Kentish 
Flora which appeared in the Victoria Flistoiy of the County 
(19U8): the 'Supplement to the Flora ol Somerset' was under- 
taken at the instance of the Somersetshire Natural History 
Society; it came out in 1914: the account of tiin geuas BetuJa 
in the Cambridge 'British F^lora " was due to him; and many 
contributions to the works of others were written by him. His 
critical acquaintance oi British plants led to his being con- 
stantly appealed to for dt^cisions on doubtful forms, and besides 
the articles in the ' Jouriuil of Botany' alreadv mentioned, he 
contributed much to the reports of the two Exciiange Clubs, of 
which he was an active member almost to the last. 

Two ])lants were named alter him, Hieraciuni Marshalli, E. F. 
Linton, and litihus Marshalli,, Focke & Rogers ; anotlmv Hier((cium 
was named by him in honour of his w ife, //. Isabella'. 

For tiie above account the writer has to acknowledge his 
indebtedness to the Editor of the ' Journal of Botany,' where in 
the tirst number of the present year (1920) appears a sympathetic 
and detailed review of the lifework of our late Fellow, accom- 
panied by portraits of husband and wife. [B. D. J.] 

The Rt. Hon. Alexander Peckover, Jiaron Peckoveu, was 
born at Wisbech 16rh August, 1830, and was directly descended 
from Edmund Peckover, a tri)oper in Cromwell's army, and 
whose landed estate at Fakenham, Norfolk, he possessed. He 
was educated at Grove House School, Tottenham, and became 
a partner in the bank of Gurney, Peckover & Co., of Wisbech, 


ill which lie .spent his business UFe. In 19l)7 he was created 
Baron Peckover, a title whit-ii lapsed on the death ot" the first 
holder, as three daughters but no son formed his family ; his wife, 
the only daughter ot J. Sharpies, of llitcliiii, whom he married in 
1858, died in 18fi2. From 18'.)3 to 190(3 he was J.ord Lieutenant 
oF Cambridgeshire, ttie first instance of a member of the Society 
of Friends filling such a post. lie delighted in collecting ancient 
mainiscripts, early bibles, and ma|)s, amassing a splenditl library,, 
and in early lite he was devoted to chess, cricket, and tennis.. 
He died at J3ank House, Wisbech, on the 2Lst October, 1919. 

[B. D. J.] 

Professor MAGXirs (tUSTaf Eetzius, whose death at the age of 77 
occurred ar Stockholui on 21st July, lin9, was one of the most 
distinguished zoologists Sweden has produced. Born at Stock- 
holm 17th October, 1812, and descended from a grandfather whO' 
was Professor oF Natural History at Lund, and a father w ho was. 
Professor of Anatomy at Stockholm, he doubtless developed his 
remarkable scientific gifts in a congenial environment. His work 
ranged over a widn field, and soon won him recognition as an. 
authoritv on such iliverse subjects as histology and anthropologv. 
In conjunction with Prof. Axel Key, lie wrote in 1875 a 
standard work on the cerebro-spinal membranes and spaces, and 
hiter brought out a series of monographs on the internal ear, the 
microscopic structure of the nervous system and sense organs of 
various animals, the structure of spermatozoa and nuclei — all illus- 
trated with a magnificence which has never been surpassed. 
I:iiportant work was also published by him on the brain of Man 
and of anthropoids. Eetzius did mucli to forward thn study of 
anthropology in Sweden, and his ' Atlas of ancient Swedish skulls' 
(1900) and ' xAiithropology of Sweden,' written along with 
Prof. Karl Fiirst (1902), are contributions of permanent value. 
Some of his conclusions were given in his Huxley Lecture 
delivered in this country. 

He was elected a Foreign Member of the Linnean Society on 
the 6th lAJay, 1909, and of the Eoyal Society in 1907; he also- 
received the honorary degree of ScD. at Cambridge, and at many 
Continental universities a similar degree in the faculties of medi- 
cine aiul philosophy. [E. S. (>.] 

SiMOX ScirwENDENER, who was elected a Foreign Memher of the 
Linnean Society in 1884, was horn at Buchs, in the Canton of 
St. Gallen, Switzerland, on lOth February, 1829. His fatheiMvas 
a farmer, but the son early evinced an inclination for scientific 
rather than for agriciilturiil jiursuits. On lea\ing school he 
qualified as a teacher in the elementary school of his native town. 
A University education seems to have been, at first, bevond his 
means, but a bequest from his grandfather made it eventually 
possible. He began his University career at Geneva, studying 
botany under Alphonse de Candolle, but it A\as soon interrupted 

48 PROCKEUINCiS t)l- Tin; 

l)y the L'xliaustioii of his resoiirci's, wliicli involved a, i-ftuni to 
schoi)l-k'achiiig. ilowever, in 1856, lie was in a position to remove 
to Ziiric-h to resume botanical work under Oswald Jleer, and in 
that year he j^raduated with a pha-nological thesis, ' Leber die 
.periodischen Erscheinungen der S'atur, insbesondere der Ptlanzen- 
welt," which he had begun at (Geneva. 

Scliwendener soon came into relation with Xaegeli, who had 
recently moved to Ziirich from Freiburg i./B., and with his assist- 
ance began the study of the microscopical anatomy of plants, 
'i'he result was that when Naogeli was called to the Professorship 
of Botany at Munich (1857), .Schwendener accompanied him as 
his assistant. After ten years at Munich, Schwendener was 
.jippointed Professor of JJotany at Basel : ten years later (1877) 
he moved on to Tiibingen, where he succreded Hofmeister; and 
in 1870, on the death of Alexander Braun, he became Professor 
of Botany at Berlin, where he spent tiie lemainder of liis life. 
He died on 27th May, litl!*. He was never niarried. 

His first considerable work was ' Has ^likroskop,' written in 
collaboration with Xaegeli, i)ublished 18(55-7 (l^nd edn. 1877), a 
book which contributed materially to tlie development of modern 
Botany. Schwendeiier was especially I'esponsible for the part of 
it dealing with the mechanisMi and the optical theory of the 
microscope ; he discharged his responsibility with conspicuous 
success that showed the natural bent of his mind to the mathe- 
matical. As a matter of fact, Schwendener was not a naturalist, 
and was rather contemptuous of systematic Botany and field-work. 
However, at this period he was actually engaged upon a piece 
of definitely botanical work, investigating the structure of 
Lichens, the results of which were published in Naegeli's 'Bei- 
triige zur wisschenschaftlichen Botauik,' 18t)0-3-8. At that 
time much interest was being taken in the nature of tlie coloured 
cells containing chlorophyll, known as "gonidia," which are a 
•constituent of the Lichen-thallus. The resemblance of these 
gonidia to free-living organisms considered to be Algae was 
recognised, and the |)revalent view was that these so-called Algae 
were merely Lichen-gonidia which had escaped from the thallus 
and continued to live as free organisms. The conjecture had 
been hazarded that the facts could be interpreted in ])recisely the 
opposite way : that the gonidia are really Algaj which have 
become enclosed by and imprisoned in the colourless filamentous 
tissue of the growing Lichen-thallus. Schwendener was led by 
his observations to adopt and .support the latter \iew. In 1869 
he jjublished his celebrated work, 'Die Algentypen der Flechten- 
gonidien," in which he adduced convincing t-vidence that the gonidia 
do not originate in the thallus, but are Al^iaj which have become 
invested or invaded by the mycelium of a Fungus. This led on 
to the striking inference that a Lichen is not a siinple organism, 
but is con)posite, consisting of Algae and Fungus living together 
in a relation which, on the whole, is one of nuitual advantage — 
an altogether new biological conception which de Bary termed 




"symbiosis." The passionate opposition of the professed liclien- 
ologists was aroused, a veritable "odium lichenuIo>;iciinr' prevailed, 
and even now the controversy has not aitogetlier^died out. How- 
ever, the more the actual facts are investigated, the strono-er 
becomes the position of tlie Sclnvendenerian tht-orv, which is now 
almost universally accepted. 

Schwendener's contribution to the right understandin"- of 
Lichens is his first claim to remembrance as a botanist, °His 
second claim is that he founded and prosecuted, to some extent, 
the study of physiological anatomy. After 1S7U, his research was' 
coufiued to the study of the auatoiuy of plants in relation to 
ftuiction. Whilst at Easel he |)ublished two important works, in 
which the application of mechanical principles to explain the 
structure and development of plants was tlie prominent feature. 
The first was ' Das mechanische Prinzip im anatomischeu Bau 
der Monokotyleu' (1S74), in which it was shown that the distri- 
bution of the supporting-tissue (stereom) in these plants is in 
accordance with recognised principles of constructive engineeriuo-. 
'^'li« J^ycond was ' Die mechanische Theorie der Blattstt^luno-eu ' 
(1877), in which he discussed the relation between the various 
forms of phyllotaxis and the mechanical conditions under which 
the leaves are developed. 

During his Berlin-period, Schweudeiier published, mostly in 
the 'J\Jonatsberichte' of the Prussian Academy, a number of 
papers on various physico-physiological subjects, such as the 
twnniig of stems, the ascent of sap, the mechanism of the stomata 
and of the pulvini of leaves, etc. He inspired a number of his 
students to pursue research in the direction of physiological 
anatomy, of. whom Professor G. Haberlaiidt, now his successor at 
Berlin, is the most famous. r^, j£_ Vines 1 

Sir Peter Wyatt Squire, born on 6th February, 1847, the son of 
Peter 8quu-e, was educated at King's College School, and entered 
his father's business of pharmaceutical chemist. His publications 
were chiefly concerned with pharmacy, but in 1867 he ■ was 
appointed chemist on the medical stafi' of the Eoyal Household. 
For his services iu this appointment for more than fifty years he" 
was knighted in June 1919. 

His great recreation was punting, and he wrote the section on 
that sport in the Badminton Library. He died at his house, 
'The liyepeck,' at Shepperton, on the 17th September, 1919-' 
his election as Fellow of our Society dated from the 1st November' 
^^''^- [B. D. J.] 

James William Helexus Trail was born at Birsay, Orkney on 
the 4th March, 1851, the youngest son of the Very Rev. Samuel 
Trail, minister of Birsay andJlarray, afterwards Professor of 
Systematic Theology at Aberdeen 1867-87, and Moderator of th(y 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1874. 



JTis early education was carried out at home, Tullocli's private 
School, ami tlic (Jiaimnar Scliool of Old Al)or(leeii, wliere, owing 
to till' I'xtrcine classical drill there |ire\al('iit, lie took a violent 
dislilu' to tlie classics. As a cliild lie had heen accustomed to the 
observation and collection of natural objects, wliich tendency had 
been encouray;ed at Tullocli's school, and this proclivity was con- 
tinued al'ter bis entrance into the University in JSGO; bere he 
did not seek distinct iun in classics, matbeniatics, or philosophy, 
concentrating his attention in the natural science department, 
obtaining highest honours when be graduated M.A. in IbTO. 

At that time the medical faculty provided the only avenue 
offered by the University for tlie student desirous of following 
science, and Trail was not specially drawn to bis purely profes- 
sional studies ; but he served in 1870-7^5 as assistant to the pro- 
fessors of botany and chemistry and to the curator of the zoological 
museinn. In 1S73 he interrupted his medical career by accepting 
the position of naturalist to a South American exploring expe- 
dition, and was thus able to travel more than 16,000 miles on 
tiie Amazon and its northern tributaries, making full notes and 
collecting both ])lants and animals. On his return in 1.S75 be 
resumed liis studies and set about the arrangement and 
jniblication of bis results. In the following year he graduated 
JNl.B. with highest academical honours. 

He was chosen in the same year (1876) to fill thepost of botanist 
in British Guiana, but in 1877, when about to take u]) his duties, 
Dr. G. Dickie resigned bis Chair, and Trail was appointed by the 
Crown to succeed him, beginning his career as Professor of Botany 
in May. The Chair of Zoology fell vacant in 1878, and Trail 
deputised for the new occupant during 1878-71) with signal 

On taking up his new duties Trail found the equipment of the 
botanical department very defective. By 1879, when he proceeded 
to the degree of M.D., he had formed his plan and begun to 
carrv it out, until he left for bis successor an excellent teaching 
museum, laboratories, and a botanical garden. 

From 1871 onwards Ti-ail had published ])apers on galls in the 
'Scottish Naturalist,' and in 1883 Dr. liuchanan AV'hite resigned 
its editorshij) and ])ersuaded Trail to take over the duties from 
1S84, until it was merged, in 1892, in the ' Annals of Scottish 
Natural History,' and lie acted as botanical editor during the 
twenty years that the ' Annals ' were published. 

The year 1886 witnessed Tiail's part in the foundation of the 
Aberdeen A\''orking Men's Natural ]Iistory Society, frequently 
guiding its discussions and sometimes taking the lead in its 
excursions; this help was acknowledged by the Society annually 
electing him its ]n'esident. 

In 1891 the University Commissioners required a I'eport on the 
ooiiditiun of the library. Trail, who bad served continuously on 
the library committee since 1877, was constituted curator of the 
librarv and chairman "f the (•(unmittee, and tu draft the report ; 


he succeeded so well that he was annually re-elected to both posts. 
In 1892 he was a|)pointed Dean ot" the nmvly-e.stahlishecl Iviculty 
of Science ; the vear t'ollowint;- he was elected F.K.S. 

Tlie year 1S!)5 laid another duty upon the professor: his triend 
Buchanan Wliite had tlieil, k'aving liis JMS. ' J'^Iora of Perthshire' 
advanced, hut not finished for publication ; Trail undertook the task, 
and \\\\h the help of friends accomplished it by 1898. Tlie College 
of Agriculture was fouiuled in 1903, Trail having taken a promi- 
nent part in the preliminary arrangements ; he was also president 
of the Buchan Field Club till 1904, when he retii'ed. 

The last ten years of his life were spent in gathering and 
arranging materials for a projected * Flora of North-Eastern 
Scotland' on a wide basis. After 1913 the strain of war con- 
ditions prevented his usual visits to London, and with the cessation 
of tlie war, the sudden increase of stiuleuts involved the professor 
in extra exertions. After a short illness, due to a duodenal ulcer, 
his strength failed, and he passed away on the 18th September, 
1919, aged 08. 

Trail founded three funds : — 1. In memory of his mother to 
assist undergraduates in any of the faculties who may display 
approved proficiency in Natural History studies. 2. On completing 
a quarter of a century's service as curator of the University 
library, for use in supplement of regular gran-ts from the Uni- 
versity exchequer, for the purchase of scientific books. 3. The 
third fund which especially affects this Society, in 1909, a sum 
" for encouragement on researches on the nature and properties 
of protoplasm" : see 'Proceedings,' 1908-09, p. 94, with the con- 
stitution set out in the ' Proceedings,' 1914-15, pp. 52, 53. 
This finid was used to provide a bronze medal, which, together 
with the balance of the fund, is bestowed every five years, the 
two previous recipients being Prof. E. A. IMinchin and Dr. L. 
Doncaster ; the award to be made this year has been allotted to 
Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan, D.Sc, F.L.S. 

For the facts recorded in the foregoing lines, the writer has to 
thank Sir David Prain, C.M.G., C.I.E., F.R.S., for his kind per- 
mission to use the obituary printed in the Proc. E. Soc. B. 
vol. xci. A bibliography of Professor Trail's work will be found 
in the 'Kew Bulletin,' 1919, pp. 381-388, and 1920, pp. 32, 33. 

[B. D. J.] 

William James Tutcher was born near Bristol in 1867 and 
educated at the Merchant Venturers' School in that city ; after 
five years' experience in private gardens, he came to Kew as a 
young gardener. In two years he was promoted to sub-foreman 
and put in charge of the orchids. In 1891 he was appointed 
assistant to Mr. Charles Ford at Hongkong, and spent nearly 
thirty years in that island. In due course he succeeded to the 
post of Superintendent of the Botanical and Forestry Department, 
and spent most of his spare time in botanical exploration. The 
year 1912 witnessed the publication of the 'Flora of Kwantung 


52 rilOCKliUlNtiS OF Till': 

1111(1 Hongkong' liy [Messrs. S. 'I\ Diiiiii aiul W. .7. Tiitt-hcr, Adcli- 
1 idiiiil Series X. of t lu; ' Hullcliii ol .Miscclliuicuus Inroritiiilioii,' 
ol tliu J{())al Jiutaiiif (jarilciis, Kew. Tlii! lierliariiiiii of llu^ 
clei)ai'tiiieiit has naturally the bulk of Mr. 'riiUher's cullected 
specimt'iiB, but duplicates are ;it Kew and JNlaiiila. 

The f^eiius Tntcherui, JJuiiu, coiiinieinorates our late Fellow, 
who discriiiiiuatcd the tree in the Jlongkoiif; gardens ; he hiinstdt"' 
described Qiirrctis Klizd'jetJuf after his wile, lie was elected a 
Fellow ol" this Society 15th Deceiuber, 11J04, and was looking 
forward to a holiday at boiiH^, when he was attacked by pneu- 
monia, and succumbed in March of the present year, leaving 
behind a recoi'd of successful woik and diligent performance of 
duty, [B. D. J.] 

Prof. Gkorgk Stepiiex West, M.A., D.Sc, A.E.C.S., died at his 
home, 115 Pakeiiham Koad, Edgbaston, JJirmingliam, on the 7th 
August, lUl'J, at the early age of 43, from iJiieumonia. 

lie was born at Bradford in 1S7(J, the second son of his father, 
j\lr. AVilliam AVtst, a successful teacher and ardent naturalist. 
Our late Fellow was educated at Bradford Technical College, 
the Koyal College of Science at South Kensington, and St. 
John's College, Cambridge ; he obtained 1st Class in both parts 
of the Natural Science Tripos, in iS97 and 1898 res|)ectively, 
became a Scholar and Hutchinson Research Student at St. John's, 
and acted as demonstrator in botany in 1899; but here bis stay 
was brief, for in the same year be received the appointment of 
professor of natural liistory at the Royal Agricultural College, 
Cirencester, until 1906. Jn that year he became lecturer in 
Botany at the TTniversily of Birmingham, then, on the resignatiuu 
of Prof. \V. llillhoiise, he succeedetl to the Chair of Botany from 
19(19 until his death. 

Mis early publications were wrilt(>n in conjunction with bis 
father (1848 1914), as noted in our ' Proceediiigs ' for 1913-14, 
p[). G5-t)7. Brought up in an atmosphere of botanic activity, the 
son of a prominent algologist, the younger West followed in 
his father's steps, devoting his early attention to freshwater algoe, 
a subject upon whicb he became the leading exponent in the 
United Kingdom, aiul was ]>ursu(Hl to the close of his life. 
Speaking generally, from 1893 or thereabout, his work was 
associated with that of his father, until when, a few years before 
the death of the elder AVest, whose attention had been increas- 
ingly dr;iw n to the ecological study of the bryophytes and lichens, 
the algological portion of their joint labours became more and 
more the ]n'ovince of the youui^er West. 

]\1uch of their joint publications ;i])peared in serials and journals, 
and we may specify the work on the algal llora of Voikshire (HXlO- 
dl ), the Scottish lochs (HXV)), Irish lakes (19tl2 1tlO(;), Freshwater 
Algie of Burma (19U7), Fiiglish lakes (l!.'09), the Driva A'alley in 
Norvxav (191U), culminating in the volumes on the British Desini- 
Uiacea), four volumes published by the Kay Society from 19U4 to 


l9]l; six Volumes were planned, but the work was hindered, 
Hrst by a nervous illness of fbe younger Wesf, whicb prevented 
bis completing (he necessary drawings, and then the war, so that 
only a preliminary draft or sketeli was left, which may possibly 
be publisiied as a memorial vohjme at a later dnte. Our own 
pages bear witness to their unceasing activity : — In our ' Trans- 
actions ' appeared tlie " I'resbwater Alga? of JMadagascar " (189a), 
''North American Desmideav" (1896), "Freshwater Algaj of 
Ceylon"— all papers of considerable length, illustrated by many 
plates, autotyped from the pen drawings of G. !S. AVest. Our 
Journals contain from the latter, " Variation in Desmids "(1S99), 
Tanganyika results (1907), "Critical Green Alg® " (1 908), and 
" The Plankton of Yan Yean lleservoir" (1909). Shorter papers 
were printed in the 'Journal of Botany,' three at least, and others in 
the 'NewPbytologist," Journal of theKoyal Microscopical Society,' 
and the 'Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club.' He \\as 
responsible for the account of the freshwater alga? published in the 
volume edited by Mr.F.Morey in 1909, and with Mr.E.F. Grilhth, 
an account of a giant sulphur bacterium named after his predecessor 
in ti)e botanic chair at Birmingham, Hillhousia. 

Two works on his special subject have been issued from the 
Cambridge University Press: the first, on British Freshwater 
Alga', appeared in 1904 ; the other, on Alga?, simply was the 
first volume only, the second was to follow it. 

Our late Fellow's influence in the University was great ; he 
eiijoyed the reputation of being one of the best lecturers at 
Pirmingham, his clearness, conciseness, and admirable method in 
which he arranged the subjects of his lectures so as to enable 
his audience to grasp all salient ])oints, and his blackboard dia- 
grams, all joined in rendering his discourses memorable. 

Besides his own duties, he served on uuiny committees, including 
the Board of Agricultun? and Fisheries for Staffs, Warwick, and 
Salop, and the Agricultural College, Studley. He was responsible 
for phmniiig the grounds of the New University buildings at 
Bournbrook, Birmnigham. He threw himself into the matter of 
re-afforestation, and personally insjiected the plantations and old 

His library of algological works and herbarium have been left 
to the University of Birmingham and his extensive series of 
drawings to the British Museum (Natural History). 

The lute Professor married in 190(5, and leaves a widow and 
two children ; he was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society on 
the 4th April, 1001. [B. H. J.] 

54 l>ROCEEmN08 OF THE 

June 3rd, 1920. 

J)]'. A. .Smith \\'(i()1)wai{|), F.K.8., I'lesiclent, 
ill llie C'liair. 

The ^linules of tlio Anniversiiry Meeting of the 27th May, 
JiJ2U, were read :uid confiniied. 

The report of tlie Donations received since the hist Meeting 
was laid hefore tlie ^'allows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donoi s w ere ordered. 

Dr. GeotTrey Douglas Hale Carpenter, M.B.E., ]\Iiss Theodora 
Lisle Prankerd, B.Sc, Miss Lucy Ellen Cox, B.Sc, and Mr. 

Harry Bertram J larding were admitted Eellous. 

Certificates in favour of tlie following were read for the second 
time:— Mr. William Harold Pears.iU, M.«c. (Manch.), Mr. Uay- 
nioiid Alfred Einlayson, Mr. Tom llussell Goddard, and Mr. 
\Villiain Henry Kitching. 

Mr. lulmuiul Giistavus BlooiiiHeld Meade-Waldo, Pyari Mohan 
Debharman, B.Sc., Prof. Otto Vernon Darbisliire, Ph.D., B.A. 
(Oxon.), Mr. "William Eickatsoii Dykes, M.A. (Oxon), L.-es-L. 
(Paris), Prof. Shankar Purushottam Agharkar, MA. (Bombay), 
Ph.D., John Wishart, M.D., D.Sc, Ch.B., Mr. Howard Hamp 
Crane, Capt. Eric Pitch Daglish, K.P.A., Ph.D., Mr. Bertram 
Henry Buxton, and Prof. Otto Eosenheira, Ph.D., were elected 

The President read from the Chair the following proposed 
alterations in certain Bye-Laws :• — 

Chapter I. Sect. lA". Delete " successive" in line 3 on p. 16. 

New Section to follow Chapter I. Sect V. : — 

VJ. Ballots for the Election of EelloMs shall be held at one 
or more General Meetings of the Society in each Session. 
The date of such Ballots to be fixed by the Council, and at 
least one calendar month's notice to be given to every 
Fellow \Ahose address is known. The Candidates shall be 
balloted for in the order in which their recommendations 
were received by the Secretaries, excepting that the Council 
may propose for Election out of their order and in preference 
to the others not more than four Candidates in any one year 
who are distinguished for their knowledge of the Science of 
Natural History. The Council sliall decide as to the number 
of iJallots to take ])lace at a Meeting, having regard to the 
number of vacancies at the time. 


Chapteu XVII. tSect. I. To read : — 

Sect. I. Ill the printed Proceedings of the Society a record 
shall be annually made of all Donations of the amount or 
value of Twenty Pounds and upwards which have been made 
to the Society during the past twenty year^. 

The President also announced that he had appointed Mr. E. T. 
Bkownjc, Prof. J. Ji. Parmeu, P. U.S., Mr. IIohaci; AV. Moncktun, 
aud Mr. K. I. Pocock, P.K.S., Vice-Presidents. 

It was announced from the Chair that Lady Ciiisp had offered 
the gift of an oil-painting by the late James Sant, E.A., of the 
first admission of AVomen :is Pellows of the Pinnean Society, 
which the Council had accepted ; it \\ould remain a permaueiit 
reminder of an historic event. 

A series of 50 water-colour drawings of the oil-palm, Elaeis 
fjuhuensis, by Mr. E. Swainson llALr>, P.L.S., were lent for 
exhibition by the Director of the Imperial Institute, Dr. 
AVyiidbam R. Dunstan, P.K.S. They were explained by Dr. A. 
B. Eendle, F.R.S., Sec.L.S. 

This was followed by an exhibition by Mr. A. Whitehead, 
B.Sc, of objects observed in the neighbourhood of Basra, during 
the war, with lantern-slides of the country and the people, which 
exhibition was communicated by Mr. H. Pindon, P.L.S. 

It gave rise to a discussion, in which Dr. A. B. Eendle, Mr. 
Lester-Garland, Dr. R. J. Tillyard, Prof. W. J..Dakin, and Miss 
Stephens took part, the exhibitor briefly replying. 

Prof. \Y . J. Dakin, P.L.S. , showed a large series of photographs, 
as slides in the lantern, of Whaling in the Southern Ocean, 
giving a detailed description of the operations by a Norwegian 

Mrs. Rose Ilaig Thomas, F.L.S., contributed further observa- 
tions upon a former whaling station in the Hebrides. 

June 17th, 1920. 

Dr. A. Smith AVoodwaud, 1*\R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 3rd June, 1920, 
were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Pellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

$6 tnOCftEDlNGS OF TnK 

!\Ir. William Kickafson J)ykes, M.A. (Oxnii.), L. rs L. (fans), 
I\lr. Fri'dcrick John l''n'sli\\atcr Sliaw, JJ.Sc, John Wisliart, 
M.I)., l).8o.,, and i)r. Otlo Kosfiiheiin. were aihnitled 

Mr. (ieorge Pt'ddie ^Miln, .1.1'., was proposed as a Fellow. 

The eertilicate in favour of Mr. ("hintanian iMahader Teinbe, 
F.R.I I. S., was read for the second time. 

Mr. William Harold J'earsall, M.So. (Maneli.), Mr. Raymond 
Alfred Finlayson, Mr. Tom Jiussell (loddard, and Mr. William 
Ileiwy Kitchiii<j:, were elected Fellows. 

The President read the proposcnl alterations in the Rye-Laws 
Cliaj)ter.-! 1. and XVII. for the second time. 

The rollowing communications in commemoration of Sir .h^SKPit 
Banks, Jiart., F.R.S., the centenary of whose death falls upon 
the 19th June, 1!J2U, were read as follows : — 

1. The General Secretary. — Ranks as a Traveller. 

1\ Dr. A. B. Rkndi.ic, F".H.S., Sec.LS.— Ranks as a Patron of 

y. Mr. Ja.mks Bkittkx. — Ranks as a Rolanist. 
4. The President. — Ranks as a Trustee of the British Museum 

of paramount power. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, 1\R.S., Sir Henry Howarth, F.R.S. (visitor), 
and Mr. Rritten engaged in a discussion on some of the points 
raised. (vSee Supplement.) 

The communications were supplemented by the exhibition of 
the following Ranksiana : — 

Shown hu the Sucietij : Letters, books published or patronised 
by him; an original water-colour drawing, iiiscribed "The inside 
of an Iceland House occupied by Sr Joseph J3anks during his 
residence on the Island with several of its Inhabitants, with Sr 
Jos, Ranks & Dr. Solander in the dress they wore drawn in the 
Island 1772." 

Lent hi/ the Royal Socief;/ : A framed caricature of Sir Joseph 
Danks, with a monstrous fungus developed in his cellar. 

Lent III/ Mr. (x. W. E. Loder : engraving by J. R. Smith after 
the portrait painted by Reiijamin West, of Ranks in a Tahitan 

Lent hij ]Mr. (t. W. E, LooKn : Mezzotint by Wm. Dickinson 
after the portrait painted by Joshua Reyiiolds : with the Horatian 

t.iyxEAX SOCIETY or LOKDO:S^ 5? 

line, (h'as nujensilerahhtws aajuor, wliicli gives culour to the liclicf 
tliJit this was pniiited hefore the faikire of tlie plan to embark on 
the ' liesolution ' in 1772. 

[The Society also ])('ssespes a holograph of Banks prepared by 
him as "Hints on the subject of (Jardeniiig suggested to the 
gentlemen who attend the Embassy to China " for Lord Maenrtney's 
Embassy in 1792, which was given to the Society in 1823, with a 
covering letter from Sir George Staunton, stating that it was 
found amongst the papers of the Embassy.] 

June 24th, 1920. 

Dr. A. Sv.iTH WoooAVAUD,, President, 
in the Chair. 

The INIinutes of the General Meeting of the I7th June, 192U, 
were read and coiitirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Ecllows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Dr. Eobin John Tillyard, Mr. James Hornell, and Mr. Walter 
John Dowson, M.A. ((.'antab.), were admitted Fellows. 

Mr. Henry Baker Lacey and Miss Ethel Spratt, D.Sc. (Loud.), 
were proposed as Fellows. 

Mr. Chintauian Mahader Tembc was elected a Fellow. 

The proposed alterations in the Bye-Laws, which had been 
read from the Chair on the 3rd and 17th June last, were 
submitted to a ballot by the Fellows present and adopted. 

The General Secretary read a letter received from the Swedish 
Linnean Society regarding the proposed restoration of the old 
Botanic Garden at Uppsala with the house in it formerly occupied 
by Carl von Linne. As the Society is debarred by its Charters 
from making a direct grant to this praiseworthy object, it can oidy 
be effected by private effort, and notwithstanding the numerous 
demands made at the present time, it is hoped that substantial 
assistance toAvards realising this memorial to our eponymous hero 
will be forthcoming. 

Dr. Karl J. F. Skottsbeug, Director of the Gtiteborg Botanic 
Garden, and leader of the Swedish Expedition to Patagonia and 


Tiurru clul i''ui;;;ij in l*Jti7-UU, tluMi yuve a lecture 011 the *• Jiotanical 
Features of the Juan Feniaiulez group ot" islands," and by the 
help of 7t' lantern-slides from photographs taken by himself, 
p;ave a graphic account of the iUiia of the two principal islands, 
Masatierra and Masafuera, and of a visit to the islet Santa Clara. 
The views gave a vivid presentation of the extraordinary forms 
assumed by tiie water-worn rocks, now existing as ridges between 
deep cations. 

The President commented on the extreme interest and value 
of the observations made by Dr. and Mrs. Skotlsberg during 
their six months' stay in the group. 

Dr. K. J. TiLi.Y viu), F.L.S., then delivered a short lecture on 
the new Cawthron institute, of which lie has just been aj^poiuled 
Chief of the J3iological Department, lie stated that the Institute 
is to be situated in the city of iSelson, N.Z., where the founder, 
Thomas Cawtuuox, lived for most of his life. The lecturer gave 
an account of the early life and adventures of the founder, and 
showed how he rose from a low estate to become a very wealtiiy 
man. In bis later years he busied himself with philanthropic 
enterprises, and on his death it was found that he had left the 
greater portion of his fortune for the purpose of founding an 
institute of scientiiic research. Alter all claims hail been paid, 
the Cawthron Trust w as left with a capital of about i.'200,000 
which, wisely invested, yields an income of about £11,000 a year. 
Prof. T. II. Eastertield, of Wellington, a chemist of wide repute, 
has been appointed Director and Chief of the Cheniiral Depart- 
ment, with Mr. T. U. iiigg, late of Kothampsted, working under 
him as Agricultural Chemist. In the Biological Department, Miss 
K. M. Curtis has been appointed Mycologist and Mr. A. Philpott, 
P.E.S., Assistant Entomologist. The Library and Museum are 
under the care of the Curator, Mr. W. C. Davies. The activities 
of the Institute will be directed towards scientitic research, both 
pure and applied, with a view to benefiting the primary industries 
of New Zealand as a whole and of the iS'elson Province in particular. 



Notes on the Li t'e-lii story of Irk Fsciuhicoras, Linn., witli s[)t'cial 

refereuce to its Seeds ;uid Seedlings. (With 1 text-tigiire.; 

By Thomas Alfked Dimes, i'\L S. 

[Read lOili June, 1919.] 

On 3Uth November, 1910, I conuauuicated to the »Society a note 
on tlie seed of Iris Psettdacorns, Linn., in w liich I drew attention 
to its germination while still afloat, and the dilliculty 1 had 
experienced in raising seedlings in the open, either on or in mud. 
On 1st November, 1917, Lt.-Col. J. H. Tull Walsh, I.M.8., 
F.L.S., communicated the results of his experimeuts, and exhibited 
liealthy seedlings raised from seeds on or in mud in the open. 
In 191 S I made a great many experiments to discover why I had 
failed. That failure was due to too low a temperature, for I 
kept my mud sowings in cool shade, whereas a comparatively high 
temperature is necessary for the successful germinatiou of the 
seeds during their first season. The present cotiimunication sum- 
marises very briefly the results of these and earlier experiments 
and observations from 1913 onwards. I need only add that iu 
favourable years, of which 1918 was one, the temperature of the 
nuid and shallows, in which the seeds of this species gern)inate 
normally in xMay and June, frequently rises many degrees above 
70° 1\ during the day, without falling appreciably below it during 
the night, and for a period sullicieutly long to ensure successful 
germination ; that in my cool shade experiments it was generally 
nearer (30° ¥., that it never rose as high as 65° F., and that not a 
single seed produced a seedling, whereas in the higher temperature 
I was at the same time recording very satisfactory results from a 
large number of separate sowings under various conditions. 

Iris Faeadacorus, Linn., is distributed in abundance thronghonfc 
the British Isles, ascending from sea-level to about 700 feet. Its 
xerophytic adaptations protect it from some of the dangers of its 
envii'onment. Protection from animals is afforded by its acrid 
and astringent secretions, but it is attacked by the larvae of 
various insects and molluscs. Domestic ducks eat the seeds and 
the very young seedlings, and it is almost certain that wild-fowl 
do so too. Puccinia Iridis, DC, is recorded as a fungal foe, and 
floating seedlings which have failed to strike root sink in the 
autumn and perish from disease during the winter. An immense 
amount of observation on the natural enemies has, however, still 
to be made and is very much to be desired. 

In some years, when February is hot and sunny, germination 
commences in that month, but in others, when the season is cold 
and dull, not until mid-June ; the normal minimum period in 
nature, commencing in September, when the capsules begin to 
dehisce, is therefore from five to nine months, according to the 
season, and usually about seven ; the maximum is certainly not 

00 Proceedings of tHeI 

less tliiiii tweiily. Vi'f,felativo ])if)])!ii,'ation is (^llVc-led hv llie 
rliizoiiies. I'lijils wliirli 1 raised in llMfi Irniii float ii)<^' scedlinj^s, 
tilt! ofls])riii<,' of seeds liarvested in I'.H"), flowered for the first 
time in June 11)19, at the foninieneenient of their fourth year. 

Tiie seeds numher from forty or I(\ss, to sixty or more, per 
capsule, and there are sometimes as niaiiy as nine good capsules 
on a spat he. IJel'ore maturity tlie seeds are white and saturated 
tliron<j;hout with moisture; the capsule hegins to dehisce before 
tilt! entl of September; a?ul then the dry brown testa of th(> ripe 
seed is glazed externally, but not internally, and the K'ernel, which 
consists of the inner integument, the horny entlosperm, and the 
straight embryo, lies loose within it. 

The seeds are carried long distances overland by diving birds, 
which are the most im|)ortant of all the dispersal agents, and I 
think it quite ])robabIe that the altitudinal range in this country 
is dependent to some extent upon that of the birds that disperse 
the seeds. The floating seedlings get entangled in tlu! legs of 
domestic duc!\S, and are almost certainly dispersed in this way by 
our native swinnning birds. The Avind is the least im])ortant 
of the dispersal agents. Wlie)) the ground around ])ermits, it 
extends the area of an existing colony outward, but disjjersal by 
the wind alone is practically confined to its l)lowing the flat seeds 
a few yards away from the jiarent plant. In conjuiiction with 
dead leaves, however, it is responsible for a good tleal of wider, 
but still local dispersal, and in conjunction with water it blows 
the floating seeds from one end of a lake or pond to the other. 
Seeds which have been ice-borne germinate freely, and bits of 
floating rhizome help to disperse the species since, when stranded 
on freshwater mud, they reproduce the plants vegetatively. The 
flat seeds are adapted to dispersal (1) on the backs of diving birds, 
to w hich they adhere as the diver rises from below to the surface 
upon which they are afloat, and (2) by being blown short distances 
by the wind. In the flrst event they are useful for founding 
fresh colonies, often at a great distance, and in the second for 
extentling the area of one alreatly existing. The round seeds, 
numerically only about one to four of the flat, serve to All up the 
death gaps at home and along the margins of running waters. 

Sunk seeds possess, while floaters are without, an internal 
supply of water between the testa and the kernel, which causes 
them to sink. They yield slightly higher percentages of germina- 
tion than the floaters. In experimenting, however, one has to 
make tjuite sure that the seeds have sunk for this reason, and not 
merely because of the weight of their superincumbent accretions. 
Intermittent drought reduces the percentage, and dessiccation 
during the autumn and winter inhibits it almost completely for 
the first season, except when damage to the testa has let in 
water to soften the hardened and shrunken endos])erm before it 
is too late. 

Dealing for the moment only with first-year seetis — tbos(> that 
are less than a year old — those which are on or at the bottom of 
shallow water and those which are in, not on, saturated mud, 



exposed in eitluT to hot siuisliiiie, fare tlu; best. Tli(> lii<; 
percentages of gerniinatioiis are yieUleil by iloalers and sinkens on 
or in water one to four iiiebes deeji. At greater depths tlie per- 
centages decrease steadily nntil at seven inches or more the seeil- 
lings ])roduced by sinkers, if any, do not survive ; at nine inches 
none were procured in my experiments. 

2 -• . 

^' .2 J « • 

C .H .= -Z ^ 


~ be - 

; ^ -f „ 5 a, 
I t_ ^ -pi a 

. -" s 5 "^ 'o 


The round floaters germinate more slow ly, and yield a lower 
percentage than the tiat lloaters, possibly on account of the 
greater difficulty of ])lumular irrigation, since in the round the 
embryo is surrounded on all sides by a thick laver of horny 
endosperm, whereas in the flat there is hardly any either anteriorly 
or posteriorly (see text-tigure). The round floaters commonly 


geniiiiiale in a week or more alter the t\iit ones, but witli sunk 
seeds I could detect no sucli ditVerence, presumably because the 
internal \\ater-sup|)ly bad saturated the whole endosperm before 
tlie arrival ol' the time for germination. 

Seeds in their second year gave the same general average as 
those in their lirst, namely 20 per cent.: thus, taking two years 
together, 30 seedlings would be the total average yield of every 
hundred seeds of the harvest of any given year, but more evidence 
is desirable anent second-year gern)ination. Third-year germina- 
tion is in all probability never accomplished successfully, 1 have 
on several occasions raised sickly weaklings, but none of them 
have ever lived through the autumn. 

Seedlings from seeds which germinated while still afloat among 
other flotsam can be distniguished readily from those horn in mud 
by possessing a long, branched chlorophyllous radicle, as well 
as curved and hooked adventitious roots. Securing adequate 
anchorage is their chief dilliculty, which, however, does not trouble 
the mud seedling, whose seed is buried before germination, espe- 
cially as the liypogeal cotyledon remains in the endospern) and 
the hypocotyl is not developed. Seeds in mud, either under wafer 
or not, owe their burial to a covering of dead leaves or debris and 
also to being trodden in by birds and mammals, and it is worth 
remenibeiing in this connection that dis|iersal in dead leaves has 
thus great advantage for the seedling, that worms are always 
dragging them underground and so burying and anchoring in tlie 
soil the seeds that they contain. The radicle being poor in root- 
hairs, naked seeds or mud without any overlying wafer fail or 
succeed according to its hardness. Those on mud under water 
constantly perisli because of its extreme softness, especially when 
the dei)tli of the water exceeds a few inches; on the other hand, 
whetlier under water or not, they are frequently held down by an 
overlay of debris, and are therefore able to strike root. 

The floater is exposed to many and great dangers. It may be 
carried out to sea only to perish, and if it be solitary upon fresh 
water clear of debris it is probably doomed; it lies flat, is unable 
to erect itself or take root, and perishes. If, however, it drifts 
on to mud it will root i-eadily enough. Floating together or in 
debris the seedlings erect themselves by the action of the hooked 
adventitious roots. In my experiments the four or five adven- 
titious roots of the solitary floater did not become either curved 
or hooked, suggesting that this condition is a useful response to 
the stimulus of contact. It is interesting to note that the 
floating seedling, sunk subsequently under 7 inches of water, 
succeeded, whereas the offspring of seeds sown at the same 
de]jfh perished. 

The height attained by seedlings from first-year seeds, during 
their first season up to Christmas, varies from 2 inches in leaf- 
measurement for the unanchored solitary flat floater to L'J inches 
in saturated nnul ; but seedlings from seeds in their second year, 
sown in saturated mud, produced leaves 19 to 19J inches long. 


It was under conditions wliicli previiil more or less completely 
at the margins ol: streams and recently colonisetl sheets of water 
that I ohtained my iiighest records of gernnnation, and that is 
probably Nature's provision against the extreme risks to which the 
offs])ring are there exposed. 

Papers consulted. 

Chat'Man, T. a. — The Larvw of llJutdinocprcPa mirriiis, Klug-, and of 
Phyntatoceia aterrimd, KUig. EntL'niologi.^ts' Monthly Magazine, 
Series I J I. Vol. iii. October 1917. 

Dymes, T. a. — A Note on the Seed of Iris Pseudaporus, Linn, Pro- 
ceedings of the Linnean Society of London, 1916-17, p. G. 

Fowler, W. W.— Coleoptera of the British I^les. London, 1887-1891. 

Gr.uCK, II. — Biologische and Morphologische Uiitersuchungen liber 
Wasser- und Sinnpf-(-iewiio]ise. liaiid iii. Die UferHora, Jena. 
((t. Fisher: 1911.) llev. in Journal of Ecology, vol. i. p. 107. 

GupPY, H. B. — The Biver Thames as an A!2ent in Plant-dis}.ersal. 
Journal of the I-innean Society of London, Botany, vol. xxix. 
No. 202. October 1S92. 

Biver Temperature. Parts I. & III. Proceediugs of the Boyal 

Physical Society of Edinburgh, vols. xii. Sc xiii., 1892-4 and 

Water-Plants and their Ways. Science Gossip, n. s., vol. i. Sep- 

tember, October, and November, 1894. 

- On the Postponement of the Germinatinn of the Seeds cf 

Aquatic Plants. Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of 
Edinburgh, vol. xiii., 1894-7. 

The Naturalist in the Pacific. Vol. 11. Plant-dispersal. London, 


Studies in Fruits and Seeds. London, 1912. 

IIaut, it. C. — Flora of the County Donegal. Dublin and London, 1808. 
Kerner VON Makilaux, a. — The Natural History of Plants, aoI. ii. 

I]ngl. Trans. London, 1905. 
KiRCHNEK, E. 0. 0.— Flora von Stuttgart. Stuttgart, 1888. 
Lkks, F. A. — Flora of West Yorkshire. London, 1888. 
Mos.s, C. E. — Vegetation of the Peak District. Cambridge, 1913. 
Pr.owRifinx, C. B. — -Ih-itif^h Uredinese and Ustilaginea?. London, 1889. 
liAVN, F. Kf/iLPiN. — Om Flydeevnen hos Fr0ene af vore Vand-hog Sump- 

plauter. Botanik Tidsskrift, Copenhagen, Bind 19, 1894— j. 
Rrid, C. — 'J'he Origin of the British Flora. London, 1899. 
SoHENCK, II. — Die Biologic der Wassergewachs(>. Bonn, 1886. 
Skunaxder, 11. — Den Skandiuaviska yegetationens .'^priduingsbiologi. 

Upsaln, 1901. 
South, 11.— The Moths of the l^.ritish Isles. Series IL London, 1908. 
Tansi.ey, a. G. — Types of Vegetation. Cambridge, 1901. 
Walsh, J. II. Tull. — The (Ternunation of Iris Pseudaporm, Linn., in 

Normal and Abnormal Conditions. Proceedings of the Linneiin 

Society of Jjondon, 191 7- IS, ]). 51. 
Woodruffe-Peacock, E. A. — Means of Plant-dispevsul. Stlhorne 

Magazine, vols, xxxviii. k xxxix., 1917 iind 1918. 


riaiit-sporls produced :it will. 
By Col. II. E. Rawso.v, CM., K.E., F.L.S. 

I Head r.tli N(iM-mlnT, VJV.".] 

The observation that slinibs of lvei-a|)i)lo (Aherla caffra) near 
Capo Town died when tliey were deprived of full sun up to a 
certain altitude in the early morning, led to experiments in screen- 
injj; ve«,'utables at this hour for various periods. The results 
obtained sui^gested a system of screening plants at selected 
intervals of daylight, to which the term "selective screening" 
was ap|)lied. A new variety of TroimoJam raajas appeared in 
consequence, and re-ap])eared amongst the seedlings in following 
years which were similarly screened, eventually becoming fixed. 

AVell-kuown sports began to a])pear in 'J'ropavluiu ])laMts, such 
as an increased number of spurs, proliferation, and leaf-division, 
which also reappeared when the same selective screening was 
adhered to. 

These sports and several new varieties of 2\ majus, as well as 
many correlated variations, re-appeared in the open garden w ithout 
selected screening. 

The experiments were extended, and a new single form of 
Papaver li/ueas which was desired was obtained. From this 
single Poppy a double form aj)peared which has become fixed. 

iSterilitv was very marked in all cases of sudden changes of 
colour or structure, indicating that the reproductive oi'gans were 
atfected by selective screening. Proliferation and the transoiission 
through the seed of the changes in colour and structure also point 
to the organs being influenced during, as well as subsequent to, 
the action upon the soma ; while leaf-division., increased spurs, 
and the correlated variations therewith, prove that the soma of 
the plant has been affected generally by the sci'eening. The 
intensity of the light regidates and modifies the coloured bands 
upon all parts of a plant which have been excited by interference. 

hi nature, selective screening prevails very universally, and these 
experimtujts suggest that it deserves to be studied for its power to 
brinf out potentialities which are known to be latent, and to 
cause correlated variations. Insect-visitors give rise to coloured 

Kecent American research (5) gives support to the views set out 
in this abstract. 

Jieferences to Literature. 

1. 1J\AVS0\, Col. II. E. — Snnrise and Growth. Iiep. S. Afr. Assoc. 

n»0o (11.1U7). pp. L>r,i-i>r)0. 

2. Colour Cliangvs in Flowers pvodiicod bv coiitrolliii(>: Insolation. 

Uep. Brit. Assoc, Dublin, 11)08 (li)09), pp. 9(J2 903. 

3. Variation of Striictuve and Colour of Fhnvers under Insolation. 

Ihid. r>innint;bani, 191;'. (1914), pp. 711-713. 

4. Chanjii's of Colour and Structure of Flowers by removing 

Sunli<rlit at selected hours. London ; Jouru. K. llovt. !Soc. 
xli. (1915), pp. 4i.'-4t). 


Garnkr, W. W., ct H. A. Ai.LARi).— Effect of the relative length 
of Day and Niglit and other Factors of the Environment on 
Growth and I>eprodiiction in Plants. Washington: Journ. A'Tic. 
liesearch, xviii. (1920i, ])p. o-'jo-OOC), pis. (j4 79. 

The Marsh and Spotted Orchids. 
[Read (Uh May, 1920.] 

Mil. E. J. Bedford exhiliited a series of 30 water-colour drawings, 
natural size, of the Marsh antl .Spotted Orcliids and tlieir varieties. 
These were accompanied by a Dumber of detail drawings showing 
the lips, pollinia, etc. The forms shown included Orchis incur- 
iiata, L., from Hampshire and West Sussex, with the salmon-pink 
or flesh-coloured flowers ; also a pale pink form with only the 
slightest trace of markings on the lip : this came from a Middlesex 

A form with dull purple Howers and broad lip, leaves bright 
green and unspotted. Tliis has been known hy some botanists as 
■O. incaniata, by others as 0. latifolia, and has receutlj" been named 
0. prcetermissa by Dr. Gr. C. Druce. Specimens of this variety 
were shown from Middlesex and East Sussex. 

Also a form (0. inccwnaia'?) with crimson-coloured flowers from 
Westmorland, and two other varieties from the same locality with 
•similar colouring but wider and flatter lips, sent to the writer as 
■0. iiicarnata var. pulchella, Druce. 

The Spotted Orchid was represented by three distinct forms. 
The hrst, a vigorous plant with daric green heavily spotted leaves, 
the labellum having a small and narrow centre division and 
wide side ones ; this variety has recently been referred to as 
0. maculatd, L., and is usually found in damp situations on heaths 
or marshes on sandy soils. Tlie second form had similar foliage 
to the tirst, but the labellum divided into three equal lobes with 
the longest in the centre. This is known as \ar. triJohata on the 
Continent, and has been named 0. Fuchnii by Dr. Druce. 

The third form was that known as 0. ericetorum, Linton, a much 
less vigorous j)lant than either of the others, \\ith narrow leaves, 
•and found usually in exposed situations on heaths and sandy soils, 
often at considerable elevations. All these forms of the Spotted 
Orchid are from East Sussex. 

'J'he following hybrids were shown : 0. incarnafa x prcetennissa, 
0. in-cetermissa X incarnata, 0. prceiermissa X Fuchsil. In the detailed 
drawings of the lip the exam])les shown testified to the enormous 
difference of form and marl<ings assumed by each species, even in 
tliose gathered at one time from the same restricted locality. 
The various forms were also shown by a series of 70 lantern- 
slides upon the screen, each variety being represented in situ • 
(2) on a larger scale, and (3) enlarged houl nud side views of the 




List in accord khcc lullh Bi/c-f^iin's, (Jh((j>. XVII. Sect. 1, of alt 
Domitions of the autonnt or value of Twentij pounds and 
npivai-ds, received darintf the past 7'tvfnti/ ijears. 


Hon. Charles Ellis, Hon. Walter Kotlischild, Frank Crisp, Esq., 
F. 1). Godman, Esq., and the Benthani Trustees : The Corres- 
pondence of William 8\vain.son. 

Koyal Society : Contrihution towards Mr. F. Chapman's |)aper on 
Funat'uri Foraminitera, X'oO. 

Prof. E. Kay Lankester : Contribution towards illustnition, =£30 os. 

Portrait of Dr. St. G. J. Mivart. presented by Mrs. iMivart. 


Eoyal Societv : Contribution toward Dr. Elliot Smith's paper, i*5(>. 
Legacy from the late Dr. K. C. A. Prior, =£100 free of duty. 
Mrs. Sladen: Posthumous Portrait of the late Walter Percy 

Shulen, by H. T. Wells, K.A. 
B. Arthur Bensley, Esq.: Contribution to his paper, .£44. 


Koyal Societv : Grant in aid of third volume of the Chinese Flora,. 

Frank Crisp, Esq. (afterwards Sir Frank Crisp, Bt.) : Cost of 

Supplementary Royal Charter. 
The same : BuUiard iP.). Herbier de la France; Dictionnaire ; 

llistoire des plantes veneueuses ; Champignons, in 10 vols.. 

Paris, 17oO-lS12. 


Royal Society : First grant in aitl of Dr. G. H. Fowler's ' Biscayan 

Plankton/ £50. 
Executors of ttie late G. B. Buckton, Esq. : Contribution foi 

colouring plates of his paper, i.'26. 


Royal Society : Second grant towards 'Biscayan Plankton,' .£50. 
Subscription portrait of Prof. S. 11. Amines, by Hon. John Collier. 
Koyal Swedish Academy of Science : Copies of portraits of C. vou 

Linnc, after Per Krafi't the elder, and A. Eoslin, both by 

Jean Haagen. 



Royal University of Uppsala : Copy by Jean Haagen of portrait of 

C. V. Liuue, by J. H. Scheft'el (1739). 
Royal Society : Third and final grant towards 'Biscayan Plankton,' 

The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Pirst grant 

towards pnblication of Mr. Stanley Gardiner's Researches 

in the Indian Ocean in H.M.S. ' Seaiarlv,' £200. 


Prof. Gustaf Retzius : Plaster cast of bnst of Carl von Linne, 
modelled by Walt her Rinieberg from the portrait by Scheffel 
(1739) at Linnes Ilammarby : the bronze original designed 
for the facade of the new building for the Royal Academy of 
Science, Sfoekholm. 

Miss Sarah Marianne Silver (afterwards Mrs. Sinclair), F.L.S. : 
Cabinet formerly belonging to Mr. S. W. Silver, P.L.S. 


The Trusiees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Second grant 
towards publication of Mr. Stanley Gardiner's Researches in 
the Indian Ocean in H.M.S. ' Sealark,' .£200. 

Prof. James William Helenas Trail, F.R.S., F.L.S. : Gift of =£100 
in Trust, to encourage Research on the Nature of Proto- 


Royal Society : Grant towards Dr. G. H. Fowler's paper on 

Biscayan Ostracoda, £50. 
Sir Joseph Hooker : (toUI watch-chain worn by Robert Brown, 

and seal with portrait of Carl von Linne by Tassie. 
Prof. J. S. Gardiner : Payment in aid of illustrations, £35 Os. 6cL 
Sir Frank Crisp : Donation in Trust for Microscopical Research, 

The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Third grant 

towards publication of Prof. Stanley Gardiner's Researches 

in the Indian Ocean, £20<,>. (For third volume.) 


The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Second. 

Donation towards the publication of the third volume on 

the Indian Ocean Researches, £70. 
The same : First Donation towards the fourth volume, £130. 




The Indian GovernnKMit : ("ontribution towards the illustration 

of Mr. E. P. Stebbing's paper on Himalayan Chermes, 

£40 15*. "Id. 
The late Mr. Francis Ta<,mrt, iT)(iO free of Leo;acy Dnty. 
The late Sir Joseph Daltun Hooker. O.M., G.C.8.I., £'100 free of 

Legacy Duty. 
The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Second 

Donation towards the publication of the fourth voliiine on the 

Indian Ocean Kesearches, £140. 
The same : First Donation towards the fifth volume, £60. 


Eoyal Society : Grant towards Dr. R. E. Gates's paper on 

Mutating Oenotheras, £60. 
Sir Frank Crisp, Bt., Wallicliian Cabinets, £50. 
The Trustees of the Percy Sladeu Mt'morial Fund: Second 

Donation towards the publication of the fifth volume, £200. 


Royal Society : Grant towards Miss Gibbs's paper on the Flora of 

British North Borneo, £50. 
Miss Foot : Cost of illustration of her paper on Eiischistus. 
The Trustees of the Percy Skden Memorial Fund : Third Donation 

towards the fifth volume, £10. 
The same : First Donation towards the sixth, volume, £190. 


The Trustees of the Percy Sladen ^Memorial Fund : Second 

Donation towards the sixth volume, £80. 
Miss Foot : Cost of second paper on Eiischishts, £32 10s. 
Eoyal Society : Donations towards the cost of a paper bj^ 

Mrs. Arber, D.Sc, £40. 
The same: towards paper on Utakwa Eiver plants bv Mr. H. N. 

Eidley, C.M.G., F.11.8., £5(». 
Miss Marietta Pallis ; Instalment of cost .of her ])aper on 

Plav, £30. 
Thomas Henry Eiches, Esq. : Dr. A. E. "Wallace's library on 

Natural History. 
Sir Frank Crisp, Bt. : New shelving for Wallace's A^olumes. 



Mr. E. Heroii-AUeu : Contribution to cost of paper on Foramini- 

fera of ^'.^V. Scotland, £44. 
Messrs. H. Takeda and C. A¥est : Contribution towards the 

illustration of tlieir paper, =£-lO. 
Eoyal Society : Contribution towards the illustration of two 

papers Ity Prof. Dendy, £40. 
The same: Contribution towards Mr. Swynnerton's paper on 

Form and Colouring, £70. 
The High Commission for the Union of South Africa, per 

Dr. J. U. F. Gilchrist, for the illustration of his paper on 

Jasus Lalandii, £"^0. 
Miss Marietta Pallis : Balance of cost of her paper on Plav, 

=£'J0 16s. M. 
Sir Frank Crisp, Bt. : Phototyped copy of Dioscorides from the 

' Codex Aniciae Juliana) ' at Vienna. 


British Ornithologists' Union, etc. : Contribution towards cost of 

Mr. H. N. Ridley's paper, £2^K 
The Boyal Society : Second contribution towards the printing of 

Mr. C. F. M. Swynnerton's paper on Form and Colouring, 

Sir Frank Crisp, Bt. : 'Lindenia,' Ghent, 1891-1901. 17 vols. 

sm. fol. 


Dr. B. Daydon Jackson : MS. index to Linnean Society's Journal, 
Botany, vols, xxi.-xl. (1884-1912) and the Botanic entries 
in the ' Proceedings ' for the same period. 


The E.oyal Society : Third contribution towards the printing of 
Mr. C. F. M. Swynnerton's paper as above, £b(). 

The High Commission for tlie Union of South Africa, for the 
printing of Dr. J, D. F. Grilchrist's paper on Jasus Lalandii^ 
Part II., £m. 



Ji s. d. 

Earratt, Walter 1 1 

Benson, Prof. Margaret J 2 2 

Jiurkill, r. Henry, :M.A 3 3 

Burne, li. II 10 

Dymes, T. A 10 6 

Gates, Dr. E. Euggles 2 

liewis, Frederick 5 

Lister, Miss Gulielma 10 

Loder, Gerald ^V.E 5 

Maiden, J. H., I.S.O., F.K.S 1 1 

Mennell, Henry T 1 1 

Prain, Sir David, C.M.G., CLE., F.E.8. .. 21 

Kathbone, i\Iiss May 2 2 

Saunders, James, A.L.S 3 3 

Sutton, Arthur W 10 

Vines, Prof. S. H., F.E.S 5 

AValsli, Lt.-Col. J. H. Tull, I.M.S 6 

Wright, Herbert 5 

£93 3 6 



Li H UA It Y. 

Ashby (Edwin). Xotes on Australian Polyplaeophora, including 
JJe.sci'iptions of Two New Genera, a New A-'ariety, and the 
Descrijjtion and Proposed Kecoj^iiition of Mr. Eednal's Steno- 
chiton Filshrt/aiius. (Trans. Jriov. 8oc. 8. Australia, xliii.) 

8vo. 1919. Author. 

Descriptions of Six New Species of Australian Polyplaco- 

])iiora (Four Acantliochitons and Two Callistocbitons), with 
other Notes. (Trans. Eoy. Soc. S. Australia, xliii.) 

8vo. 1919. Author. 

A Review of the Genus LoriceUa (Order Polyplaeophora), 

with Notes on Features Pre\iously Unnoted and Description of 
a New Species. (Trans. Pov. Soc. S. Australia, xliii.) 

8vo. 1919. Author. 

Baker (Richard Thomas). On the Technology and Anatomy of 

some Silky Oak Timbers. (Journ. Proc. Pov. Soc. N.S.\¥., Hi.) 

8vo. 19] 9. Author. 

Balfour (Andrew). War against Tropical Disease; being seven 

Sanitarv Sermons addressed to all interested in Tropical 

Hygiene and Administration. 4to. London, 1920. Author. 

Belt (Anthony). Prehistoric Hastings. (Hastings and E. Sussex 

Nat. iii.) 8vo. 1918. Author. 

Black (J. M.). Additions to the Flora of South Australia. 

No. 15. (Trans. Pov. Soc. S. Australia, xliii.) 

8vo. 1919. Author. 

Additions to the Flora of South Australia. No. 16. 

(Trans. Poy. Soc. S. Australia, xliii.) 8vo. 1919. Author. 

A Revision of the Australian Salicornieie. (Trans. Poy. 

Soc. S. Australia, xliii.) 8vo. 1919. Author. 

Blanford (W. T.). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon 

and Burma. 8vo. London, 1888-192U. 

Coleoptera : Chrysomelidie (Hispinae and Cassidinaj). By S. Maulik. 
Diptera Brachycera. By E. Buunf-Tti. 

Bonaparte (Charles Lucien Jules Laurent). A Geographical 
and Compai'ative List of the Birds of Fkirope and North 
America. 8to. London, 1838. 


Boring (Alice M.) and Pearl (Raymond). Ncx Studies. — JX. 

iiiter.stitial Cells in the Reproductive Organs of the Chicken. 

(Aiiat. Jtecd. xiii.) 4to. 1917. Authors. 
Sex Studies. — XI. Hermaphrodite Birds. (Jonrn. 

Exper. Zool. 1^,.) 4to. 1918. Authors. 

^See Pearl (Raymond). 

Bose (Sahay Eam). Descriptions of Fungi in Eeiigal. (Agsui- 
c-aciu' and Pol v|)(iracea}.) Svo. Author. 

Botanical Abstracts. Vol. T.-> 4t(). Ihihimore, 19iy->- 

British Museum (Natural History). 

British Antarctic (' Terra Nova ') Expedition, I'.HO. Natural 
History Jieports. 4to. 1918. 

Zoology. Vol. II. No. 8. Brachiupoda. By J. Wilfuid Jackson. 

Vol. 111. No. (). Araclmida. Ttl. Aiane:i'. By 11 . R. lIoiiG. 
„ Vol. IV. No. 2. Cephalodhnts. By W. G. Kidewood. 

„ Vol. V. No. i. Cu'leiitei-atu. Pai-i.'l. Actiniaria. By T. A. 



Flora of Jamaica, containing deso-iptions of tlie Flowering^ 
Plants known from the Island. By AVilliam Fawckxt and 
Ai.i'iiEi) Barton Rionule. Vol. lY. Dicotyledons. Families 
Leguminosse to Callitriciiacea3. 8vo. London, 1920. 

A JMonograph of the British lichens. A Descripli\e Catalogue 
of the species in the Department of Botany, British Museum. 
Part 1. (Second Edition). By Annie Lorrain Smith. 
Pp. xxiv, 520; with 71 plates. 8vo. London, 1918. 

Economic Series : 

No. 8. — ^Eats and Mice as enemies of Mankind. 

Svo. London, 19-18. 

A map showing the known distribution in England and Wales 
of the Anopheline Mosquitos, with explanation text and 
notes. By Wieliam Dickson Lang. Svo. London, 1918. 

British Mycological Society. Transactions, 189G-> 

8vo. Worcester (Cainhridge), 1896->- 
Britton (Nathaniel Lord) and Brown (Hon. Addison). An 
Illustrated Flora ot the Northern United States. Canada, and 
the British Possessions from Newfoundland to the Parallel of 
the Southern Boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic 
Ocean westward to the 102i) Meridian. 3 vols. 

4to. A^'ew York, 189(5-8. L'ev. G. R. Bullock- Webster. 
Brown (I/on. Addison). See Britton (Nathaniel Lord). 
Brown (Stewardson) and Schaffer (J/r.s-. Charles). Alpine Flora 
of the Canadian Bocky Mountains. 

Svo. jVew Y'orl- c\- London, 1907. Harold Russell. 
Brunetti (E.). See Blanford (W. T.). The launa of British 
India, including Cevlon and Burma. Diptera Brachycera. 

Svo. 1920. 


Bullock -Webster {Rev. George Russel). See Groves (James). 

Bunbiiry {Sir Charles J. F.). Botauical Notes at Barton and 
iUiklenhall, Suffolk. 8vo. Mildenlwll, 1889. 

Butler (Arthur G.). Ornithological Papers. Vol. II. 

Contents: — Are Birds deceitful?; lieason in Birds; Economy and Mice ;^ 
Wliat is Science ? ; The Zebra Fincli ; The Greniis Zosterops ; The 
European (ioklllnch ; Egg Markings and Sunlight ; Tlie assumption of 
Summer Plumage in V ijrumdami oryx; The Imitative Power of Birds ; 
Our British Swallows ; Are Birds easily deceived?; Capacity in Nest- 
Construction ; The Poor Wild Birds ; Tlie Golden-Crested Wren ; Two 
liare Tanagers ; The Balance of Nature; Development of Pattern in 
Birds; Ancestral Characters in Nestlings; Colour Change without a 
Moult ; Further notes on Growth of M irkings and Colour ; A Moot 
Question; The History of Birds' Nests. 

8vo. 1915-19. 
Butler (E. J.). Fungi and Disease in Plants. 

8vo. Cidcntta cf* Simla., 1918. 

Cantrill (T. C). Some Chemical Characters of Ancient Charcoals. 
(Arch. Caiiib. 1919.) 8vo. 1919. Author. 

CauUery (Maurice) and Mesnil (F.). " Xmocoehnut hrampti," 
C. & M. Copepode parasite de Folj/cirrits arenivonis, C. (Bull. 
Biol, liii.) 8vo. Paris, 1919. Authors. 

Metchnikovellidae et autres protistes parasites des- 

Grregariiies d'Annelides. (Ann. Inst. Pasteur, xxxiii.) 

8vo. Prt)-is, 1919. Authors. 

Chapman (Frederick). XXII. Palteozoic Worms; with evidence 
of 8oft Parts. (^Proc. Roy. Soc. Viet, xxxi.) 

8vo. Melbourne, 1919. Author. 

XXIII. On some Hydroid Ilemains of Lower Palaeozoic 

Age from Moregetta, near Lancelield. (Proc. Koy. Soc. A'ict. 
xxxi.) 8vo. 1919. Author. 

Charborski(Gabriela). Recherches sur les levures termophiles et 
cryophiles. (Univ. Geneve, These ^o. 627.) 

8vo. Geneve, 1918. R. Chodat. 

Chirtoiu (Marie). Observations sur les Lacistema et la 
situation yvstt'inaticjue de ce genre. (Univ. Geneve, These 
JNo. 6lu;i)' ' Q\ro. Geneve, I^IS. R. Chodat. 

Chodat (Robert). Un voyage botanique au Paraguay (1914). 
(Actes 8oc. helv. Sci. nat. 1917.) 8vo. Berne, 1917. Author. 

Casimir de Candolle, 1836-1918. (Arch. sci. phys. 

nat. (5), 1.) 8vo. 1919. Author. 

L;i panachure et les chimeres dans le genre -Z*Mn7ti«. (C. R. 

Soc. phys. d'hist. nat. Geneve, ^36.) 

8vo. Geneve, 1919. Author. 
Christ (Hermann). Die Rosen der 8ch\veiz niit Beriicksiclitigung 
der uinliegenden Gebiete Mittel- und 8iid-Eiiropa's. 

8vo. Basel, 1873. James Groves. 


Christy (Miller). Samukl J)alk ( KJ.")!) ?- 1 7;rJ ), of 13 mi ii tree, 
Botanist, and the Oiile Family : Some (xeiiealogy and some 
Portniits. (Essex Nat. li) I il.) 8vo. ]!)19. 

On tlie Arboreal llabils of Field Mice. (Essex Nat. xix.) 

8vo. 191!). Author. 

Hornets, Wasps, and Flics sucking the Sap of Trees. 

(Essex Nat. xix.) 8vo. 191!>. Author. 

The Ancient Legend as to the Ih'dgdiog carrying Fruits 

upon its Spines. (Mem. I'roc. Man. Lit. Pliil. Soc. (')'•'>.) 

Svo. Matiihester, 19 li). Author. 

Church (Arthur Harry). Elementary notes on (Jymnosperms 
and Angiosperms. With special reference to Forest-t vpes. 

Svo. Oxford, 1919. "Author. 

Botanical Memoirs. Nos. l-5> 4to. Oxford, liil9> 

Xo. 1. Ttie Building of an Autotropic Flagellate. By A. H. CiURCii. 
,, 2. Gossypium in I're-Iiiinean Literature, l^y 11. J. DKNrrAM. 
,, .3. Tlialassiopliyta and the Subaerial Tninsinigrat.ioii. By A. H. 


,, 4. Elementary Notes on Slrnctui-Hl Botany. By A. H. Cniucii. 
.. "). Eienientiiry Notes on the Keproduction of Angiospernis. By 
A. 11. Ciiri{( II. 

Clarke (J. Jackson). Khizopod Protozoa : the cause of Cancer 
and otiier diseases. Being Part IV". of ' Protozoa and Disease.' 

4to. London, 1915. Author. 

Collinge i Walter Edward). Description of a new Species of 
Isopoda of the Genus Parldvti>((, Stebhintl. (.lourii. Zool. 
Ees. ii.) 4to. 1917. Author. 

Some remarks n|)on the occurrence of Two Hare Woodlice 

in Scollaiid. (Scottish Nat. 191 7.) Svo. 1917. Author. 

Contributions to a Knowledge of the 'IVrrestrial Isopoda of 

Natal. Parti. (Ann. Natal Mas. iii.) Svo. 1917. Author. 
I'orcellio ratzchnrgii, a Woodlouse new to the Scottish 

Fauna. (Scott. Nat. 1917.) Svo. 1917. Author. 
l)escri])tion of a new Species of Isopoda of the Genus 

Si/ni(/otea, Ilarger, from the Gulf of Manaar. (Reeds. Ind.].) 4[o. Ccdcufta, 1917 . Author. 
On the Ke-occurrence of Li(jiduim hypnorinii (Cuv.) in 

Great Dritain. (Journ. Zool. Ees. ii.) 4to. 1917. Author. 
Descriptions of some further new varieties of British 

Woodlice. (Journ. Zool. Res. ii.) 4to. 1917. Author. 

Some remiirks upon the Teri'estrial Isopod, Porcellio 

ratzehurt/ii, Brandt. (Journ. Zool. Res. iii.) 

4to. 1918. Author. 
— Some Observations upon Two Rare Marine lso])ods. 
(Journ. Zool. Res. iii.) 4to. 1918. Author. 

Descriptions of some new varieties of British Woodlice. 

(Journ. Zool. Res. iii.) 4to. 1918. Author. 

A Revised Check-List of the l^ritish Terrestrial Isopoda 

(Woodlice), with Notes. (Journ. Zool. Res. iii.) 

4to. 1918. Author 


Collinge (Walter Edward). The Distiibution oF Woodlic-e in 
Scotland. (Scott, ^'at. 15)18.) Svo. 1918. Author. 

On tlie Occurrence ni Scotland ot two rare sjjecie.s of 

Woodliee. (Scott. Nat. 1918.) Svo. 1918. Author. 

Comstock (John Henry). The Spider Book. 

4to.Xetv Tori; 191:?. 
Dehaut (E. G.). Contributions a I'ctude de la vie vertebree 
iusulaire dans la Region iVlediterraiieeiine occidentale efc 
narticulicreinent en Sardaignc et en Corse. 

Svo. J'dris, l!)2o. Author. 
Denham (H. J.). >'^ee Church (A. H.). liotanical Memoirs, 

No. '2. 
De Toni (G. B.). Notizii bio-bibliograficlie intorno Evangelista 
t^)uattraiiii. (Atti li. 1st. Veueto, lxx\ii.) 

Svo. Veiu':in, 1918. Author. 

Coiitributo alia tetratologia del genere " Chrvsanthemuni " 

L. (Atti li. Accad. Sci. Tornio, liv.) 

Svo. Modena, 1918. Author. 
Coinuieniorazione del nienibro eiiettivo Enrico Eilipi'D 

Trois neir adunanza del 2B Gennaio 1919 dA Eeale Istituto 
Venelo di .scienze, lettere ed arti. (Atti R. 1st. Veneto, 
Ixxviii.) Svo. Venezia, 1919. Author. 

Notizii Storiche sulla Eruttiticazione del Banano a Modena 

nel secolo xviii. (Atti Mem. B. Deput. Stor. Patria Pror. 
Modenesi (v.), xii.) Svo. Modena, 1919. Author. 

Appunti su GiACiNTO Cestoni. (liiv. Stor. Crit. Sci. Med. 

>,:it. X.) 8vo. Sienck, 1919. Author. 
Eabio Coloxxa et I'Eterocarpia (Notizia storica di biologin). 

(Rev. Biol, i.) Svo. Kama, 1919. Author. 

De Toni (G. B.) ami Tognoli (E.). Osservazioni botaniche 

e ,-[)erimentali intorno alia Dnjltalis hinata,YA\v\\. (Atti II. 1st. 

Yeneto, Ixxviii.) 8vo. Venezia, 1919. G. B. de Toni. 

Dixon (H.N.) and Watts (W. Walter). Mosses. (Austral. 

Antarctic Exped. Sci. iipts. ser. c.-vii.) 

4to. Sijdney, 1918. H. N. Dixon. 
Donisthorpe ( Horace). The Myrmecophilous Lady-Bird, Comnella 

distuu-ta. Paid., its Life History and Association with Ants. 

(Entom. Eecord, xxxi. & xxxii.)" Svo. Author. 

Druce (George Claridge). See Hayward (Ida M.). 
Earland (Arthur). See Halkyard (Edward). 
Farwell (Oliver Atkins). The Identity of Commercial Blue 

Plags. (Bull. Pbarm. 1919.) Svo. Detroit Mieh., 1919. 


Panlcinn lineare, Linn. (Am. Mid. Nat. vi.) 

Svo. 1919. Author. 
Fawcett (William). See British Museum: Plants, Flora of 

Foot (Katharine) and Strobell (Ella Church). Cvtological 

Studies. (A Collection of lieprints.) -Ito. 1894-1917. 


Groves (James) iuul Bullock-Webster {Rev. George Russell). 
Tliu Ijiilish C'luu-opliytii. A'oluiiiel. Nitellea'. 

( l\:iy Sdcietv.) 8vo. London, I'iVlO. 

Halkyard (Edward). The l'o<sil FuraiiiiniFei-a oF the Blue Marl 
u\ the <'(ite des Jijisques Jiianitz. JCdited witli AdcHtioiis by 
Edwaui) llKRON-ALMiN, F.L.S., F.U.S., F.R.M.S., and Aiitiiuu 
Eaulam), F.Ii.M.S. (Mem. Froc. Maucli. Lit. Pliil. Soc. 
1917- 1>^.) Svo. JA(//rA^s/('r, 1919. Editors. 

Hay ward (Ida Margaret) and Druce (George Claridge). The 
.\d\(iili\c Fh>ia ol' Twceilside. 

yvo. Arbroath, 1919. Ida M. Hayward. 

Heape (Walter). 'i'e.\t-buok of Enihryi)logy. "J {'■'>) vols. 

Vol. I. Livertebnitii, by K. W. MacBriuk. 1914. 
,, II. \ erl('b;-!il!v, wiih tlie exception of MMnmialia. bv J. Gkaiiam Kkrk. 

8vo. Lotulon, 1914> 
Henry (Augustine) and Flood (Margaret G.). 'I'he History of 
till' Dinikelil Hybrid Larch, Lari.v earolcj/is, \\h\\ notes (ni other 
Jlyhrid Conifers. (Free. Hoy. Irish Acad. xxxv. Sect. B.) 

4t.o. DuUin, 1919. Authors. 

Heron-Allen (Edward). See Halkyard (Edward). 

Herrera (Alplionso L.). Some Studies in Fhisinogenesis. (.Jonrn. 

Lab. e\: Clin. Med. St. Louis, iv.) 4to. 1919. Author. 

Hertwig ^Oscar). Das Werden der Organisnien zur Wjderiegung 

von Darwin's Ziiiailstlieorie durch das Gesetz in der Entwiclc- 

liiiig. 8vo. Jena, 191b. 

Hutton (Williai^). See Lindley (John). 

[Jan, Georg.] Conspectus niethodicus testaceoruni in col led lone 
inea extant ium anno 1830. 

8vo. pp. 8, carbon /yrint. IParnia, 1830.] 
Janet (Charles). Sur hi Fiiylogenese de rOrthobionte. 

Svo. Limoges, 1916. Author. 

Jardine {Sir William). The Naturalists' Library. Ornithology. 

Vol. I. liumming-birds. Svo. Edinbiiri/h, 1S33. 

Hugh Findon. 
Jauch (Berthe). Quelques points de Tanatomie at de hi biologic 
des Folygalacees. (Univ. (^eneve, These No. 609.) 

8vo. Geneve, 1918. R. Chodat. 
Ker.nard (A. S.) and Woodward (B. B.). On the occurrence in 
Fiiglaiid of Hiiyromia oibca (Locard) [=//eli.v limbata, Drap., 
18U4, nou Da' Costa, 1778]. (Froc. Malacol. Soc. xiii.) 

Svo. 1918. Authors. 

On Helix revcJafa, Britt. auctt. (non Ferussac nee 

Midland), and the valitlity of Belhiiuy's name of Ifcli.v sinbvires- 
cena in lieu of it for the British Mollusc. (Froc. Malacol. Soc. 
xiii.) Svo. 1919. Authors. 

On the first discovery in England of Helicodonta obvo- 

luta (lAliill.). (Froc. Malacol. Soc. xiii.) Svo. 1919. Authors. 

Extracts from some Letters from John Euown, 

F.G.S., of Stanway, to S. F. "Woooward. (Essex Nat. xix.) 

Svo. 192(1. Authors 


Kerner (Anton.;. Rlonogmnhia Pidmonariarum. 

4to. Oeiiiponte, 1878. C. C. Lacaita. 

Kerr (John Graham). Text-book of Einbrvology. Vol. II. 

Yerteliiuta wiHi tiie exception ot Matnnialia. Scr Heape 


Kirkman (F. B.). The British Bird Book. An account of all 

the Jiinls, iS'e^<ts, and Etrgs fontid in tlie British Isles. 4 vols. 

4to. London <J|' /uliiihun/Ii, 1 910-13. Hugh Findon. 

Kiister (Ernst). Pathologische Plian7,enanat(»mie. Zueite Aiifiase. 

8vo. Jena, 1916. 
Lillie (Frank Rattray). Problems ot:' Fertilization. 

12iiio. Chlciujo, [n. d.]. 
Lindley (John) and Htitton (William). The Fossil Plora of 
(treat lintain ; or iigures and tleseriptions ot" the Vegetable 
liemains i'ouiul in a fossil state in this eouiitrv. 'A vols. 

Svo.' London, 1831-37. 
Xoder (Sir Edmund Giles, Bt.). Conifers at Leonai-dslee. 

8vo. [11. d.]. Author. 

Xong (Harold C.) and Percival (John). Common Weeds of the 

Farm and (warden. 8vo. Loudon, 1910. Harold Russell. 

Lucas (William John). A Monograph of the British Orthuplera. 

( Kav Society.) 8vo. London, 1920. 

liUdwig (Robert Edouard). Etude de quelques levnres alpines. 

(Univ. Geiie\e, These No. G07.) 

8vo. G'eidve, 1918. R. Chodat. 
MacBride (Ernest William). Text-booJi of Embrjologv. \\)1. 1. 

Invertebrala. /SVv Heape (Walter). 

Marcellia : liivisra internazionale di Cecidologia. Eedatfore 

Dr. A. TiioTrEi!. \o\. I.> 4to. {Fadova e Avidllno), 1902> 

Hartyn (Thomas). Tlui English Entomologist. Exhibiting all 

the Coleopterous Insects fonnil in England. 4to. London, 1792. 

F. E. Rohotham. 
Maw (Percival Trentham). The Practice of F'orestry, con- 
cerning also the financial as])ect of afforestation. 

8vo. London, 1909. Harold Russell. 
Menzies (Archibald). Hawaii Nei 128 Years Ago. 

8vo. Honolulu, T. H., 1920. Editor. 

Minod (Marcel). Contribution a Tetude du genre Stenwdid et 

dii gronpe des Stemodiees eu Ainerique. (Univ. Geneve, These 

No- ')<)6.) 8vo. Geneve, 1918. R. Chodat. 

Moll (Jan Willem). Sfc Oudemans (C. A. J. A.). 

Miiller (Jacques). Recherches sur la Lipase des Championons. 

(Univ. Geneve, These No. 637.) 8vo. Geneve, V.)l^d. R. Chodat. 

Northrop (John I.). A Naturalist in the Bahamas. A Memorial 

Volume. Edited, with a Biographical Introduction, by IIknky 

Eaiufield Oshokn. 8vo. New York, 1910. H. F. Osborn. 

Oudemans (C. A. J. A.). F]numeratio Systemat ca Fungorum. 

Edited by J. AV. Moll. Vols, i.; ii. 8vn, Tlie Hague, 1919-20. 


Pearl (Raymond). The !Sex Ratio in the Domestic Fowl. (Pi-oc. 
Aiucr. PhiL See. Ivi.) 8vo. 1917. Author. 

.Studies on lnhreeding. VII. Some further considerations 

regiirdiiig th»> iiieasureiueiit and numerical e.xpression of degrees 
oF kinslii|). (Amer. 4to. 1917. Author. 

Biology and War. (Journ. Wa.sli. Acad. Sci. viii.) 

4to. ISil.s. Author. 

Pearl (Raymond) ami Boring (Alice M.). Sex Studies. X. Tlie 

Corpus Luteuiu iu the Ovarv of the Domestic Fowl. (Ainer. 

Journ. Anat. '23.) ' 4to. lUlb. Authors. 

Pearson (Arthur Anselm). The Flora of AVimbledon Common. 

8vo. London, 1918. Author. 
Phillips (Edwin Percy). Some notes on a collecting trip to 
French Hoek. (S. .African Journ. Sci. 1919.) 

8vo. [CVf/>e Town, 1919]. Author. 

Porsild (Morten P.). On "Savssats": A Crowding of Arctic 

Animals at Holes in the Sea Ice. (Geogr. Kev. vi.) 4to. 1918. 

Punnett (Reginald Crundall). Mendelism. Fifth Edition. 

Svo. London, 1919. 
Ray Society. FuhJications (continued). 

eiisovKS (J.) and Bullock-Weustek (G. R.;. The British Cliarophjta 

Vol. I. Nitellete. 
LccAS (W. J.). A Mouograpii of the British Ortlioplera. 

Svo. 1920. 
Rendle (Alfred Barton). See British Museum : Plants. Flora 

of Jamaica. 
Reverdin (Louis). Etude Phytoplanctonique, experimentale, efc 
descriptive des eaux du Lac de Geneve. (Arch. Sci. phys. 
nat. i.) Svo. Geneve, Wli). R. Chodat. 

Roberts (^ Emmanuel). Native remedies used in snake hites, etc. 

8vo. Colombo, 1919. Author. 

Seward (Albert Charles). Fossil Plants. A Text-book for 

Students of Botany and Geology. Vol. IV. Ginkgoales, 

(^miferales, Gnetales. Svo. Camhridije, 1919. 

Shoolbred (W. A.). The Flora of Chepstow. Svo. London, 1920. 


Sim (T. R.). F'lowering Trees and Shrubs for use in South 

Africa. Svo. Johaniieshurij ,^- Cape Town, 1919. Author. 

Small (James ). The Application of Botany in the Utilisation of 

Medicinal Plants. Svo. Zohc/ou, 1919. Author. 

The Origin and Development of the Compositae. (New 

Phytologist Reprint, No. 11.) Svo. London, 1919. Author. 
Smith (Annie Lorrain). A Monograph of the Britisli Lichens. 
A Descriptive Catalogue of the species iu the Department of 
Botany, British Museum. Part I. (Second Edition). 

Svo. London, 1918. 


Stoll (Arthur). See Willstatter (Richard). 

Strobell ( Ella Church ). Sec Foot ( Katharine ). 

Teding van Berkhout (P. I.). Etude d'niie Substunce sueree du 
Fuh/yala amava (aucl.) (/"*. amarelld, Crantz). (Univ. (Teiieve, 
Tlicse No. ()14.) 8vo. Geneve, 1918. R. Chodat. 

Thompson (Percy). On an Annotated Copy of Eicharb Warxioh's 
" Phintte Woodfordienses." (Essex Nat. xix.) 8vo. 1920 


Tillyard (R. J.). The Panorpoid Complex. Part 3. The Wing- 
A'eii:iti(jii. (Proc. Linn. Sue. N.8.AV. xliv.) 8vo. 1919 


Studies in Australian Neuroptera. JSTo. 8. Kevision of 

the Eamily Itlionidae, with Descriptions of a new Genus and 
two new ISpecies. (Proc. Linn. !Soc. N.S. \V. xliv.) 8vo. 1919 


Mesozoic Insects of Queensland. No. 5. Mecopter.i 

the new Order Paratriclioptera, and additions to Planipennia 
(Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.AV^. xliv.) 8vo. 1919. Author 

■ No. 6. Blattoidea. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.8.AV. xliv.) 

8vo. 1919. Author. 

A Eossil Insect Wing belonging to the new Order Para- 

mecoptera, ancestral to the Trichoptera and Lepidoptera, from 
the Upper Coal-Measures of Newcastle, N.S.V\^. (Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N.S.W. xliv.) 8vo. 1919. Author. 

On the morphology and systematic position of the family 

Microptery^idte (Sensu hito). Introduction and Part I. (The 

Wings). (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. xliv.) 8vo. 1919. Author. 
Trelease (William). Winter Botany. 8vo. UrLcma, 1918. 

Watts (Jiev. W. Walter). Some Notes on Neurosoria 2iteroides 

(K. Br.), Mett. (Journ. Proc. Hoy. Soc. N.S.W. liii.) 

8vo. 1919. Author. 

See Dixon (H. N.). 

Willis (J. C). A Dictionary of the Elowering Plants and Perns. 

Eourth Edition. 8vo. Camhriilge, 1919. 

Willstatter ( Richard) und Stoll (Arthur). Untersuchungen iiber 

Chlorophyll. Methoden und Ei'gebnisse. 8vo. Berlin, 191U. 
[Wilson (W. F.).] David Douglas, Botanist at Hawaii. 

8vo. Honolulu, 1919, Compiler. 
Woodward (B. B.). On the Pisidimn nitiduni aud P. jiusillam of 

Jenyiis : A. Iveply. (Journ. Conchol, xv.) 8vo. 1918. Author.. 
See Kennard (A. S.). 


SESSIOX 1919-1920. 

l^oie. — The following are not indexed : — The name of the Chairman at each meeting ; 
speakers whose remarks are not reported ; and passing allusions. 

Abstracts of Papers, 59-65. 

Accounts, 22-24. 

Additi<ms to Library, -1-79. 

Adkin, B. C, admitted, 5 ; elected, 3 ; 

sec. reading, i. 
' Admission of women as Fellows,' 

painting by Sant, presented by Lady 

Crisp, 55. 
Agharkar, Dr. S. P., elected, 5+ ; 

propofed, 13 ; sec. reading. iS. 
Ajvcja f/enrveiisis, occurrence in Lritain 

(briice), 3-4. 
Allen, see Heron-Allen. 
Anniversary Meeting, 19. 
Ajjlin, 0. '\^, withdrawn, 20. 
Aseroft, R. W., withdrawn, 20. 
Associate, E.W. Swanton, elected, 17; 

proposed, i 3. 
Auditors elected. 18. 
Axolotls exhibited (Huxley), 12. 

Bedford, E. J., exhibited illustrations 
of British Marsh Orchids, 18 ; 
abstract. 65. 

Benefactions, 66-69. 

Benson, Prof. M. J., elected Councillor, 

Baker. E. G., elected Councillor, 20. 

Baker, E. G.. S. Moore, and Dr. A. B. 
Rendle. Flowering plants of New 
Caledonia, 14-15. 

Banks (Sir Joseph) Celebration : — 
Banks as a traveller (Gen. Sec); 
Banks as a patron of science (Rendle) ; 
Banks as a botanist (Britten); and 
Banks as a trustee of the British 
Museum (The President), 56 ; Suppl., 
pp. 1-2 1. 

Bauksiana exhibited, 56. 

Jhphia, Afzel., revision of (Lester- 
Garland), 2. 

Basra, lantern-slides of objects obs. 
near, shown (Whitehead), 55. 

Bateson, Dr. W., Councillor retired, 


Bhan, T. IV.. elected, 10 ; proposed, i ; 

sec. reading, 6. 
Bidder, Dr. G. P., admitted, 5 : elected, 

3 ; sec. reading, i ; Fragrance of 

Calcinean Sponges; Syncrypta spong- 

iaruiii ; and JN'otes on physiology of 

Sponges, 18. 
Billinglnirst, H. G., admitted, 2. 
Blackman, Prof. Y. H., admitted, 15. 
Blatliwayt, CoL L., deceased, 19; 

obituary, 37. 
Bodger. J. AV., proposed, 18. 
Bonnier. Prof. G., elected Foi*. IMemli., 

18 ; proposed, i 3. 
Bose, S. R., elected, 10 ; proposed, 1 : 

sec. reading, 6. 
Botanic Illustration during four 

centuries (Gen. Sec), 7-9. 
'Botanical ]\Iagazine,' first numbers in 

orig. wrappers, exhibited (Loder), 

Botanical Secretary (Dr. A. B. Rendle), 

elected, 21 ; appeal for purchase of 

Cardofs Herbarium of Messes, 7 ; on 

Botany of New Caledonia, 14-15. 
Bonlenger, Dr. G. A., jjroposed, 5. 
British Marsh Orchids, drawings, &c. 

exhibited (Bedford), 18 ; abstract, 

Brdtlierus, Prof. V. P., elected For. 

Menib., 18; proposed. 13. 
Browne, E. T., apjjointed V.-P., 55; 

elected Auditor, 18 ; elected Coun- 
cillor, 20. 

SESSIOX 1919-19:^0. (J 



Burma, exploration of N. E. frontier 

(Ward). 17. 
Biirne, R. H., Couneillor retired, 21. 
Bury, II.. ele<n.(l Councillor, 20. 
Buxion, B. II.. elected, 54; proposed, 

I 5 : sec. readinjj, iS. 
Bye-Lii\v9, propo.sed alterations read, 2, 

3, II, 13, 54, 56: adopted. 6, 15-16, 

i;7; statement read (Dymes), 13; 

motion l>y Prof. Wt-iss. 16. 

Calcinean sponge.^, fce Sponges. 
Cardot. J., appeal lor purchase of liis 

Herbarium of Mosses, 7. 
Carpenter, Dr. G. D. H., admitted, 54 ; 

eleeted, 15 ; proposed, 2 ; sec. reading, 

Carter, Dr. N., Freshwater Algjc of 

^'ew Caledonia, 14. 
Cash Statement received and adopted, 

19; printed as audited, 22-24. 
CaTanagll, B. P., withdnuvn. 20. 
Cawthron Institute, Dr. R. Tillvard on, 

Cento iiriinn scilloicJes, occurrence in 

Britain (Druce). 3-4. 
Characters in Organisms, difFerent 

types (Gates\ 10-11. 
Composition Fees, jjrivilege suspended, 

Coinpton, Prof. R. H., awl oikers, 

Botany of New Caledonia, 14. 
Contribution, Annual, raised to four 

pounds, II. 
Cooper, sec Omer- Cooper. 
Councillors elected and retired, 20-21. 
Cox. Miss L. E., admitted. 54; elected, 

18 ; proposed, 3 ; sec. reading, 17. 
Craib, W. G., elected, 17 ; proposed, 2 ; 

sec. reading. 15. 
Crane, 11. II., elected, 54; proposed, 

13 ; sec. reading, 18. 
Crisp, Lady, withdrawn, 20 ; gift of 

painting of the first admission of 

women as Fellows, 55. 

D;l^dish, Capt. E. F., elected, 54; pro- 
posed, 13 ; sec. reading, iS. 

Dakin, Prof. W. J., showed lantern- 
slides of Whaling in the Southern 
Ocean, 55. 

Darbishire, Dr. O. V., elected, 54; 
proposed, 13; sec. reading, 18. 

Dastur, R. H., proposed, 18. 

Davidson, Dr. James, admitted, 15; 
elected, 7 ; proposed, i ; sec. readiii",' 

Deaths recorded, 19. 
, Dehbarinan, P. M., elected, 54; pro- 
posed, 6; sec. reading, i8. 

Denham, H. J., elected, 3 ; sec. reading, 
i I. 

j De Toni, Prof. G. B., elected For. 
! Memb.. iX: proposed, 13. 

Dod, f,r WoUey-Dod. 

Dollo, Prof. L., elected For Memb. 18 ; 
proposed, 1-5. 

Dowsou, W. J., admitted, 57. 

Dru-^e, Dr. G. C, occurr. in Britain of 
Ajuga genevensis and Centaurium 
sri//(iir/r.t, 34; exhibited drawings of 
British AV/// l)y Miss Trower, 4. 

Druce, If. 11. C. J., withdrawn. :o. 

Dykes, W. R., admitted, 56; elected, 
54; proposed, 10; sec. reariing, 18. 

Dymes, T. A., apjiointed Scrutineer, 
20-21; elected Auditor, 18; Notes 
on Inn Pi^eudacorus, 59-63. 

East ham. A., removed from List, 20. 
Edwards. S., elected Auditor, 18 ; 

elected Councillor, 20. 
Elaeiii (/iiinroi.tis, drawings by R. S. 

Hall exhibited. 55. 
Elections reported, 20. 
Entomological - Meteorological records 

exhibited (Giinton), 12. 
Euernia Prunasiri, Ach.. lantern-slides 

of sporulatiou of gouidia in (Paulson), 


Farlow, Prof. W. G., death announced, 

9, 19 ; obituary, 38. 
Farmer, Prof. J. B.. appointed V.-P., 

55 ; elected Councillor, 20 ; Ilepatics 

of New Caledonia. 14. 
Findon, II., gift of Kirkman's 'British 

Bird Book; 5. 
Fiulayson, R. A., elected, 56 ; proposed, 

16 ; sec. reading, 54. 
Flanagan, H. G.. deceased, 19. 
Foreign Members, deaths i*eported, 19 ; 

vacancies announced, 9, 1 1 ; six new 

elections, iS. 

Gardner-Smith, Rev. R., withdrawn, 

Garland, .sflc Lester-Garland. 
Gatenby, J. B.. Germ -cells and early 

development of Grantia compreMu, 6. 
Gates. Dr. R. R., Two fundamentally 

diff-^rent types of cliaracters in 

organisms, lo-i i. 
GeflTcken, A. W., withdrawn, 20. 

■General Secretarr, Annual Report, 19 ; 
elected (Dr. B. D. Jackson), 21 ; 
completion of 40 years as Secretary, 
37; exliibited the first numbers of 
the ' Bot. Mag.' in origuial wrappers, 
14; on a new ed. of the Library 
Catalogue, 19 ; nietiiods of Botanic 
Illustration during four centuries, 
7-9 ; on projjosed restoration of 
Carl von Linne'.s house at Uppsala, 
57 ; Sir Jo.seph Banks as a Traveller, 
Stippl., 3-8. 

Geotropic response in rotjts and stems 
(Small), 16. 

Gt-pp, A., Maritime Algce of New 
Caledonia, 14. 

Gibson, Ernest, deceased, 19. 

Goddard, T. R., elected, 56 ; proposed, 
16 ; sec. reading, 54. 

Goodday, A. L., admitted, 18; elected, 
15 ; proposed, 2 ; sec. reading, 13. 

Goodenougii Fiuid, announcenient 
made, 7; list of donations, 70. 

Goodrich, Prof. E. S., elected Zoological 
Secretary and Councillor, 20-21. 

Graiifia compressa, germ-cells and earlj- 
development (Gatenby), 6. 

Groves, J., Characeaeof New Caledonia, 


Gunton, Major H. C, exhibited Ento- 
mological-Meteorological records, 12. 

Gwynne-Vaughan, Dame Helen, re- 
ceived Trail Award and Medal, 35. 

Hacckel, Prof. Ernst H., death an- 
nounced, 9, 19; obituary, 39. 

Hall, B. S , drawings of the oil-palm, 
Elaeis guiiicengis, exhibited, 55. 

Hamilton, A., removed from List, 20. 

Harde, Mrs. E. E., elected, 18; pro- 
jiosed, 5; sec. reading, 17. 

Harding, H. B., admitted 54 ; elected, 
1 8; proposed, 5 ; sec. reading, 17. 

Herdman, Prof. VV. A., Notes on the 
abundance of Mai-ine Animals, 6. 

Heron-Allen, E., admitted, 15. 

Hicks, F., deceased, 19. 

Hill, Capt. A. W., elected Councillor, 

Hirst, A. S., elected, 15 ; proposed, 2 ; 
fiec. reading, i 3. 

Hogben, L., Nuclear plicnomena in the 
oocytes o'C Nciirotcrns, 2. 

Hogg, S., admitted, 5. 

Hole, R. S., admitted, 2. 

Hopkinson, J., deceased, 19; obituary, 

Hiu-iiell, J., admitted, 57. 
Huskisson, H. O., deceased, 19. 

INDEX. 83 

Huxley, J. S., and D. F. Leney, exhi- 
bited Axolotls, 12. 

India, Southern, plants exhibited 

(Patton), 3. 
Institute of Preventive Medicine, gift 

of volumes on Sponges, 6. 
Iris Fsciidacuras, Notes on (Dynies), 

Irwin-Smith, Miss V. A., elected, 3 

sec. reading, 1. 
Iyer, V. S., deceased, 19. 

Jackson, Dr. B. D., elected Councillor, 
20; and General Secretary, 21. 

Johnson, W. H., withdrawn, 20. 

Juan Fernandez group, Botanical 
features (Skottrberg), 57-58. 

Kirkman's ' British Bird Book ' pre- 
sented ( Findon), 5. 

Kitching, \V. H., elecled, 56 ; proposed, 
18 ; sec. reading, 54. 

Knigiit, A. E., witlnlrawn, 20. 

Lacaita, C. C, elected Councillor, 20 ; 

exhibited Orchis maculata from 

Monte Gargano, Italy, 3. 
Lacey, H. B., proposed, 57. 
Lancaster, see Percy-Lancaster. 
Lankester, Sir E. Ray, Linnean Medal 

presented to, 35; his reply, 36-37. 
Leeson, Dr. J. R., on need of a new 

Library Catalogue, 19. 
Leney, D. F., see Huxley, J. S. 
Lester-Garland, L. V., a revision of the 

genus Baphia, Afzel., 2. 
Librarian's Report, 20. 
Library, Additions and Donations, 

Library Catalogue, new edition needed, 

Linne, Carl von, pi-oposed restoration 

of his house at Uppsala, 57. 
Lister, Miss G., Mycetozoa of New 

Caledonia, 14-15. 
Loder, G. W. E., elected Councillor, 

20; first numbers of the 'Bot. Mag.' 

in orig. wrappers exhibited, 14. 
Lowne, B. T., withdrawn, 20. 

McLean, Prof. R., admitted, 2 ; Sex and 

Soma, 4-5. 

Marchal, Prof. P., elected For. Memb., 
18 ; proposed, 13, 

Marine Animals, notes on the abun- 
dance of (Herdman), 6. 



Marshnll, Rev. E. S., deceased, 19; 
obituary. 4^ 

Watlicws, Vw. M., witlidrawn, 20. 

Mattliews, J. R, admitted, 6 ; elected, 
3 ; sec. reading, i. 

Meade-Waldo, K. G. B., elected, 54 ; 
prop(jse(l, 5 ; sec. reading, 18. 

Medal. Linnean, presented to Sir E. 
R.-iy Laiikestor, 35-37 ; — Trail, pre- 
sented to Dame Helen Gwynne- 
A'auglian, 35. 

Mesopotaniianplantsexliibited (Fatten), 

Michael, A. T>., withdrawn, 20. 
Miln, G. P., jiroposed, 56. 
Minchin, Prof. E. A., volimies on 

Sponges formerly his, presented by 

Inst. Prevent. Med., 6. 
Mockeridge, Miss F. A., admitted, i. 
Monckton, II. W.. appointed ^^-P., 55 ; 

elected Councillor and Treasurer, 

Monte Gargano, Orrhis maculata from, 

exhibited (Lacaita). 3, 
Moore, Spencer, see Baker, E. G. 
Morgan, A. C. F., withdrawn. 20. 
Mosses, Cardot's Herbarium of, appeal 

for its purchase, 7. 

Neurotcrtts, nuclear phenomena in the 

oocytes of (Hogben), 2. 
New Caledonia, Botany of (Compton 

and otliers), 14. 
Nuclear piienomena in the oocytes of 

Neicrotenis (Hogben), 2.. 

Obituary Notices, 37-53. 
Onier-Cooper. J., elected, 18; proposed, 

3: sec. reading, i". 
Orchids, British IMarsh, illustrations 

exhibited (Bedford), 18 ; abstract, 

Orchis maculata from Monte Gargancj 

exhibited (Lacaita), 3. 
Organisms, types of character-s in 

(Gates), I o- 1 1 . 

Tannikar, N. P., elected, 5 ; proposed, 
I ; sec. reading, 3. 

Parker, Dr. W. R.. admitted, 13; 
elected, 10; proposed, i; sec. read- 
ing, 6. 

Patton, T. K., exhibited ]>lMnts from 
Mesopotamia and Soutliern India, 3. 

Paulson, R., elected Auditor. 18; 
lantern-slides of spondation of 
gonidia in Eveniia Prnnastri, Ach., 

Pearsall, W. II., elected, 56 ; proposed, 

1 5 ; sec. reading. 54. 

Peckover, Baron, of Wisbech, deceased, 
19 ; obituary, 46. 

Percy-Lancaster. S.. elected, 18; pro- 
posed,. 2; sec. reading, 17. 

Pfeffcr. W., deceased. 19. 

Plant-sports jiroduced at will (Rawson), 

2 ; abstract. 64. 

Pocock, R. I., appointed A'. -P., 55 ; 
elected Councillor, 20. 

Prankerd, Miss T. L., admitted, 54. 

President (Dr. A. Smith Woodward), 
announcement as to ' Goodenough 
Fund' 7; appointed Scrutineers, 
20-21; appointed Vice-Presidents. 
55; elected, 21 ; on certain groups of 
fossil P"islies (Presidential Address), 
25-37 ; on General Secretary's com- 
pletion of 40 years as a Secretaj-y, 37 ; 
on Ray Society publications, 18; f)n 
Sir J. Banks as a Trustee of the 
British Museum. Sifpp/,, 20-21 : read 
proposed alterations in the Bye-Laws. 
2, 3, II, 13, 54. 56; read resolution 
re the enclosure of Wanstead Flats, 
&c., 17. 

Presidential Address. 25-37. 

Pugsjpy, II. W.. elected, 18 ; jiroposed, 
2 ; sec. reading, 16. 

Ramana-Sastrin, Dr. Y. \'., proposed. 

Rawson. Col. H. E.. Plant-sports pro- 
duced at will, 2 ; abstract, 64. 

Ray Society, publications referred to, 

Removals from List by Council, 20. 

Rendle, Dr. A. B., elected Botanical 
Secretary and Councillor, 20-21 ; .-icc 
Baker. E. G. 

Retzius, Prof. G. M.. death announced, 
9. 19 ; obituary, 4-. 

Revision of Baphia, Afzel. (Lester- 
Garland), 2. 

Richards, R. M., proposed, 18. 

Roseidieim, Dr. O., admitted, 56 ; 
elected, 54; proposed, 15; sec. read- 
ing, 18. 

Rothschild, Lord, elected Councillor, 

Rowntree, W. S.. appoiuted Scrutineer. 

Bnhl^ British, drawings exhibited 
(Trower), 4. 

Saccardo, Prof. P. A., death announced, 

II, 19. 
Salisbury. Dr. E. J., elected Councillor. 




Salmon, C. E., elected Councillor, 20. 

Sant, James, R.A , his painting of tlie 
first admission of women as Pellows, 
presented by Lady Crisp, 55. 

Siistrin, see Ramana-Sastrin. 

Schwendener, Prof. S., deatli an- 
nounced, 9, 19; obituary, 47. 

Scott, Dr. D. H., Councillor retired. 

Scrutineers appointed, 20-21. 

Secretaries elected, 2 1 . 

Sedgwick, L. J., admitted, 9. 

Sex and Soma (McLean), 4-5. 

Shaw, F. J. F., admitted, 56. 

Sheppard, A. VV.. admitted, 2. 

Sibour, Louis Blaise, Viconite de, pro- 
posed, iS. 

Siu), Dr. T. R., elected, 10; proposed, 
I ; sec. reading, 6. 

Skottsberg, Dr. K. .T. R, Botanical 
features of Juan Fernandez group, 

Small, Pruf. J., Clieinical reversal of 
geotropic resjionse in roots and stems, 

Smith, sefi Gardner-Smith, enid Irvvin- 

Smith, Miss A. L.. elected Comicillor, 
20; Lichens of New Caledonia, 14- 


Sndtii, J. C, remored from List, 20. 
Smith, Miss W., withdrawn, 20. 
Soma, Sex and (McLean), 4-5. 
Southee, E. A., elected, 3 ; sec. reading, 

Sowerby, G. B., withdrawn, 20. 
Sponges, Fragrance of Calcinean ; <S^w- 

crypta spoiigiariim ; and notes on the 

physiology of sponges (Bidder), 18 ; 

Volumes on, formerly the property of 

Prof. Minchin, presented, 6. 
Spratt, Miss F., proposed, 57. 
Squire, Sir Peter \V., deceased, 19; 

obituary, 49. 
.Steindachner, F., deceased, 19. 
Stephens, H. C, deceased, 19. 
Sutherland, Dr. G. K., elected. 18; 

proposed, 5 ; sec. reading, 17. 
Sutton, A. W., Councillor retired. 

Tembe, C. M., elected, 57 ; proposed, 

18 ; sec. reading, 56. 
Thaxter, Prof. R., elected For. Merab., 

18 ; proposed, 13. 
Th6riot, I., Mosses of New Caledonia, 

Thompson, A. R., admitted, 5 ; elected, 

3 ; sec. reading, i . 
Thomson, Miss M. R. H., elected 3; 

sec. reading, t. 
Tillyard, Dr. R. J., admitted, 57; The 

Cawthron Institute, i;8. 
Trail Award and Medal, received by 

Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan, 35. 
Trail, Prof. J. W". IL, deceased, 19; 

obituary, 49-51. 
Treasurer, Annual Report, 1^.22-24.; 

elected (H. W. Monckton), 21. 
Tremearne, Mrs. M. N., withdrawn, 

Trower, Miss, drawings of British 

Euhi exhibited, 4. 
Turner, J. S., decea.sed, 19. 
Tutcher, W. J., deceased, 19; obituary, 


f ppsala, proposed restoration of Old 
Botanic Garden and Carl von Linne's 
house, 57. 

Vaughan, see Gwynne-Vaughan. 

V' ice-Presidents appointed, 55. 

Vilmorin, J. de, elected, 15; proposed, 
I ; sec. reading, 13. 

Vochting, Prof. H. von. death an- 
nounced, 9, 19. 

Wager, Dr. H., Councillor retired, 

Wakefield, Miss E. M., Fungi of New 

Caledonia, 14-15. 
Waldo, see Meade-Waldo. 
Walsh, Col. J. H. Tull, elected Cuun- 

cillor, 20. 


Swanton, E. W., elected .\ssociate, 17; 

proposed, 13. 
Syncrypta spongiarum* (by Dr. Bidder), 


Wanstead Flats, resolution 
enclosure of, &o., 17. 

Ward, Capt. P. K., exploration of tiie 
N.E. Frontier of Burma, 17. 

Weiss, Prof. F. E., appointed Scruti- 
neer, 20-21 ; motion on alteration 
in Bye-Law.s, 16; moved tlie vote 
of thanks for President's Address, 

West, Prof. G. S., deceased, 19 ; obitu- 

a>7. 52- 
Whaling in tlie Southern Ocean, lan- 
tern-shdcs shown (Dakin ), 55. 


Taylor, Miss B. B, 

reading, i. 
Taylor, F. FT., elected, 

I ; sec. i-eading, 6. 

elected, 3 ; sec. 



W'liito, J. W.. witlidrawn, 20. 
VVhiteliead, A., showed laiilern-Blides 

of objects obs. near Basra, 55. 
Wilson, J. 0., withdrawn, 20. 
Wise, VV^, withdrawn, 20. 
Wishart, Dr. J, admitted, 56; elected, 

5+; proposed, 13; sec. reading, 18. 
Witlidrawals, 20. 
Wolley-Dod, Col. A. H., proposed, 19. 

Woodward, Dr. A. Smith, elected 
President and Councillor, 20-21. 

Young, A. P., deceased, 19. 

Zoological Secretary (Prof. E. S. 
Goodrich), elected, 21. 






THURSDAY, 17th JUNE, 1920, 




P.C., K.B., P.E.S., 

ox THE lOxK JUNE, 1820. 

Forming a Supplement to the Proceedings of the 
Society for the 132nd Session, 1919-20. 


BUin.lNGTO.N llOLSi:, I'lCCADlLLV, W,l, 

J 920. 


By B. Daydox Jackson, Ph.D., Gen.Sec.L.S. 

I THixt that tlie first volume I read as a child for my own 
])|i-asure was an abridged acroutit of Cook's Voynges, so that from 

■ a very early period of my life I iuuo been fnmiliar with Banks's 
adventures as a traveller. Since that time 1 have heen occupied 
OM four different ocensions with the life of Banks. 

(1) In 187<J the Keeper of Botany in tlie British Museum, 
JMr. \V. Carruthers, su'j;i;ested tliat I siiould undertake to draw up 
an account of Banks's life, froiu the material then in the Museum. 
The originals were only lodged Avith the Trustees, but it was 
understood that on the death of Lady KnatchbuU the documents 
w>'re to become the pro|)erty of the Nation. Meanwhile I was 

.given •'temporary possession'' of '23 folio vokimes, copied from 
the originals just mentioned, by the daughters of Dawson Turner, 
whose handwriting was to be seen in places. I then had plenty 
of time and abundance of enthusiasm, and therefore set to work 
with great energy. The first two volumes contained Banks's 
journal of his voyage in the ' Endeavour,' 1760-71, and 1 made 

■copious extracts from the narrative which so greatly interested 
me. For several months I continued my research, but gradually 
I found that the freshness and vigour of the journal had declined 
into the dry business statements of tlie official ; I had lost the 

■ man, the human being, and found only the olHcial recorder. I 
tried to remedy this by limiting for personal and private letters, 
but at that time tlie letters, which afterwards became available, 
were not to be found, and consequently my notes were laid aside, 
and not cast into a 'Life' which I felt would be destitute of 
human interest. 

(2) These notes, however, were of great use afterwards, when 
I wrote the life of Banks for Leslie Stephens's ' Dictionarv of 
National Biography.' 

(:i) Early ni lSiJ3 Sir Joseph Hooker spoke to me of his 
fruitless search after Banks's Journal, which he remembered his 
aunts copied for their father, Dawson Turnei-. 1 was able to 
assure him that this transcript was still in the Department of 
Botany, British Museum, and ultimately had the two volumes 
■copied, which, after being edited l)y Sir Joseph, were ])ublished 
by Macniiltan and Co. in 189(1 

(4) Once more my notes were used for a life of Banks, this 
tiuae by Mr. Edward Smith, which came out in 1911 ; by this time 
several volumes of letters written by Banks were available, and 
-Mr. Smith made good use of this advantage. 



Tlius t'loiM iiit'aiic'v to ;ige J luive liail before iiie ihe insjtiriiig- 
persoiialily of Sir .losepli JJaiiks, and am glad to take part in the 
present celebration of a remarkable man. 

As I have to deal with the earlier life of J3anks, I venture to 
prefix a few remarks on his birth and i)phrinf;in<i^. 

He was born in Argyle Street, a short distance from the room 
in wliicli we are assembled, in February 174^3, his ancestors beino;- 
Lincolnshire people : his father, William Banks, who succeeded 
to the family estates in 17-i(J ; his mother, I\Innanne, danghter of 
\\ illiam Hate. His school-days were passed at Harrow, whence 
alter four years he was sent to Eton, \\ here he earned the reputa- 
tion of heini,' devoted to |)lay, hut not addicted to hooks. From 
Eton he went u|) to Christ C'liurch, Oxford, lu IT'M his father 
died, leaving Joseph, still a minor, and a sister to the care of 
their mother. 

At the time uheii ]3anks went uj), the Prid'essor of Jjotany was 
Humphrey .Sihthorp, and as no lectures were delivered at Oxford,, 
be arranged with 8ibthorp to get a lecturer, whicli lie accom- 
plished by going to Cambridge, and bringing hack with him' 
Israel Lyons. J3anks went down in December 1703, and in the 
following February he came of age, and established himself at 

In 17(5(3 he engaued on his first voyage. An Oxford friend, 
Lieut. Constantiue Pliip|)s, afterwards second Baron Mul<ira\ e, was- 
on the ' Niger,' Capt. T. Adanis, which was ordered to Labrador 
and New fouiulland on business concerning the fisheries, lie sug- 
j:ested that Banks should accnm])any hiui, which idea was wanulv 
entertained ; the ' Nip;er ' sailed on 22nd Ajjril, 1766, and reached 
Newfoundland 1 1th ^lay ; thencelorwaid Banks was busy on 
jdants, birds, and fishes. The vessel made for Lisbon on her 
return, and reached that port on 2nd November, remaining there 
some weeks, enabling Banks to fauiiliarize himself with Portuguese 
productions. In 1767 he made two trips inland, westwards, and 
to Wales. 

The next year brought the great opportunity, which Banks 
seized. The Eoyal Society wanted accurate observation of the 
Transit of Venus, due in 1769. and arrangements were made for 
pnrties to ])roceed to Madras, Hudson Bay, and an island in the 
Pacific Ocean. James Cook, then a lieutenant in the Iii)yal Navy, 
was chosen commander of the 'Endenvoin-,' a Whilhy-huilt collier, 
and Hanks, with Daniel Solander, and a staff' of {lraiigbtsn:en and 
servants, nine in all, were assigned qmirters on boartl. 

'i'he 'Endeavour' left Plymouth on 25th August, 1768, and 
sailed to ^ladeira, where five days were spent; then it set its- 
course to Rio de Janeiro, w liich was gained on the 13th November. 
On the way Banks ami his company were constantly netting fish 
and marine animals and shootinir sea-birds, describing and liguring 
those which were new to science. 

Ti;e expedition was very badly treated by the Portuguese 


■colonial officers .at Rio; the explorers were not allowed to land, 
but Banks went ashore one day bet ore daybreak, and stayed till 
it was dark. After a fortniglit's slay, the ' Endea\our' was fired 
upon for attempting; to leave w ithout permission ; it turned out 
that the ivspoiisible brigudi^r had forgotten to send the per- 
jnission, wliieli had been written out some (hiys liefore. 

l'"rom liio the voyage was continued to Tierra del Fuego, Banks 
iind Solander landing on JStaten Island. Two days later they ran 
the risk ot^ perishing in tl)e snow, a tale w.-ll known but worthy 
of being meiirioned in its ])roper place. Solandt r, Banks, Monk- 
liouse (inid:jliipman), and Gi-een (astrononna-) set out to get well 
into the country anil ascend the liills, w liich were bare of trees. 
On starting, the weather w.-is 'niich like a suiishiny d:iy in JMay ; 
on reaching the plains, thev fuuiid ilie level surface consisted of 
low i)ircli-bushes reaching waist-hiyli, which formed the most 
tedious travelling. In the midst of this, Mr. Buchaii, an artist, 
fell into a fit. A fire was lit for him, and the more active pushed 
on for the next hill. It was now very cold, with frequent snow- 
blasts, so all hope of getting back to the ship that day was given 
up, and they tried to get into the middle of a wood and to make 
a tire, Banks bringinir up the rear. The cold increased, and 
•Solander said he could go no further, hut )i)ust lie down, which 
he did, in spite of all Banks couhl say. A black servant did tlie 
sa'ue. Banks now despatched five of the party to make a fire 
at the first convenient spot, whilst he and four reiiuiined to 
get Solander and the negro along. Both again laid themselves 
down to sleep, when the welcome news came of the fire lit a 
short distance ahead: B;inks took charge of Solander, and left 
two hands to remain with the negro ; after getting warmed, 
a, party was sent back, but it was found impossible to get the 
sleepers forvvard; they were therefore covered with boughs of 
trees. One vulture formed the whole provision for the party. 

The next morning the weather improved, and the party reached 
the shore in three hours, having nunle a half-circle. On getting 
on board, they nundiered two invalids, and two had been lost. 

The ' Endeavour' sailed hence towards Tahiti, and arrived there 
after three months' passage. The voyagers quickly found the 
natives adepts in theft, and during the whole time of the ship's 
stay this malpractice had to be guarded against. The climax was 
the theft of the astronomical quadrant, and Banks, as usual, had 
to be tlie thief-catcher ; the temperature was 91° Fahr., but the 
activity of Baid<s resulted in all the parts being restored. It 
seems extraordinary that only one quadrant should Iiave formed 
part of the equipment, as the whole object of the expedition 
depended upon that single instrument, which might well have 
renuiined undiscovered among the many luitives who had taken 
parts of it. 

The transit having been duly observed, the expedition left 
Tahiti after a stay of three montlis, and four months late'- made 


New Zealand, wliicli was sailed round, ami linally lett on lilst March,. 
1770, tlie sliij) heading towards Australia; Botany JJay was 
sighted, and soon atter the first kangaroo was seen. iSot long 
after this the shi|) si ruck upon a coral-rock, and hy tlie moonlight 
her sheaHiing-hoiirds and lalse-keel were seen to come away. Day 
hrouglit calm weather, and the crew hegan to lighten the sliip.. 
By night the ship was almost afloat, but the leak was only kept 
under hy all the ])iim|)s working. At last she was hauled off, and 
seemed to make no more water than w hen last on the I'ock. Alter 
his hard work Banks threw himsell down for a rest, when the 
alarndng news was re])orled that the water had gained four feet 
in the hold. All hands started again to work, and then it was- 
found that the carj)enter had made a mistake in sounding. At 
this juncture one of the ii:itlshipn)en proposed the expedient of 
" fotliering," by taking a sail and stitching handfuls of oakum and 
wool in rows; this sad was drawn under the ship, and the suction 
of the leak drew the loose materials into the gap, and stopped the- 
flow of water. 

The ship was next worked into a harbour, the mouth of the 
Endeavour River, where she was run ashore and her bottom 
repaired; the leak was found to be partly stopped by a piece o£ 
rocK as large as a list being stuck in it and broken oft' slioit. 
rinally, llie ship was worked out through the barrier-reef hy 
Cook's Passage. Java and Timor were passed, till Batavia was 
reached in (October 1770. Sickness then broke out, and Banks,. 
8olander, and Cook were prostrated by fe\er, the first victim to 
the climate being jNloidchouse, the ship's surgeon. The requisite 
repairs to the ship being finished, they set sad on Christmas Day.. 
Several of the crew died at Batavia, and many more before the 
Cape was reached; in turn St. lieieiia was visited, and on the 
12th July, J^anks landed at Deal. 

It may be mentioned that not only Dr. Havvkesworth, but 
Lieut. Cook adorned their somewhat prosaic narrati\es wiih 
purple p itches from Banks's more vi\id accounts. 

Sir Joseph Hooker's estimate of Banks's services on the Expe- 
dition are as follow s : — " It needs no reading hetween the lines of 
the great navigator's [i. e. Cook's] Journal to discover his estima- 
tion of the ability of his companion, of the value of his researcbes,. 
and of the impoi'tance of his active co-operation on many occasions.. 
It was Bank> who rapidly mastered the language of the Otahitans 
and became the interpreter of the party, and wno was the investi- 
gator of the customs, habits, etc., of these and of the natives of 
New Zealand. It \\as often through his activity that the com- 
missariat was supplied w ith lood. He was on various occasions- 
the thief-taker, especially in the case of his hazardous expedition 
for the recovery of the stolen quadrant, upon the use of which, in 
obser\ingthe transit of Veiuis across the sun's disc, the success 
of the expedition so greatly depended. And, above all, it is ta 
Banks's forethouErht and at his own risk that an Otahitan man 


and boy were taken on board, through whom Banks directed, 
when in New Zealand, those inquiries into the custom.s of its 
inhabitants, which are the ioiindatioii of our knowledge of that 
interesting people. And when it is considered that the informa- 
tion obtained . . . the fulness and accuracy of the description of 
tlie New Zealanders, even as viewed in the light of modern 
knowledge, are very remarkable. Nor should it be forgotlen that 
it was to the drawings made by the artists whom Banks took in 
his suite that the public is indebted for the magnificent series of 
plates that adorn Hawkesworth's account of the voyage. Still 
another motive is that Banks's Journal gives a life-like portrait of 
a naturalist's daily occupation at sea and ashore nearly one hundred 
and thirty years ago ; and thus supplements the history of a 
voyage which, for extent and importance of geographic and 
Itydrographic results, was unique and ' to the English nation the 
most momentous voyage of discovery that has ever taken place,' 
aiul has, moreover, directly led to the prosperity of the Empire; 
for it was owing to the reports of Cook and Banks, and it is 
believed, to the representations of the latter on the advantages of 
Botany Bay as a site for a settlement, that Australia was first 
colonised." (Journal, pp. viii, ix.) 

Sir John Pringle, President of the Royal Society, took Banks 
to Kew, and introduced him to the 'King; an audience was 
granted on the lOtli August, when Banks and Solander had a long 
conference on their discoveries and marvellous adventures. A 
cordial friendship thus arose between George III. and Banks, 
which resulted in great benefits to Science, as you will be reminded 
almost immediately. 

The friendship between Banks and liO^rd Sandwich, the Chief 
of the Admiralty, was increased by the success of this voyage, and 
so soon as the month of Se|)tember in the same year another 
expedition was being planned, with two vessels under Cook. 
Banks readily consented to share in the expedition, and his pre- 
l)arations were on a still more costly scale than on the former 
voyage. But ditliculties arose from the additions which had been 
made in the 'Kesohition' to acconnnodate the naturalists, and 
ultimately all Banks's stores were removed from the ship, and he 
withdrew from the expedition. The Eorsters, father and son, 
took his place. 

The extensive preparations made by Banks were not, however, 
fruitle>s, for they were used for an expedition to Iceland on a 
ship specially chartered by Banks ; it sailed on 12th July, 1772, 
with a party of forty persons. Passing down the Channel, tiiey 
liinded for two days in the Isle of Wight, touched at Plymouth, 
and then shaped a couise for the We.stern Islands of Scotland. 
AVhilst lying in the Sound of Mull, a chance meeting of friends 
revealed the fact of an island which had hardly ever been visited, 
A boat was ecpiipped with two days' ])rovisions, and Bii-uks and 
his party made their way to Stali'a, which was discovered in this 


maiiiicr. Hanks wrole a full aci-i»iiiit in liis Journal, whic-h was 
coi)ie(l into several ])ul)licatioiis, thus bringing the island into 

On liSth August the vessel reached Iceland, and they remained 
a niontli on shore. Their lour took in many oF the most remark- 
able features, as Thiiigviilla, the (ieysers, llt^kla, the llvitae, etc. 
Jianks was one of the iii-st. perhaps the first, to ascend lieiila, 
which he did in a storm of \Mn(l, witli frost on the f^round, and 
cold enougli to freeze the moisture in the air on their elothes. 
The return from Iceland was leisurely, and it was not till 
liJtli Xoveruber that Banks, Solander, and Dr. -Lind left Edin- 
hurgli for London. 

Once more Banks travelled al)road ; in March 1773 he went to 
Kotterdam, and attended a meeting of the JJatavian Society, where 
he spoke of his wish to undertake a voyage towards the North 

Tliis closed the career of Banks as a traveller, for liis journeys 
tliroui;ii England, as to and from Bevesby to London, are not 
adventurous enough to he ranked with his oversea experiences. 
At the age of 30 this chapter of his life closed, and the remaining 
forty-seven years fall within the province of my colleagues to 

Select Bihliorjfaplvj. 

Hawkesworth, Joiix (1715 ?-73). An account of the voyages 
. . . by Captain Cook . . . from the papers of J. Banks, Esq. 

London, 1773, 3 vols. 4to. 

Cook, Lvmes (1728-79). Captain Cook's Journal during his first 
voyage round the world made in H.M. Bark ' Endeavour,' 
1768-71 . . . with notes by W. J. L. Wharton. 

London, 1873. 8vo. 

Banks, A'^ Hon. Sir Joseph, Bt. (1743-1820). Journal . . . 
during Ca|)taiu Cook's first voyage in H.M.S. 'Endeavour' 
in 1768-71, etc., edited by Sir Joseph Hooker. 

London, 1896. 8vo. 

[Life in] Dictionary ol National Biographv, vol.iii. 129-133 

(1885), by B. D. J. 

Smith, EnwAitn (?). The life of Sir Joseph Banks, President of 
the lioyal Society, etc. London, 1911. 8vo. 

Maiden, Joseph Henui (1859- ) Sir Jo^^eph Banks: the 
' Father of Au,trali;i..' Svdney, 1909. 8vo. 

TiioiL, Uno von (1746-1803), B-ef rcirande en resa til Island, 
1772 . . . 1777. Tr. by J. II. Eorster from the Grerman 
version, as 'Letters on Iceland . . , [with] an account of 
the Island of Staffa, communicated by J.. Banks, etc' 

London, 1780. 8vo. 
Republished in Pinkorton, Voyages, vol. i. 1808. 4to. 


By A. B. Eendle, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., Sec.L.S. 

A VEUV early instance of Banks's interest in ilie pi-oiuotion ot" 
.Science is fouiul in his lime at Oxford. Banks wished to learn 
sometliing of Botany, but the t,eacliin<j; of Jiotany was a|)pai"entiy 
not one of the functions of the then Professor, 11 iiinphrey Sib- 
thorp ; however, he was pleased to approve a suygesiion by voting 
liaiiks iliat a lecturer or reader nnght be i)i-oviiled who should be 
reniunerated bv com rif)ut ions from his students. No such person 
being available at Oxfoid, Jianks rode to Cambridge to consult 
John Martyn, w lio was abl<- to supply the want in the person of 
Jsrael Lyons, a niathematician and botanist of Trinity, irom 
whose teaching IJimks and his fellow-students at Oxford profited. 

The long three-vear Noynge with Capt. Cook, suggesting to a 
mind keen on the i)ursiiit uf Natural History and quick to a|)pi'e- 
■ciate Its api)licatii/n ill the interest and for the delight of his 
felljw-men, the wonderful possibilities of botanical exploration in 
little-known parts of the world, supplied the stimulus for the 
numerous remarkabl}^ varied schemes and pursuits which lead us 
to regard Banks as a great patron of Science. On his return to 
England in 1771 Banks found himself already famous. He wns 
introduced to the King, and a friendship beg.ui '.vhich was fraught 
with gre;it benefit to Science and to humanity. The Kinii; 
habitually consulted Banks on matters bearing on the welfare of 
his people, and Banks was able to suggest or help forward useful 

In the autumn of 1777 Banks took tlie large house in Soho 
Square (No. ^2), which was his principal residence for the rest of 
his liie, and which became the resort of stiidenls, who were free 
to consult the tine lilirary, museum, and herbarium, and of all 
■classes of persons interested in schemes of philanthropy or for the 
advancement of Science. 

The French traveller and scientist, Bartlu'lemy Faiqas de 
■Saint-Foiid, writes (' Travels in Enifland aiul Scotland and the 
Western Islands in 17S4'): — 

Banks's house was the "rendezvous of those who cultivate the 
sciences. They assemble every morninij; in one of the apartments 
of a numerous library, which consists entirely of books on Natural 
History, and is the completest of its kind in existence. There 
all the journals and public papers, relative to the sciences, are to 
be found; and there they communicate to each other such new 
discoveries, as they are informed of by their respective correspon- 
dents, or wdiich are transmitted by the learned foreigners who 
visit Lonilon, and who are all admitted into this society. A 
friendly breakfast of tea or coii'ee supports that tone of ease and 
fraternity which ought universally to prevail among men of 
■Science and letters." 



JiaiiL-s hail Itet-ii elected F.ii.S. in 1 TOO at the age of 23. lli» 
eleelioii us rresideiit twelve rears hiter iiidii-ates the |iositioii he 
hud uh-eaily al tallied in tlie scietititic world. Though othei- names 
were sii<,'m-.stetl, i here Was a general opinion that no one was so 
well (luulilied to occupy the vacant chair, and Banks was elected 
j)ractiiaily unanimously. 

Thus at the age of 35 Banks occupied the premier |)08ition in 
the scieiitifte world, wna jjersona (jrata at Court, possessed ample 
means, and a kimwledge gained by actual experience of the 
resources, as yet largely untapped, of the i^lobe. To these were 
added uii attractive and powert'iil personality, -(oikI health, and an 
intense enthusiasm for doing things and getting things done. 

It is to he regretted that theiv is no record of a long life of 
unremitting work and remarkably varied usefulness beyond what 
can be pieced together from the correspondence extending o\er 
more than 50 years, a copy of which is in the Depar;meiit of 
Botany of the British Museum. 

For 4l' years Hanks was President of the Boyal .Society ; it has 
been said — he was the Royal Society, Jle ruled as an autocrat; but 
it would seem that on the whole he ruled wisely and acted in what 
he regarded as the best interests of the Society. During the early 
years of his occupancy of the Chair some friction aro:<e between 
President and Secretaries. Banks was anxious to raise the 
standard of the Fellowship, and announced that he meant to 
watch over applications for admission. He freely expressed his 
opinion on the merits of candidates, and advised for or against 
their election at the time of ballot. The rejection of a number of 
candidates gave offence to some of the Fellows, and in 1783 the 
discontent came to a head in an effort by a strong party fo sup- 
plant Banks, who was also accused of u lack of sympathy with 
the side of the Society's work. However, a motion, 
which was seconded by the Hon. Hy. Cavendish, "that this 
Society do approve of Sir Joseph Banks as their President, and 
mean to support him in that olfice," was carried by 111) against 
42. After the election of a new Secretary a few montiis later, in 
which Dr. iilagden, who was supported by Banks, secured a 
majority of lOU (139 to 3'.)) over the candidate put for*\ard by the 
opposition, the meetings resumed their former peaceful character. 

As regards our own Society — 1 was askeil a few days ago» 
a propos of our present coniinemoration, what special connection 
Sir Joseph lianks had with the Limiean Society. 'I'he Royal 
Society, the British Museum, the Royal Gardens, Kew. — the 
association of Sir Joseph Banks with these is, or should be, 
generally known; but what special interest had he in the Linnean 
Society? Though Banks played an important part in the deve- 
lopment of the three institutions above-named, with which his 
name has been associated, he found them all in existence. It is 
probable that had it not been for Banks the Linnean Society of 
London would not have come into being when and how it did. 


After the death of LiiiiiKUs in l'/7'S, Ms hei-bai-ium, other collec- 
tions, and library passed to his son, who died live years later.. 
Liananis's widow, doubtless in tlie hope of st-curiiig a higher price 
than w ouUl have been given in 8uedeii, offered the collections and 
library to ^ir Joseph iianks for the snni of lOOUgs. Banks, who 
had already a large herbarium, wa-i not inchned to acquire them, but 
urged his friend i)r. James Edward Siintli, a young man who was 
much interested in Botany, to purchase them, and iSmith became,, 
in 17^4, the possessor of the whole of Linnasus's library, nniseiim,. 
and M8S. for the sum of 90U gs. In 1 7S8 Dr. James Edward 
JSuuth founded the Linnean Society, and at the first meeting for 
the election of J'ellows Banks was appointed one of three Vice- 
Presidents. Thus had it not been for the European, fame which 
Banks had acquired as a liberal patron of Science, the original 
offer would not have been made, and had it not been for Jianks'a 
kindly interest in the scientific pursuits of a younger man the 
offer nuglit merely have been declined. h\ either case the story 
of our Society would have been different, and its reputation as the 
home of the collections of the founder of systematic natural histijry 
uiight have been wanting. Thus the connection of Banks with 
our Society, though indirect, was of some importance. 

Again, the Linneau Society is the principal medium in this 
country for the publication of work dealing with taxonomic botany,, 
and Sir Joseph Banks, by his own travels and by initiating and 
encouraging wovk of botanical exploration in all parts of the world,, 
did magniticent service towards advancing the srudy of systematic 
botany. At any rate. Banks was a liberal supporter of this Society ; 
for instance, he bore the cost of the copper and engraving of the 
20 plates in the first volume of the ' Transactions.' 

In 1800 the Koyal Institution was founded, the outcome of a 
suggestion by Count liumford for popularizing Science by lectures 
and laboratory work. It was at Banks's house in Soho Square 
tiiat the meeting was held at which the [)ropositioii was adopted. 

Sir Jo.seph was also one of the seven gentlemen who met at 
Mr. llatchard's shop in Piccadilly on 7th March, 1804, and founded 
a Society for the study of Horticulture, which sub.sequently 
became the Koyal Hi)rticultural Society. The Earl of ])art mouth 
was the first President, and Sir J. Banks one of the Vice-Presiileuts. 

The Royal Gardens, Ivew, had attained considerable importance 
under the Princess Augusta with the assistance of the Earl of 
Bute, a keen botanist who took an active part in developing the 
botanical side of the Gardens. On the death of the Princess in 
1772, George III. maintained the botanical character of the estab- 
lishment with even greater energy than his mother, the place of 
botanical adviser being now taken by Sir Juseph Banks, who was 
virtually through the greater part of his life Director of the 
Gardens. Banks conceived the notion (Jf making Kew the deposi- 
tory of every known plant that could be useful or ornamental in 
a climate like our own, ami collectors were despatchetl on numerous 


expeditions to difi'ereiit parts of tlie world for plants and seeds. 
Tlie names of some of these collectors will be familiar to us: — 
Francus Masson, wlio \ isited the Ca[)e of Good Hope twice, Madeira, 
the Canaries, Azores, rSpain, Tangier, and the Balearic Islands, and 
finally siu-ciimbed to the cold of a Canadian winter; ArL-hihalil 
.Menzies, a vonng .Scotch surgeon who caiiu' w ith an introduction 
to JJaiiks Irom JJr. Hope, the Edinburgh Professor of JJotany, and 
was appointed under lianks'h directions naturalist to the expedition 
to the Pacific under Ca|jt. Vancouver on the 'Discovery' — among 
his discoveries are the Calilornian Jiedwood (6>(yH0/M stmpervlrens), 
and the Chili Pine {Araucaria imhricatu); and Greorge Caley. 
whom Jianks appointed in 1801 to collect in iS'ew^ouih Wales. 
-Medical men and others residing o\ersea were also brought into 
correspondence and encouraged to send plants home. Among corre- 
spondents ill the E:ist were the brothers Russell at Aleppo, the 
authors of a History of Aleppo, Konig, Naturalist in the Carnatic 
to the East India Company, Dr. Hoxhiirgh, the pioneer exponent 
of the Indian Elora, the Moravian Brothers Mission, and others. 

Banks was the moving spirit in arranging ami lilting out the 
expedition of the ' Bounty ' in 17»7, under Captain Bligh (a friend 
of Banks who had served under Capt. Cook), for transporting 
Bivadfruit trees from Otaheile to the AVest Indies; and tiiost 
explicit instructions were drawn up by Banks for David Nelson, 
the gardener, as well as for the general conduit of the expedition. 
The mutiny on the 'Bounty' after leaving Oraheite with the 
supply of Breadfruit is matter of history. Jianks must have 
been bitterly disap|)ointed at the tragic failure of i he attempt, but 
he took tlie matter up again without delay, and in less than two 
years a second expedition was fitted out and 3U0 trees were safely 
landed both at Jamaica and 8t. Vincent. 

Banks's ample means were an important factor in his success 
as a patron of Science. But though he used his means with 
discretion he wa^ generous in hel|)ing othei's. For instance, 
Banks himself had been at consiileral)le expense in preparing for 
Capt. Cook's second expedition of 177l^, which lie was to join on 
similar conditions to those in which he had previously accompanied 
Cook: but the arrangeiiieiits fell throngli at the last moment. 
Dr. ijind, physician, trav»;ller, and astronomer, who was to have 
formed one of the party, had also been at some expense which 
Banks offered to reimburse. " He told me,'' writes Lind to a 
friend, " that he looked on his estate as belonging to his friends 
as well as himself; that he held me as one of them, and begyed me 
to command my share of it whenever I wanted it." 

Through Banks's liberality P'rancis Bauer, the eminent Austrian 
floral painter who accompanied ]}aron Joseph Jaccpiin to England 
ill 17^8, wjis attached as draughtsman to the Botanic Garden at 
Kew. a post -which he occupied for 50 years. Banks not only 
paid his salary during his own life but provided for its continuance 
after his tl^ath (see ' Delineations of Exotic plants cultivated in the 
lioyal Gardens at Kew,' 179(>.) 


The name of AVilliain Herschel, the great astronomer, recalls 
another instam-e of Banks's jjower and willingness W> help. 
Herschel was a singularly modest man whose work was in danger 
of being hampereil through pecuninry difticiiltv. Banks prompted 
hy Dr. \Vm. Watson, a mutual friend, used his personal influence 
with the King, the result being that an appointment worth £200 
a year was found for Herschel, who was also presently received 
at Court, provided with (luarters at Windsor, and thu< enabled 
to devote his whole time to his astronomical work. Tiie corre- 
snondence contains :i number of letters from AV;itson and Herschel 
to Hanks, in s'Mue of which detailed accounts of Herschel's 
w^ork a'-e given, indicating that Banks's interest in his discoveries 
was bv no iiiejins superficial but at times even critical. The- 
following extracts from the correspmuleiice bear on Herschel's 

W>n. AVa'son to Sir Joseph Banks. 

" Amon<^ the motives which have induced me to write to you,. 
I will not conceal my wish that yon may be the persoii to whom 
my Friend may be chiefly indebted for his success. It was you, 
who first mentioned him to the King, and occasioned the honour- 
able invitation he received from him, Finish therefore, Dear Sir, 
the noble work you have begun, by an application to the King, 
tlie success of wbicli I cannot douht, and remember that you may 
feel hereafter the great satisfaction in haxing been the chief 
instrument in the honourable establishment of so ingenious and 
excellent a jierson, who has already done so much tlio" fettered by 
his present profession, & from whom so much more may be 
reasonably expected, \vhenever his situation shall permit him the 
undisturbed exertions of his great abilities." 

Bath, June 29, 1782. 

AVm. Herschel to .Sir Joseph Banks. 


I have been in hopes of soon having the Honour personally 
to make my acknowledgments to you for the favour of your 
mentioning 'me to his Majesty in so advantageous a light, but 
till I have that opportunity will not defer by a few lines to return 
the sincerest thanks for your kindness. To it, is owing the 
<>-racious reception 1 have met with from his Majesty, who has 
i)rovided for me so as to put it now in mv |)ower to devote all 
mv attention to Astronomy and Optics. It will at all times be 
mv oreatest amliitiou to endeavour to render myself worthy of 
the patronage of Sr. J. Banks, and to prove with how much, 
sincerity and respect I am 


Your most obligM and 
most obrfdt. Innnhle Servt. 
Queen's Lodge, Wm. Hersciii:l." 

Windsor, Aug. 26, 1782. 


Among the innny schemes with which Banks was connected 
was the Association for J'roinot ing the Uiscoveiy of the Inland 
Districts of Africa. Useful j)ioneer work w as done by this Society 
thouj^h at the cost of life and treasure. The most successful 
exj)edition was that to the (iainbia under Muiigo Park, a young 
medical man and protege of Sir Joseph's, 171)4-97 : a second 
expedition under Park in 18<>5 to the Niger met with disaster. 

Banks also secured the a|)|)ointment of his friend Afzelius, a 
vouMg Swede, as botanist to the Sierra Leone Company : and 
large collections were made during the four years of his stav, 

In 1798 Mungo Park had been asked by the Government to 
join a surveying e.xpedition to New Holland, but the nuitter fell 
through. The event w as how ever the occasion of the introduction 
to Hanks of Bnbert Brow n in the follow ing letter from Josef Correa 
de Serra, a Portuguese exile resident in London and an intimate 
friend of Banks. 

"Soho Square, 17th October. 1798. 
" Eight llonble Sir, 

I hope you will not take amiss, my interference in the 
subject of this note. Mr. Brown, a very good naturalist, who 
frequents your Library, where I have made acquaintance with 
him, hearing that Mungo Park does not intend to go any more to 
Xew Holland, offers to go in his ])lace. Science is a gainer in 
this change of man; Mr. Brown being a professed naturalist. 
He is a Scotchman tit to i)ursue an object with Constance and 
cold mind. His present situation is of Ensign and Assistant 
Surgeon in the Fife-shire Fencibles, ])revious to which employ- 
ment he received a regular Liiterary education at Edinburg. It 
is by his own desire that I take the Liberty of making you 
acquainted A\ith his wishes; his modesty deterring him from 
w riting to you himself. 

I am sir most respecrfnlly yours 


Two years later Brown was ofJered and accepted the post of 
Xatinaiist on board the 'Investigator,' which was being fitted 
out for a voyage of scientific exploration to New Holland under 
Capt. Flinders. 

Ferdinand Bauer went as the botanic draughtsman, lirown 
returned in October 1805, and in January 180*5 Sir J. Banks 
reports to the Board of Admiralty the extent of the collections, 
which were estin)ated as representing 3600 species of plants, 
besides other natural history collections, and 11064 sketches by 
Bauer. Banks also ananged that tlie salaries of Brown and 
Bauer should he continued in order to enable them to complete 
their work. " I will undertake,'' he writes, "to direct the progress 
■of these gentlemen, to quicken them if they are dilatory, to assist 


1hem when it is in uiy poAver and io report to tlieir Lordships 
the profjress made by each in his respective dejiartment once a 
year at least." 

On the death of Dryander in 1810 Brown succeeded him as 
librarian to Sir J. Banks, and remained in charge of the liliraiy and 
lierbarinm until the death of his patron in 1820. At Banks's death 
it was found that his magnificent lihrary of Natural History, his 
Iterbarium, manuscripts, drawing-:, engravings and other collec- 
tions had been be()ueatlied to the British Museum subject to alife- 
interesfc in them by Bobert Brown, who however was empowered 
to cause tlie collections to be transferred to the Museum during his 
life-time. This transfer was effected in 1827, and the Botanical, 
•or, as it was for many years known, the Banksian Department 
of the British Museum was established, under the keepership of 
Robert Brown, a lasting monument of the devotion of Paiiks 
to the, Science of Botany in the pursuit of which he had travelled 
far, spent imich and \\orked unremittingly. 

By James Brittetv', F.L.S. 

The position of Banks as a ]noneer of scientific travel and as a 
patron of science generally has been so universally recognized 
and has been so sun)mari/.ed by the two previous speakers, that it 
might seem that there was little left to say about him. 13ut there 
remains an aspect of his work which has onlv ni comparatively 
recent times received the attention \\ hich it deserves, and which 
it has been thought might adequately form the subject of a few 
remarks on this occasion. Tiiat 1 should have been honoured 
with a request to say something about Banks as a botanist is due 
to the fact that I have for nearly half a century been intimately 
acquainted with the m;iterial supplied by the Herbarium of which 
his collections were the foundation. 

It is by such intimate acquaintance, not only with the collections 
but with the other material contained in the l)ej)artmeiit of the 
British Museum which was at one time known as '" the Banksian," 
that an adequate estimate of Banks's knowledge can be formed. 
Of that material an important item is the transcript of his Cor- 
respondence, in twenty-one volumes, by the daughters of Dawson 
Turner; the distressing history of the originals of this is set forth 
by Mr. Carruthers in a letter to Sir Joseph Hooker prefixed to 
his publication of Banks's Journal — itself printed fnua a similar 
transcript in the same Department. 


To enter upon a description of the contents of tliese Aolunips 
would be beyond my present provinc-e : it must suflice to pay that 
tliey inrlude letters from It-iuiers of scieni-e and art and from 
otiu'rs wliosc nauK's are prominent in tlie liistory of the period — 
17t)<)-lSli> — wliicli lliey cover. JJot:iny of course liolds its ])lace 
aminiti tlie suljjccis discussed in llie letters; but- the evidence 
scattered tlirouf^li his Herbarium and still more the M.SS. in his 
hand reliitiiig to his travels and the ])Iants then collected afford 
abundant testimony to the pi-ominent position whicii that science 
— the first wliicli attracted liim — held in Jiiinks's esteem and to 
the kn(»\vle(l<;e which he ])ossessed, and it is es[)ecially to the ]\1S!S. 
that 1 propose to call sitteniion. 

Perhaps the most interestiii<j; are those connected with his \oyage 
to ^Newfoundland in 17<)(). Of this voy.ige liunLs kept a Journal, 
which, after ilie dispersal of his MISS, in \bbii, came into the 
possession of the late IS. W. ISiUer, a Fellow of this Society, at 
whose death it was purchased, with the rest of his library, by the 
South Australian JJranch of the Koyal (leofjrapliical So'-iety of 
Adelaide. It was in two volumes; of the first of these, front 
April 7 to No\. 17, we have in the Department of Botany 
a transcript by Eanks's sister Sarah Sophia, made in 177l?; thi^ 
second of only niiieteeii ])at:es, from his arrival in the Tap;us at 
the latter date, contains nothing of interest, in tlie 'Journal of 
JJotany' for 19041 gave some account of theXew foundland Joui'nal, 
whicli is of considerable toi)ograpliical and scientific interest 
and abounds in notes on the natural history of the island, atid 
expressed a hope that it might he published ; it would be a graceful 
commemoration of this centenary if the Linnean Society could 
see its way to such an uiulertaking, but this would probably be 
impracticable under present conditions. A. jMS. note in the 
Correspondence states that this is the earliest Banksian journal 
in existence. 

Another MS. volume contains Banks's MS. list of the 2l!0 plants 
collected — this is the earliest cataloi;ue of Newfoundland plants, 
and as such is well worthy of ])ublication. It is arranged in 
accordance with the Linnean system, and the habitat and locality 
of each species is noted; specimens of each are in the Ilerbariuu), 
the sheets beinjj; endorsed by Banks with the locality in accordance 
with Liiinicns's direction (Phil. Bot. p. 7). It ajipears from a 
note ill his Journal that Banks also collected "a box of seeds" 
and a "box of earth with plants in it"; but these were destroyed 
in a severe storm encountered on the fifth of November '• off the 
Western Islands " on the homeward voyage. 

On his return Banks employed Ehret to make drawings of 
twentv-two of the more interesting of his plants ; these, beautifully 
exe(;uted on vellum, are also in the Department of Hotany. l'i\e 
of them are reproduced in Aiton's ' Hortiis Kewensis,' and on the 
original drawings of three is a note by Banks stating that thev 
were taken from " dry specimens brought from New fouudland.'* 


I have dwelt on the Newfoundland collection at length because 
it gives more definite evidence of Banks's individual botanical 
attainments than is afforded by any of tlie later work in which he 
was associated with iSolander, wliose greater fame as a botanist 
has natm-ally overshadowed that of his patron, and to wliom 
exclusively is sometimes attributed worlc for wliich the two men 
were jointly responsible. Thus the now species described in the 
second edition of Alexander llusseli's 'Natural History of Aleppo ' 
(1789) are generally quoted as of tSolander, altliongh Patrick 
iiussell in his preface expressly states that the catalogue of plants 
was drawn up by both botanists. IJut the records of the New- 
foundland expedition contain no indication of any co-operation 
on Solander's ])art, and show that Banks, at the age of 24, had 
already obtained considerable botanical proficiency. 

In the year between the Newfoundland voyage and the departure 
of the voyage to the South Seas, Banks visited the west of 
England : the Journal which he kept during his excursion was 
acquired by Mr, Spencer George Perceval, who published it in 
the 'Proceedings of the Bristol Naturalists' Society' for 1898 
(ix. 6-37). 

From his school days at Eton, Banks had been interesied in • 
British plants ; we are told that while at school he paid some 
women, " cullers of simples,'' to bring him specimens of each 
plant they collected, for whicii he paid them sixpence ; that, 
finding at home an old torn coi)y of Gerard's Herbal, he took it 
back to Eton with him, and that while there he made considerable 
collections of plants and insects ; his botanical studies were 
continued during his university career at Oxford. A letter from 
Lightfout dated Feb. 27, 170G — the first of the transcribed 
Correspondence — shows that Banks was at that time in active 
correspondence with the writer and v\ith other botanists ; and 
Lightfoot's account of his own earlier visit to St. Vincent's liocks 
may have prom])ted Banks to the investigation of the plants of 
tliat locality recorded in the Journal of the AVest of England 
excursion. Banks again visited the AVest in 1773 — this time in 
company with Lightfoot on the way to and from their joint 
expedition to AVales. Of this joui'iif^y Lightfoot kept a diary, 
which is printed in the 'Journal of Botany ' for 1905, with four 
letters written later to Banks relating to plants collected on the 
occasion. The llerbainum contains specimens of the plants col- 
lected — among them some not mentioned by Lightfoot ; the sheets 
bearing the names in Banks's hand and are endorsed by him with 
notes giving locality and date : thus of I'Aipliorh'ui Lailti/ris, then 
llrst noted as a British plant, he writes : " I found this one 
plant among the Ligustrum on the south side of the Steep 
ilolmes Island, but being hurried by the tide had not titne to 
search for more." Writing of this exjiedition Lightfoot says : 
" I believe it may without vanity be saiti that few, if anv. Botanical 
hjxcursions in Great Britain liave exceeded our collection either 
in Niim])''r or liaritv of rianls." 

18 JJA.NK.^ C'KLKliliATlON. 

Jt is generally stated tliat BaiiUs made the acquaintance of 
Solandor (wlic came to Loiidon in 17C0) in 17<>7; but in the first 
letter of Lij^htFoot relVreiicc; is maile to the latter in a way which 
indic:itt.s that at that jn-riod at latest — the beginning of 1760 — 
lianks had luiowlcdge of him as a l)otanist. ISolandcr became a 
I'ellow (if tlu; Koyal tSociety in 1704 and Assistant-Librarian in 
the Eritisii Mnsmnn in the following year, and it seems reasonable 
to supi'osc that Banks had met « ith him in one of these jiositions. 
That Baidts was thoroughly acquainted with tSolander's botanical 
qualilications is evident frou) the fact that when, in 1708, he 
])roposed to join the voyage to the South Seas in order to 
observe the transit of Venus, Solander was invited to accompany 
him as naturalist — it may be noted that the arrangements for 
collectors and collections were carried out entirely at Banks's 
expense, at an estimated cost of .£10,000. He engaged as one of 
the artists Sydney Parkinson, a young Scoti;hn)an w ho had been 
commended to his notice by John Lee, the well-known nursei'y- 
inan of Hammersmith. In 1707 Banks sent Parkinson to dra\r 
at Kew, and the drawings then made (on vellum) arc in the 
Department of Botany. Banks expressed the greatest satisfac- 
tion with Parkinson's work during the voyage — "he behaved to 
me uncommonly well, and with unbounded industry made for me 
a much larger number of drawings than I ever expected." The 
total number made during the voyage was 055, of which 075 were 
sketches and 280 finished drawings. All the Australian and most 
of the New Zealand ones are sketches ; those from Brazil, Madeira, 
Tierra del Fuego and the Friendly Islands are nearly all finished 
drawings; of the Java plants tiiere are 44 linished drawings 
and 72 sketches : in a few cases Parkinson made both sketches 
and finished drawings of the same plant. On the back of the 
sketches are notes by Parkinson of the colour of the leaves, 
flowers, etc., and the locality is added by Banks. 

As is well known, finished drawings from the sketches were 
made for J3anks by various artists on the return of the voyage, 
during which Parkinson had died, and cop])er-plates Avere prepared 
for publication ; from these a certain number of the Australian 
plants were reproduced in a volume published by the Trustees of 
the British Museum in 1900-1905: in the introduction to this 1 
have given a detailed account of the history of the collections. 
Parkinson's drawings and sketches, \\ilh the finished drawings 
of other artists and impressions of the copper-])lates, form a series 
of volumes in the Department of Botany. 

The descri[)tion of the ])laiits eollccled during the voyage wiiS 
of coursH the work of Solander, whose manuscripts — both the 
original draft and a fair coi)y prepared for publication — are in the 
Department; but we have also a list of the collections in Banks's 
hand, geographically arranged, in the order in which they were 
loosely ))hiced in the drying books in which they were brought 
home : in this the species supposed to be new are indicated by 


" mscr." appended to the name, and tlie munber oi' .•^peciimiUMj 
collected of each plant is indicated. 

In the volume published by the Museum 1 have attri- 
buted the names ot" species which have been adopted by vai'ious 
aulliors from the Solander JMSS. to Banks and 8olander jointly, 
although in uuiny instances 8i)hindef alone wjis originally cited 
for ihein. The joint responsibility seems to have been recognized 
by their contem[)oraries : thus (Smith, writing in Eees's Cycloinidia 
(under Jasminum), referring to what are usually known as the 
iSolander manuscripts, speaks of them as the work of both ; a 
similar indication by Patrick Kussell has already been mentioned. 

In 177- Banks went to Iceland, accom]ninied by kSolander and 
by J. Y. Miller as artist ; it would seem that he kept a journal 
ot the voyage, but this cannot be traced. The specimens collected 
by him are, however, in the Herbariun), and there is a volume of 
memoranda in MS. connected with the visit, which includes a 
rough list m Solander's hand, wherein the principal plants obtained 
are ilescribed. Most of the sketches — 11 in luimber — are endorsed 
by Banks with the name and locality. 

After 1773, as the Correspondence more than once referred to 
shows. Banks was occupied by the consideration of a number of 
subjects, of which botany was only one. In 176G he had becojue 
a Fellow of the Eoyal Society, in which he soon occupied a 
prominent position, and in 1778 was elected President. From 
this time his practical interest in Botany was mainly confined to 
his Herbarium, for the curatorshi]) of which he secured in succes- 
sion Solander and Dryander, to whose industry and knowledge its 
value is mainly due. 

The Herbarium is indeed in some respects the greatest evidence 
of Banks's position as a botanist ; it was not the formation of a 
man whose primary instincts Avere those of a collector but of 
one who knew the value and interest of what he acquired, and 
who was willing to allow others to share the treasures which he 
had secured. These included the large collection of drawings 
and MSS., of which a list is given in the official ' Hisiory ' of the 
Museum Collections; among the latter are the series of volumes 
known as the Solander manuscripts — the work mainly of Solander 
and Dryander — which may be regarded as a key not only to the 
Banksian but to the Sloane collections, and form the basis of 
Alton's 'Hortus Kewensis.' Among the herbaria secured by Banks 
are those of Herman, Clifford (on which the 'Hortus Clitfortianus' 
was based), Gronovins, AVilliam lloustonn, John Peinhold Forster 
and George Forster, Jacquin, Phillip Miller, and Loiaviro. Among 
tliose who have testified to the \alue of the collections and to the 
readiness with which they were placed at their disposal may be 
mentioned Swartz, Thunberg, the elder DeCandolle, and Gaertner, 
who in his ' De Fructibus' (1788-1805) continually acknowledges 
his indebtedness to the Herbarium, from w hich he describes manv 
novelties. Tlie importance of the Herbarium is thus summarized 


in a note by (xawler (afturwards Ker) in the ' Botanical Register ' 
for 18L7, with which this appreciation may well conclude: "The 
pre-eminence of the Banksian Herbarium has not been estab- 
lished so much by its extent or tiie number of celebrated ones 
incorporated Avitli it as throuj,'li the matchless sicill and talents of 
those wlio have superintended the determination of tlie specimens 
and assisted in eollatiiig the whole with the Herbarium of Linnajus. 
To whicli we may add the having been ])assed iti review by most 
of tlie eminent botanists of the day, by whom it has been resorted 
to from all parts as the touchstone for the essay of the synonymy 
of their intended works, and wlio have attested their presence by 
various suggestions and corrections on its leaves." 

[Appgvdix. — The following remarks, derived from the records 
of the British JMuseum, are appended by the President, 
bv permission of the Trustees.] 

Sir Joseph Banks was a very active Trustee of the I'ritish 
Museum, and the extent of his interest and influence is show u 
by the di:iry of ^ir. Charles Koenig, who was at lirst Assistant- 
Keeper, afterwards Keejier, of the Natural History Department 
of the Museum during the last decade of Sir Joseph's life. 
In this diary there are numerous i-eferences to consultations 
with Sir Joseph Banks and the confident acceptance of his advice. 
A few extracts will illustrate the diversity of the subjects with 
which he was concerned. 

On July 13th, 1810, Mr. Koenig records that he has discussed 
with Sir Joseph the arrangenient of the (Tieville Collection of 
minerals, just acquired by the Museum, and has devi^.ed a satis- 
factorv plan. He adds that this '' may be deemed preferable to 
the scheme lately proposed by M. de Bournon, of forming two 
collections of the same kind, the one for the man of science and 
the othei- for the stupid gaze of the visiting vulgar." 

On November 22nil, 1N14, " Sir J. Banks came to examine into 
the state of the insect room." 

Earlv in 1815, Mr. Koenig began to improve the exhibited 
collection of fossils, and proposed that he and Mr. Baber should 
visit (jiern)any to purchase specimens. On February 10th, 1815, 
the proposal was sanctioned, and Mr. Koenig was ordered to 
wait upon Sir Joseph Banks for his instructions. 

important fossils and minerals from foreign countries were 
continually sent to Sir Joseph Banks, who passed them on as 
fifts to the Museum. A jaw of Mosusanras, from the Hutch 
anatomist, Dr. Peter Camper, was given in 178-1, and this was 
followed by other specimens until, in 1815, some remains of the 
mammoth from Siberia, sent by the emperor of Jiussia, com- 
pleted an important series of additions. .Sir Joseph then nsked 


the Trustees for a duplicate jiair of lionis of the " Irish JMoose "' 
in exchange for his iiiau}' benefactions, and the recfuest was at 
once granted. 

The possible increase of the natural history collection by ex- 
changing duplicates then attracted the attention of the Trustees, 
and on January 13th, 1817, they gave to Mr. Koenig " permission 
to exchange specimens '* provided that iu each case he first 
obtained " tiie approbation of Sir J. Banks." 

On December 12th, 1817, Mr. Koenig I'ecommended the 
Trustees to purcliase the pioneer geological collection of William 
Smith, and assured them that he had discussed the subject with 
Sir Joseph Banks, and "availed himself of Sir Joseph's superior 
insight into these matters.''* 

The last reference is dated February 19th, 1820, when 
Sir Joseph presided over a small sub-committee at his house 
to consider the stuffing of animals. 

Zoology, palaeontology, geology, and mineralogy thus equally 
came within Sir Joseph's sphere, and he also dealt with the 
problems of museum technique. 

P R O C E E D i N G S 



133rd session, 

From Novembek ll-'iO to June 1921, 

L N 1) i\ 

P K J N T E J) K O K THE L 1 NIS' E A N S C I E T Y 






List oF Publications issued ..:... iv 

Proceedings of the l^Si'd Session i 

Presidential Address .. , , 29 

Obituaries ..... 41 

Benefactions, 1901-191^1 65 

Additions to the Library 69 

Abstract : Dr. Druce ' On Shetland Plants ' 77 

Index . . . . 80 

PUBLICATI0X8: Skssiox July 1920-July 1921. 

Journal, Botany. 

Vol. XLV. :N'o.;j01. 20/- 

.. 302. 9/- 
„ 303. 26/- 
Joiifiial, Zoology. 

. Vol. XXXIV. No. 228. 14/- 
„ 229. 20/- 
Traiisactions, Zoology. 

Vol. XVII. Part 4. 12/- 

Pioceediiigs, 132nd Session, January 1921. 6/- 

Lisr or [Fellows, Associates, and Foreign Members], Nov. 1920. 





November 4th, 1920. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodwaed, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 24th June, 1920, 
were read and confirmed. 

Tlie report of the Donations received since the last Meeting was 
laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Mr. Htiibert William Piigsley, B.A. (Lond.), Mr. Raymond 
Alfred Einiayson, and Mr. Howard Hamp Crane were admitted 

New Certificates, in favour of the following, were read : — 
Keppel Harcourt BarnartI, M. A. (Cantab.), Rev. Prof. John 
Eei-naiul Caius, S. J., Ph.D., Major Arthur Dorrien-Smith, D.S.O., 
Albert Edward Mills, E.C.S., M.P.S., Samuel Lyon, E.R.G.S., 
Sydney Cross Harland, D.Sc. (Lond.), Charles Coltman-Rogers, 
Samuel Gordon Smith, Henry Ball, Capt. Bertram Haumer 
Bunbury Sniions-Jeune, Arthur Mayfield, Mrs. Bella Dytes 
Marlntosh "MacCuUum, M.A., D.Sc.(N.Z.), and William John 
Phillip [)s. 

The President announced that there were now eight vacancies 
in tlie Fellows' list, and that the next ballot to till these would 
be taken on the 9th December next. 



The Treasurer showed the recently acquired volumes purchased 
by means of the Tajijart Bequest, and corfimented on the use of 
buckram in place of leather. 

The lirst communication was by Mr. J. H. Owen, M.A., 
entillt'd "Further researclies into the Life and Habits of the 
Sparrow-] lawk, Accipter nisits (Linn.) Pall." 

After preliminary remarks on some of the less-known habits 
of the Sparrow-llawk, Mr. Owen showed a series of nearly 
80 lanleru-slides depicting various incidents of the incubation 
and nestling periods. The slides were from photographs of six 
different nests. Of special interest were series showing: — 
(1) The efforts of the hen 1o protect tlie nestlings from the 
effects of the sun; (2) The behaviour of the hen during incuba- 
tion as affected by climatic conditions. 

An animated discussion followed, in which the following en- 
gaged :— Mr. Harold J. IL Eussell, Lt.-Col. J. H. Tull Walsh, 
Mr. Seth Smith (visitor), Mr. C. E. Salmon, Dr. W. liushton 
Parker, and Miss Gulielma Lister, tiie lecturer replying to the 
various questions put. 

The communication concerning the benefits to naturalists from 
the operations of the National Trust, ainiouiiced for this meeting, 
was postponed to a later date. 

The last communication was brought forward by Mr. H. jV. 
Dixon, M.A., entitled "The Mosses of the AV'ollaston Expedition 
to Dutcli New Guinea." 

The mosses were unfortunately not described with the higher 
plants, but have since been worked out by the author, and have 
proved of great interest. Although consisting of only some 60 
gatherings, the collection contained types of at least two new 
genera, Ili/ntenodontopsis and CaUistomium, and more than a dozen 
new species, including two new species of Dcnvsoina, a genus 
which is more highly represented in New Guinea than in any 
other part of its rather limited distribution. 

A further collection by the Kev. J. B. Clark, of tlie London 
Missionary Society, in the neighbourhood of Boku, British New 
Guinea, is also included, and contains ten new species, including 
a very beautiful PterohryeUa, and other interesting things. A 
small species, probably of Ithizof/onmm, nan)ed jirovisionally 
7^. orblculcire, may possibly represent the ancestral form of the 

Specimens of certain of these were exhibited, and also lantern- 
slides, some being photographs and otliers specimens, mounted 
as slides, of the mosses themselves. 

Dr.A. B. Hendle, F.H.S., Sec.L.S., and i\rr. Edmund G. Baker 
contributed further remarks, and the author replied. 


November IStli, 1920. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair, 

. The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 4th November, 1920, 
were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting was 
laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the several 
Donors were ordered. 

Mr. Joseph Omer-Cooper and Prof. Otto Vernon Darbishire, 
Ph.D., were admitted Fellows. 

Certificates, in favour of the following, were read for the second 
time :— Kowland Maurice Kichards, M.B.E., Louis Blaise, Vicomte 
de Sihour, F.Z.S., Eustom Hormasji Dastnr, B.Sc, (Bombay), John 
"Willian* Bodger, M.P.S., Vedaranyesvara Vaidyanatha Kamana- 
Sastrin, Ph.D., Lieut.-Col. Anthony AVoUey-Dod, George Peddie 
Miln, J. P., Henry Baker Lacey, Ethel Spratt, D.Sc, Keppel 
Harcourt Barnard, M. A. (Cantab.), The Kev. John Fernand 
Caius, S.J., Ph.D., and Major Arthur Dorrien-Smith, D.S.O. 

Prof. E. S. GooDEiCH, F.E.S., read his paper " On a new type 
of Teleostean cartilaginous Pectoral Girdle found in young 

The President and Mr. R. H. Burne added further remarks, 
and Prof. Goodrich replied. 

Dr. J. C. Willis, F.E.S., F.L.S., followed with his lecture on 
"Endemic Genera in relation to others," showing numerous 
lantern-slides in elucidation of his remarks, abstracted as 
follows : — 

In a paper of 1916 the deduction was made that, in general, 
endemic species of small area were not relics, but species in the 
early stages of spreading, and much evidence has since been 
brought up to show the truth of this. It is now proposed to 
extend this deduction to endemic genera, and to endeavour to 
show that there is no appreciable difference between a local 
endemic and an allied genus of wide distribution (of course work- 
ing always with groups of genera) other than age. 

The case of the endemic genera of islands is taken for detailed 
illustration, and a prediction is made about the general composi- 
tion of the list of such genera. In the first place, it is clear that 
such a prediction can only hope to be successful if the islands 
obtained the bulk of their floras by means of land communica- 
tions ; if their floras be really casual oversea migrants, one can 
hardly hope ever to predict it. 

b 2 


Now, if the endemic genera of islands be in reality survivals — 
the current view — one would expect that they would at least 
show a tendency to belong to families that are small or of broken 
distribution, i.e. such families as we have been accustomed to 
look upon as more or less moribund. And in any case, one 
would not expect the great bulk of them to belong to the large 
and " successful " families. 

If, on the other hand, age and area hold good (including the 
extended deduction above given), then the endemic genera should 
be found to occur on islands in proportions not dissimilar to the 
proportionate sizes of existing families. And further, as on this 
view the larger families are in general the older in their aflinity 
circles, we shall expect tliein to be rather better represented 
(proportionately) than the smaller. 

In order to test this question thoroughly, I have added up all 
the endemic genera of all the islands in the world, and for com- 
parison also tiiose (1) of West Australia, South Africa, and Brazil 
(the mainland ai'eas richest in endemics) ; (2) of Australia, Africa, 
and South America ; and (3) of the "World. Examination of the 
tables thus obtained soon shows that if one take the families in 
groups of ten in order according to the number of genera they 
contain in the world (i.e. beginning with Compbsitae and ending 
with monotypic families), the proportion of island genera to .the 
total is closely the same throughout the list, and the same holds 
for all the four areas mentioned. Thus the first ten families 
contain 40*1 per cent, of the genera of the world, 39-4 per cent, 
of tiiose of Australia, Africa, and South America, 40'5 per cent, 
of those of West Australia, etc., and 38*3 per cent. (606 genera 
out of 1582) of the endemic genera of islands. And the approxi- 
mation is equally close all down the scale, so that the curves 
jH'oduced almost coincide. 

Comparison shows with equal clearness that the proportional 
representation among the endemic genera of islands decreases as 
one goes down the scale. The first 100 families in the world 
have island endemic genera in 02, the genera being 12'9 per cent, 
of the total genera in the families. The intermediate 92 families 
are represented by 45 only, with 9-28 per cent, of their genera, 
and the last 100 by 13 with 8*72 per cent. 

The second prophecy made above is thus fully borne out by 
the facts. Various pieces of confirmatory evidence are also given. 

A discussion ensued in \\hich the undermentioned took part : — 
Dr. A. B. liendle, F.R.S., Se.-.L.S., Lt.-Col. J. H. TuU Walsh, 
Dr. 11. U. Gates, and Mr. C. C. Ijacaita, the author replying. 

December 9th, 1920. 

Dr. A. S-MiTn AVoodwaud, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 18th November, 
1920, were read and confirmed. 


The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting was 
laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Mr. William Harold Pearsall, M.Sc. ( Mancii.) and Mr. Tom 
Eussell Groddard were admitted Eellows. 

The following certificates were read for the second time : — Mr. 
Albert Edward Mills and Mr. yamuel Lyon. 

The following were proposed as Fellows : — Herbert Sutcliffe. 
A.E.C.S., Edward Jocelyn Wortley, M.B.E., F.C.8., William 
Small, M.B.E., M.A., B.Sc, AVilliam Frederick Bumsted, 
F.R.M.S., and Keginald Ernest Massey. 

The following were elected Fellows : — Rowland Maurice 
Eiehards, M.B.E., Louis Blaise, Vicomte de Sibour, F.Z.S., 
Kustom Hormasji Dastur, B.Sc. (Bombay), John William Bodger, 
M.P.S., Yedaranyesvara Vaidyanatha Eamana-Sastrin, Ph.D., 
Lieut.-Col. Anthony Wolley-Dod, George Peddie Miln, J. P., 
Henry Baker Lacey, Miss Ethel Spratt, D.Sc, and Major Arthur 
Dorrien-Smitli, D.S.O. 

The President .stated that Prof. U. Newsiead, F.E.S., A.L.S., 
was unable to deliver his lecture on Uganda biology as announced, 
but iioped to give it at a later date. 

Prof. E, S. (jOODRICH, F.R.S., Sec.L.S., gave a demonstration of 
the Hymeijopterous Parasites of graiu-infesting Insects, under a 
series of microscopes. 

The second comuiunication was by Mr. L. V. Lestee-Garland : 
" Plants from Darfur collected by Capt. Lyne;^, K.N., with 
remarks on their Geographical Distribution," and was illustrated 
b}^ a selection of the plants tlieinselves and photographs of the 

The discussion which followed was carried on by the President, 
Dr. A. B. Eeudle, F.E.S., Sec.L.S., Mr. C. C. Lacaita, Mr. E. G. 
Baker, and Mr. T. A. Dymes, the author replying. 

The last communication was by the General Secretary : " The 
Norseuian in Canada in a.d. 1000, with the plants they reported." 

He explained that his remarks were limited to the introductory 
part of a lecture prepared four years previously, which had been 
postponed delivery. Starting from the paper read by Dr. Fridtjof 
Nansen before the Eoyal Geographical Society on the Gth Nov- 
ember, 1911, he quoted from recent papers by Daniel Bruun and 
H. P. Steensby in 'Meddelelser om Gronlaiid,' vols, xvi., xvii. in 
1918, and a slight sketch by Prof. 11. O. Juel, in the current 
volume of the.' Svenska Linne-Siillskapets Arskrift,' p. 61. The 


course followed by tlio Norsemen was narrated, from their 
colonies in Greenland across Davis Strait, to the North-east 
coast of Labrador, southward throiip:!! Belle Isle .Strait to the 
valley of the St, Lawrence, and tlio tract of country on its right 
bank, where vines were found }j;rowiiig, unsown corn, and a tree 
called ' Masur,' these being regaided as Vilis Lahrusca L., Zizania 
(tqnatica L., and an Acer. The reasons why these voyages were 
not continued were explained as due to the weak colonies at that 
time in Greenland, the actual starting-point, and the opposition 
of the natives, termed ' Skra^Uiiigs,' who prevented any attempts 
at settlements in ' Vinland' — the Wineland of the sagas of Erik 
the Ked, and of Thorfiim Karlsefni, — the northern part of New 

Mr. C. C. Lacaita and Sir Henry Iloworth, F.E.S. (visitor) 
spoke, the latter commenting upon the interest of tlie communi- 
cation, the extraordinary hardihood and endurance of the Norse- 
men in their hazardous and long voyages, also the differences 
between the war-ships and fishing-vessels of the time. 

January 20th, 1921, 

Dr. A. Smith Woouwaed, F.K.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

Tne Minutes of the General Meeting of the 9th December, 1920, 
were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting was 
laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

New Certificates, in favour of the following, were read : — Prof. 
Rajkumar Sen, M.Sc, and Prof. Sadao Yoshida, D.Sc. 

The Certificates in favour of the following were read for a 
second time: — Sydney Cross Harland, D.Sc. (Lond.), Charles 
Coltman-llogers, Samuel Gordon Smith, F.E.S., Henry Ball, 
Capt. Bertram Hanmer Bunbury Svmons-Jeune, Arthur Mavfield, 
Mrs. Bella Dytes Macintosh MacCallum, M.A., D.Sc, William 
John Phillipps, Herbert Sutcliffe, A.E.C.S., Edward Jocelyn 
Wortley, M.B.E., F.C.S., AVilliara Small, M.B.E., M.A., B.Sc, 
William Frederick Bumsted, F.R.M.S., and Reginald Ernest 

The President announced that the next Ballot for Fellows 
would take place on the 3rd March. The following four Candi- 
dates are placed according to seniority, four vacancies having to 
be supplied : — Keppel Harcourt Barnard, M. A.- (Can tab.), The 


Rev. John lernand Cains, S.J., Ph.U., Albert Edward Mills, 
E.C.tS., and Samuel Lyon, F.B-.Gr.lS. 

Mr. E. H. C. Walsh, I.C.S. retii-ed, delivered a Lecture on 
" Lhasa and Central Tibet," illustrated by thirty-one lantern- 
slides from his own photographs. 

The Lecturer gave a brief description of the country, the 
people, tlie religion, and the Government. The Tibetans call their 
country PiJ (Bodj and themselves Pci-pa ; the name Tibet is from 
Tu-P6 (Stod-Eoil), which means " High Tiliet," applying to the 
central tableland. The country extends IGOO miles in its greatest 
breadth and SOO miles in its greatest width from the Koko 
Nor to the southern bend of the Takiang or Blue Eiver ; the 
superfi(.'ial ai*ea is more than a million square miles, and comprises 
the highest portion of the earth's surface, and is bounded on its 
southern frontier by the Himalayas, the loftiest chain of mountains 
in the world. The Lake region lies to the north, and the Eiver 
region encircles it on three sides — west, south, and east ; the 
former region is very dry, and cold ; the Eiver region contains 
the sources of many rivers, such as the Indus, Sutlej, Brahma- 
putra, Salween, Mekong, Yatitse-Kiang, and Hoang-ho. The 
great plain luiowu as Chang-Tliang is 500 miles wide at its 
greatest widtli and mostly uninliabited except by nomads ; tiie 
mean altitude is over 16,500 feet, the peaks 20,000 to 24,000, 
the passes 16,400 to 19,000, and the valleys 14,500 to 17,400. 
Vegetation is almost non-existent. The crescent, which partly 
encircles the plain, is inhabited by Tibetans ; the central portion 
of the great plain is for the most part unexplored. 

The slides showed natural features, as the frozen waterfall 
Dotag, as an instance of the intense cold at the high altitudes, 
yaks, people of various degrees, their houses and prayer-flags, 
Lamas and their monasteries, boats, and shrines. 

In the discussion which tollowed, the President referred to the 
interest of the Tibetan elevation as one of the newest physical 
features of the earth's crust. Numerous remains of rhinoceros 
had been found in the Hundes region, and Hugh Ealconer sup- 
posed that that part must have been raised about 8000 feet since 
Pliocene times, when the large quadrupeds lived there. According 
to certain American tlieories, the rise of the Himalayas ma}' have 
isolated a northern tract of the great Indian forest wliich was 
inhabited by several great apes during 'the Miocene period. The 
new inclement conditions might so affect the life of- the apes in 
this isolated northern tract as to drive them to the plains and 
thus originate man. 

Sir Nicolas Yermoloff, K.C.B., remarked tliat there were many 
Lamas amongst the Siberian soldiers in the Eussian troops. 

Mr. H. J. Elwes, F.E.S., referred to Sir Josepli Hooker's 
statement (Himal. Jouru. ii. 150) that the yak bred once in two 
years, and asked if that were correct, as no other traveller seemed 
to have noticed it. 


Mr. C. C. Laciiila pointed out tliat all the people shown ou the 
screen were exclusively men, and asked if the women were 
secluded, he also enquired as to the prevalence of polyandry, 
especially in the higher classes. He appreciated the buttered tea 
of the Tibetans as a restorative. 

The Lecturt'r replied to the questions put: he could say nothing 
;ibout the yaks in the matter of their breeding; that women were 
not secluded, and that it \\as only by chance that the selected 
slides showed none. 

February :ird, 1921. 

Dr. A. Smith Woouward, F.K.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 20th January, 
1921, were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Mr. Henry Baker Lacey and Mr. John "Wilham Bodger were 
admitted Fellows. 

Certificates in favour of the fdhnving candidates were read for 
the second time: — Prof. Eajkumar Sen, M.Sc, and Prof. Sadao 
Toshida, D.Sc. 

The President announced vacancies in the list of Foreign 
Members, through the deaths of Dr. Franz Steindachner, Prof. 
Wilhehn Pfefifer, Prof. Yves Delage, Dr. Odoardo Beccari, 
Prot. Alfred Gabriel Nathorst ; and a vacancy in the list of 
Associates, through the death of John Eeader Jackson. 

Dr. Annie Porter, F.L.S., and Prof. II. B. Faxtham exhibited 
a specimen of a new flagellate found in the blood of a bony fish, 
Denttx ar(/i/rozoiia, occurring in Cape waters. The flagellate has 
been namud Herpi-tumonas denticis. It is unusual to find such 
flagellates in the blood of Vertebrates, but similar flagellates occur 
in the alimputary tract of In.'-ects and a few othi-r Invertebrata. 
'J'he significance of the occuri'ence of Herpetomonns in Vertebrates 
is interesting, as a i-esting form of such a flagellate may occur in 
man in India, Mediterranean countries, and South America, giving 
rise to serious diseases such as Kalii-azar and other Leishmaniases. 
The occurrence of such flagellates suggests the possible evolution 
of Leishmaniases froui parasites in the gut of blood-sucking insects 
or other Invertebrates becoming able to live in tiie blood of 

linNeak society of lokbox. 9 

Vertebrates, such as man. The IJerj^ctumonus iouud in iJentrx, 
however, does not apjK-ar to be markedly pathogenic. 

Prof. E. S. Goodrich, See.L.S., having spoken, Lt.-Col. Tull 
Walsh observed that the specimen sliowu will be of great interest 
to the medical profession. Besides tlie Leishmania tropica, which 
it resembles, we have L. donovani, the cause ot" Kahi-azar, a very 
deadly disease in Eastern Bengal, Assam, etc. In this disease 
only the ovoid form of Leishmania exists, in man. ISir Leonard 
Kogers was, however, years ago, able to cultivate the flagellate 
form. Both forms exist in the hsh mentioned by Dr. Porter. 
The flagellate form of L. donovani is so like a flagellate found in 
Nepa cinerea that tlie latter can be used in England to illustrate, 
for teaching pin-poses, the fl.agellate form of L. donovani occurring 
in subtropical countries, in cultures from the form found in man. 

Mr. Miller Christy, F.L.iS., followed with his communication 
on " Wistman's Wood," supplying the abstract here printed : — 

Wistman's Wood is a small unique grove of ancient, and 
exceedingly gnarled and diminutive, oak trees (all Quercns pe'litn- 
culata), growing out of an extensive pile of huge angular blocks 
of granite (known locall}^ as a "clatter"), without a particle of 
visible soil. The wood is hung (so to speak) upon the steep left 
bunk of the West Dart, about two miles north from Two Bridges, 
almost in the centre of Dartmoor, and at an elevation of about 
1500 feet. Its area is small (about 5-6 acres at the outside), and 
the number of trees comprised in it is probably not more than 
from 300 to 400, in spite of statements to the contrary. 

Wistman's Wood is not a remnant of a primaeval forest which 
once covered Dartmoor, for none such can ever have existed. It 
may be, however, the only survivor of other similar groves which 
once occupied some of the deeper and more sheltered valleys. It 
owes its continued existence, beyond question, solely to the 
" clatter" of granite blocks out of which it grows ; for this pro- 
tects it, not only from fire, but also from all animals gi-azing on 
the moor; these being unable to cross it, owing to the steepness 
of the slope and the crevasse-Wke open spaces between the great 
masses of riick. whicli are piled together in great confusion. For 
the same reason, access to the wood is, even for human beings, a 
climb or scramble, rather than a walk ; while, within the wood 
itself, progress is even dangerous, owing to the crevasses being 
hidden by an abundant growth of moss, many tussocks of Luzula 
syJvatica, and other herb^'ge. 

The oaks (with which grow two or tliree bushes of J\i/rus 
Auciiparia, but no other kind of tree) are all exceedir;gly dwarfed. 
Their average height is, perhaps, 10 feet, the iiighest not exceeding 
15 feet. Many are of bushy or scrubby habit, presenting no 
definite stem, and few (if any) have a stem 4 feet high. In the 
case of adult trees, presenting measurable stems, the average 
circumference ranges from 40-60 ins., but one measured reached 
78 ins. 


Yet these toy-like oaks are unqiiestiouably of great age — 
jjpobably well over 500 years — as has been proved roughly by 
cuttiug sections in order to count the number of concentric 
(annual; rings. This has been done on several occasions; but the 
results iiave not been conclusive, owing chielly to the narrowness 
and closeness of the rings, due to extreme slowness of growth, 
from the hard conditions under which the trees exist. 

The trees are remarkable also, apart from their small size, by 
reason of their fantastically-gnarled and twisted branches, remind- 
ing one strongly of the tiny Japanese trees grown in ])ots for 
decorative purposes. A feature still more unusual (at any rate, 
so far as oaks are concerned) is the extent to which even the 
topmost branches of the older trees are overgrown by huge masses 
of moss, long shaggy lichen, and the common Folypodium vuhjare, 
giving them an enormously bulky appearance. The interior of 
Wistman's Wood presents, indeed, an altogether strange and 
weird aspect, as seen from photographs siiouu, believed to be the 
first of their kind taken. Yet, in spite of many statements to 
the contrary, the trees appear healthy (there being none either 
dead or dying). Moreover, they produce acorns, though few in 
number; there are also young trees. 

The Wood has long been known, and there have been many 
notices of it in print. The earliest w as, probably, that of Tristram 
Kisdon, written just three centuries ago, which shows the wood 
to have been then almost exactly the same, in all respects, as 
now. The others (which include an '" Ode" to the wood) are, for 
the most part, too incorrect, or too pervaded by ideas of "Druids" 
and " Pyxies '' as inhabitants of the wood, or too tinged with 
poetic fanc}^ legend, and superstition, to present many points of 
scientific interest. The present is believed to be the first adequate 
description of the wood. 

Wistman's Wood, though it belongs to the Duchy of Cornwall, 
ought to be scheduled under the Ancient Monuments Act or 
placed under the protection of the National Trust. 

A discussion followed : Dr. D. II. Scott referred to the annual 
rings, enquiring whether the author had observed two rings in a 
year, when the original show of leaves had been devoured by 
caterpillars, but renewed from the midsummer shoot. Mr. D. J. 
Scourlield (visitor) remarked that the Japanese trees were dwarfed 
in some measure by special pruning, and that the oaks in Wist- 
man's Wood were self-pruned. Mr. H. N. Dixon hoped that 
some local society would study the flora of this W^ood from an 
ecological point of view ; he compared the growth in this case to 
rain-forest in the temperate zone. Dr. E. J. Salisbury pointed 
out that the native oak-woods are composed of Quercus sessilijlora. 
Mr. C. C. Lacaita enquired if the acorns were plentiful ; in the 
Western Highlands the oaks produced but few acorns. Mr. Miller 
Christy replied briefly. 

Mrs. AoNES Arber, D.Sc, F.L.S., gave an account of her 
paper " On the Leaf-tips of certain Monocotyledons." 


Dr. D. H. Scott and Dr. A. B. Reudle, See.L.S., contributed 
further remarks, the author replying. 

The hist paper, " Seeding and Grermination of Ituscus amleatus, 
Linn.," was exphiined by Mr. T. A. Bymes, F.L.S., as shown m 
the following abstract. He stated that in the South-Eastern 
quarter of England the berries and seedlings perish by severe 
frost although the adult is hardy. Many seeds fail to gennniate, 
because immature. Germination begins in July or August with 
the extrusion of the radicle; the cotyledon remains withm the 
endosperm. During the first season the plumule is merely a 
short axis, completely invested by scale-leaves ; it remains under- 
ground from the close of the first season until the following 
summer. Frost kills many seedlings during the first winter. 
Better results are obtained by sowing, as soon as the seeds are 
ripe, at a depth of one inch than at a greater depth or in the 
spring. Survivors in the second season produce an axis some 
three^inches long, bearing a few scale leaves and, at the apex, 
about six phylloclades in the axils of scale-leaves, which are loiiger 
than those "of the adult. The radicle perishes, and adventitious 
roots are produced of about five inches in length. During the 
second winter the seedlings are unable to withstand severe frost. 
There is no recapitulation of the ancestry by the seedling. 

Mr. E. a. Baker, Mr. C. C. Lacaita, and Mr. E. Step took part 
in the discussion, the author replying. 

February 17th, 1921. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 3rd February, 
1921, were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Mr. William Henry Kitching and Prof. William Grant Craib, 
M.A., were admitted Fellows. 

The following were proposed as Fellows : — William Edward 
Hollows, M.P.S., Santi Prosad Sen Gupta, B.Ag., Shauker 
Ganesh Sharngapani, B.Ag., Donald Ward Cutler, M.A., and 
John Noel Milsum. 


Dr. KENDiiE reiid a coinniiinicutiou froiii Prof. Giovanni 
li.VTTi.STA Dk To.n], F.M.L.-S., entitled " a Contribution to the 
Tenitolo^'y of tin; (ienus Datura L."' 

A discussion ensued, in wliicli Mr. AV. \i. Dykes, I^t.-Col. J. H. 
Tull Walsh, and Dr. (J. C. Druce took part. 

Capt. J. liAM.siiOTXo.M then s|)oke on a oolleclioni of Mucedoniau 
plants niade by various members ol" 11. M. Salonika Forces. The 
iirst numbers gathered in the autumn ot 1917 proved of great 
interest, and the preliminary idea of making as complete a 
collection as possible \\as therefore persisted in. An attempt 
was made to direct the interest in Natural History subjects that 
was encountered when giving talks on Botany in hospitals and 
T.M.CA. huts. Use was also made of the ' Balkan News,' the 
daily paper published for the troops, in order to point out the 
great value of a proper investigation of the flora of Macedonia 
and also to give full directions as to how best to collect and to 
dry plants. Permission was obtained from the Commander-in- 
Chief to hold a plant-collecting competition amongst Warrant 
Officers, non-commissioned Officers, and men, the conditions of 
the competition being published in General Koutine Orders, and 
thus reaching every member of the Force. 

The result of the competition, having regard to the hazards of 
active service, was satisfactoiy, as it also had the eii'ect of cen- 
tralizing effort and attracting a considerable number of other 

The districts in which the principal collectors were stationed 
were indicated on a map, and lantern-slides were show n illustrating 
the different types of country met with in Macedonia. 

Mr. A. J. WiLMOTT, who followed, pointed out that the main 
interest of the collection, apart from the value of the material 
from this little-known region, lay in the features of endemism 
which the Macedonian flora exhibited. Endemics are said to be 
both numerous and abundant, which seems to be true so far as 
one can judge in a poorly explored area. It was suggested that 
one of the tirst duties of the student of distribution should be to 
discover and delineate natural tloristic areas, the next duty being 
to convert taxonomists to using them. It must be emphasized 
that the general custom of using political boundaries completely 
obscures the essential facts and is entirely unnecessary, since all 
areas whose floristic relations are doubtful can be kept separate 
until their flora is known, when the relationshi])s should be 
obvious. To draw no distinction between localities in Bulgaria 
nortii of the Balkan ridge and those (in "Thrace") south of it, 
does not permit, distriliutional features to be obvious unless one 
is very well acquainted with the topography of the country. 
Natural areas in the Balkans were shown on a sketch-map. 
Further, the ultimate topographical sul)divisions should be two- 
fold, one by river basijis for lowland species, the other by hill 


masses for the upland species, for the bai-riers to distribution are 
diverse in the two cases. 

The features of endemism are also obscured by superficial or 
bad identification, for not only is the presence of an endemic form 
hidden, but the more restricted distribution of the commoner 
species is also obscured, an equally troublesome matter since the 
limits of distribution are the important point to determine, no 
matter whether the limits are narrow or wide. When one finds 
that a writer has only casually determined many plants recorded, 
he is forced to distrust all records which are not verified by actual 
specimens of the form careFully recorded from all sides of the 
locality in question. As this is often difficult to do in a single 
herbarium, the element of doubt becomes painfully larfi;e in some 
cases. Adamovic's determinations are often bad : Velenovsk5''s 
worlv is more careful but still insufficiently critical. One has to 
revise each of his statements before accepting it, a matter difficult 
to do with the insufficient material in this country. Boissier is 
out of date: great munbers of new species have since been 
described from the Balkans, n)aking a large mass of undigested 
and often untraceable pamphlet material. It is therefore unsafe 
to frame theories of Balkan endemism at present, but some 
hypotheses were offered for consideration. 
" Of the 4000 or so sheets of the collection less than a quarter 
has been determined in more than a year : but numerous errors 
and confusions have been cleared up, as the material available is 
from a relatively suuill area and sufficient in most cases for serious 
study. It is a great pity that no serious collection was made 
between Vodena and Ostrovo, the type locality for many of 
' Grisebach's species. 

A series of the specimens of interest was exhibited, inrluding 
several forms believed to be new to science. 

It was pointed out that Silene juvenalis {=S'. subconica) is a com- 
mon plant in Macedonia, and that its occurrence on the reopened 
silver mines at Laurion, in Greece, is not surprising, lleldreich's 
sug"-estion that it had sprung up from seed which had been 
doT-mant 1500-2000 years may be dismissed. Glancium Ser2>ieri, 
Heldr., of which the same was postulated, is not most nearly 
related'to an Asia jNIinor or Persian form, but is either a variety 
of G. flavum as Haliiesy places it, or a local or endemic form. It 
deserves more critical study. 

Dr. Eendle considered this collection as the best of all service 
collections, resulting in so large an accession of specimens for the 
British Museum. Ir was of great importance as allowing a fairly 
intensive study of a definite area. 

Mr. C. C. Lacaita referred to the splendid preparation of the 
specimens, so important for study in the herbarium. He also 
mentioned that round Athens Anemone fidgens was almndant ; 
farther north various colours were prevalent, and that seeds of 
tlie latter had in his own garden yielded during many years the 


varied tint's in question, tlioiigh, owins; to the less brilliant sun- 
li<,'lit, they were not so striking as in their native country. 

-Mr. AV. J}. Turrill (visitor) related his experience of various 
areas when on service in much the same tract of country. 

Capt. Kamsbottom and Mr. A. J. AVilniott briefly replied. 

Dr. G. Claridge DnuCEnext gave a sliort account of botanical 
work in the Shetlands, and showed a FlmiUifjo from the north of 
Balta Sound, which seemed so distinct from the surrounding 
P. marit-ma, P. lanccoJata, and P. Coronopus as to be worth 
discrimination ; it may be compared to P. maritima var. minor 
]Iook., renamed by Boswell Syme as var, Idrsuta. lie also showed 
other plants gathered in July and August 1920, enumerating 
Cerastiion mhtetmndrum Murb., Potamogiton suecicus C, liiclit., 
P. rutilus AV^olfg., lUiinantlius horealis Druce, and Poa irrirjata 
Lindm., as new to the flora. 

A short time spent in the Orkneys with Col. II. H. Johnston 
resulted in adding two plants to the Scottish ^ova—Nitella 
nidijica Ag. in the Loch of iStenuess and CJucra canescens H. & J. 
Groves. (See p. 77.) 

Mr. E. G. Baker considered that the specially noted Plantago 
did not materially differ from the variety Jiirsuta of Syme, in 
wliich opinion Mr. H. AV. Pugsley joined. 

Mr. C C. Lacaita drew attention to the great interest of the 
plants occurring on the Serpentine formation, a remark which 
held good in the case of New Caledonian plants recently before 
the Society. 

Dr. Druce replied, pointing out that minor was preferable to 
Jiirsuta on the score of earlier publication. 

March 3rd, 1921. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodwaiid, F.R.S,, President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the ] 7th February, 
1921, were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the Inst Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Dr. Ethel Ro^e Spratt was admitted a Fellow. 

John ilyacinth Power, F.Z.S., nnd George Tertius Dickson 
were proposed as Fellows. 


Prof. Johu Merle Coulter, Dr. Samuel Garman, Prof. Giovanni 
Battista Grassi, Prof. Louis Alexandre Mangin, and Prof. Jean 
Massart were proposed as Foreign Members. 

Certificates, in favour of tlie following, were read for the second 
time : — William Edward Hollows, Santi ProsadSen Gupta, B.Ag., 
F.R.H.S., Shanker Gauesh Sharngapani, B.Ag., F.E.H.S., Donald 
Ward Cutler, M.A., and Jolin Noel Milsum, F.E.H.S. 

The following were elected Fellows : — Keppel Harcourt 
Barnard, M.A. (Cantab.), The Eev. Johu Fernand Caius, S.J., 
Ph.D., Albert Edward Mills, F.C.S., M.P.S., Samuel Lyon, 
F.R.G.S., Sydney Cross Harland, D.Sc. (Loud.), Charles Coltman- 
Piogers, Samuel Gordon Smith, F.E.S., Henry Ball, Capt. Bertram 
Haniner Bunbury Syuions- Jeune, and Dr. Sadao Yoshida. 

The President announced that Ballots would take place on the 
5th May for Fellows and Foreign Members, and on the 16th June 
for Fellows. 

Mr. R. T. GuNTiiEK exhibited and spoke on certain Manuscripts 
in the Library of Magdalen College, Oxford, the following being 
an abstract of his remarks : — 

The Manuscripts exhibited were all bequeathed to Magdalen 
College, Oxford, by John Goodyeu with his botanical library in 
1(j64. Goodyer had not been a member of the College himself, 
but knew it through his father having b^en a tenant of a College 
farm at Alton (where John Goodyer was born), and through his 
brother-in-law, William Yalden of Sheet, who acted as one of the 
College bailiffs and clerk of the account, and also through his heir 
and nephew, Edmund Yalden, who became a Demy and Fellow 
of the College. 

The Manuscripts, bound in Goodyei-'s time,' include his own 
translations of Theophrastus and Dioscoridcs into English; the 
latter has not been uudertaken by any other scholar eitlier before 
or since. One volume contains a long list of Grasses Avitli their 
synonyms and short descriptions, descriptions of various plants 
copied from Lobel's MSS. (now lost ?), and an Index of Plants in 
(ioodyer's hand, an Index to Gerard's Herbal (1597) and Stone- 
house's Catalogue of plants growing in his gaitlen at Darheld in 
IG-tO. The loose papers recently sorted and bound comprise apart 
of the MS. material for Lobel's projected work, Stir2^liim lUnstra- 
tioites, now bound in three parts, the first of which, containing the 
descriptions of 223 species of Grasses, lias been bound in a cover 
which appears to have originally held notes De Fehribus by Lobel's 
master, Eondelet ; a volume of the leaves from which How's 
selection from Lobel's 'Stirpium Illustrationes ' was printed in 
1655; this is a relic of the highest interest, typogi'aphical 
as well as botanical, and because it contains Lobel's original 


imprimatur signed by the President of tlie College of Physicians 
and other members, an original letter from Argent to Lobel, and 
How's own animadversions, on Parkinson. Two other volumes 
contain a Synonymy of Plants, used by Goodyer, and the remains 
of u small ilortus Hyemalis in which ferns and mosses were pre- 
served. Goodyer's miscellaneous papers (juite bear out the high 
reputation in which he was held by his contemporaries — Johnson, 
Merrett, Parkinson, etc. They include dated descriptions of 
some 90 naw or rare species of i)laiits either collected by him or 
flowered in his gardens; early lists, of plants grown in the gar- 
dens of William Coys in Essex in IGIG, which is, therefore, the 
second English garden-list known ; of Francjueville, (iJibbs, 
Parkinson, and probably in his own garden at Droxford, Hants, 
where he li\ed until he moved to Peterslield on his marriage. It 
is hoped that it may soon be possible to print this and much 
other personal detail relating to Goodyer and his contempo- 

By the kindness of Mrs. Euck-Keene, a portion of a deed re- 
lating to Goodyer's connection with a Bramshott property was 
also exhibited. 

The Pre>ident having commented on the interest of the com- 
munication, invited discussion. 

Mr. C. C. Lacaita stated that his interest in John Goodyer 
dated from his own investigation into the history of the Jeru- 
salem Artichoke. Goodyer was stated to he of " Mapledurham," 
which was not the Maplt'durhaiii on the Thames above Reading, 
nor Mapledurwell in [I:im[)sliire, but th« Manor of Mapledurham 
near PctersHeld in Sussex. 

Dr. D. PI. Scott, F.R.S.. and Mr. James Britten having con- 
tinued the discussion, the latter quoting from his investigations 
of the Sloane collections in the British JMusenm (Natural 
History), the General Secretary congratulated the author on his 
discovery that j\li\ " Coel," Lobel's son in-law, was identical with 
Master James Cole, a London merchant mentioned by Gerard 
several times, always in commendation. The speaker had arrived 
at this conclusion some years previously, now confirmed by 
Goodyer's entries. He also pointed out that Lobel had another 
son-in-la\v, referred to as Ludovicus Myreus, apparently a London 
apothecary of repute, and named also by Clusius in his ' Exotica.' 
Thus Lobel must either have had two married daughters or a 
daughter who was twice married. 

The second communication was by the General Secretary: "The 
benefits derived by Naturalists from the operations of the JVational 
Trust." He observed that upon the death of the llev. Canon 
Hardwicke Drummond Kawnsley, on the 28th May, 1920, the 
subject occurred to him as eminently suitable for presentation to 
the Society, and was on the Agenda paper for the first meeting of 
the present session but was crowded out. lie traced the history 
of the "National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural 


Beautv " from its fouiulation in 1S94, with C:uion Kaviisley as 
the Hon. Secretaiy until his death. Witli hiin were associated 
Sir Robert Hunter, Solicitor to the Post Otfice, and Miss Octavia 
Hill, and with these admirable helpers the course of the Trust 
has been clearlj' set out. The speaker pointed out that the 
influence of these three Councillors was marked by the acquisi- 
tion of properties (a) in the Lake District due to the Canon, 
(6) Hindhead, due to Sir Robert Hunter, and (c) the view-points 
in Surrey and Kent, to Miss Octavia Hill. 

A series of 1)0 slides of properties was shown on the screen, the 
majority taken for the Trust, with 15 lent by Prof. Oliver. 
Special emphasis was laid upon the value of Wicken Fen in 
Cambridgeshire and Blakeney Point in Norfolk, now preserved by 
tlie help of this association from human desecration and destruc- 
tion. The speaker ended with an appeal for additional members 
to the Trust to ensure still greater advantages to the public. 

Mr. S. H. Hamer (visitor). Secretary of the National Trust, 
observed that one of the most troublesome of their tasks was to 
teach the public liow to use these natural reserves, and not to 
destroy plants thoughtlessly. He thanked the Society for this 
opportunity of making known tlie operations of the Trust. 

March 17th, 1921. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward,, President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Greneral Meeting of the 3rd March, 1921, 
were read and confirmed. 

The report oF the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered, a special vote of thanks being 
accorded to Prof. C. S. Sargext, F.M.L.S., for his generous gift 
of eight volumes issued by tiie Arnold Arboretum, including 
" The Bradley Bibliography." 

Dr. Nelson Annandale was admitted a Fellow. 

Certificates in favour of Jolin Hyacinth Power, F.Z.S., and 
George Tertius Dickson, were read for the second time. 

Joliu Fi'ancia Donald Tutt, F.Z.S., and James Robert Ainslie 
were proposed as Fellows. 

The Certificates in favour of Prof. John Merle Coulter, Dr. 
Samuel Garman, Prof. Giovanni Battista Grassi, Prof. Louis 



Alexandre Manpin, and Prof. Jean Massart as Foreign Members, 
were read for the second time. 

The first paper, on "The Vertebrate Fauna of Houtman 
Abrolhos IslaTids, West Australia," by Mr. W. B. Alexander, 
connniinicated hy Prof. W. J. Dakin, F.L.S., was epitomised by 
Prof. E. !S. (tOodricii, F.E.S., Sec.L.S, 

A discussion followed, in which Sir Sidney Harmer, K.B.E., 
F.R.S.,and Dr. X. Annandale took part, Prof. Goodrich replying. 

The second paper was by Prof. Pierre Fauvel, " Annelides 
Polychetes de I'Archipel Houtman Abrolhos, recueillies par M. le 
Prof. W. J. Dakin, F.L.S.," and by whom the paper was com- 

The next paper was by Mr. F. Chapman, A.L.S., ^'Sherhomina, 
a new genus of Fossil Foraminifera from Table Cape, Tasmania," 
which, like the previous paper, was read in title. 

The last communication was by Miss E. L. Turner, F.L.S., 
entitled " Some Birds from Texel," and illustrated by a long 
series of lantern-slides from her own photographs. The author 
devoted most of her attention whilst on the island of Texel to the 
avocets, ruff and reeve, godwit, and two species of tern, describing 
the habits of the birds observed, especially during the nesting 
period. The last slide showed " the glory of the sandhills," the 
duarf Rosa phnjjinellifoUa, L. 

Dr. W. R. Parker enquired if ]Misa Turner had observed a 
parent bird teaching its young its appropriate note, as he had 
witnessed in the case of tlie Lesser Black-backed Gull. 

Mr. H. J. H. Kussell asked if the bird-reserve on Texel was 
maintained by the State or by private endeavour. 

Dr. N. Annandale enquired as to the food of the birds 

In reply. Miss Turner stated that the three bird-reserves in 
Texel were kept up by the private generosity of the Dutch, and 
not by the State, and she found that appeals for maintaining 
the efficiency of the reserves were readily responded to most 

April 7th, 1921. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 17th March, 1921, 
were read and confirmed. 


The report- of tl)e Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordei'ed. 

Dr. Sadao Yoshida and Mr. Charles Coltmau-Rogers were 
admitted Fellows. 

James Walter White and Thomas Hayton Mawson were pro- 
posed as Fellows. 

Certificates in favour of John Francis Donald Tiitt and James 
Eobert Ainslie were read for the second time. 

Certificates for five Foreign Members, proposed on 3rd March, 
were read for the third time. 

The first communication was by Mr. Horace ^Y. Moncktox, 
Treasurer and V.-P.L.S., entitled " On the Distribution of 
TarcLvacum eri/tJu-osjJennmn, Andrz., in the South-East of Eng- 
land." - * . , 

The author explained that he had for some years noticed a 
small form of Dandelion witii deeply cut leaves and red seed 
growing abundantly on a football ground at Wellington College, 
Berkshire. It belongs to a group of varieties named erythro- 
spermum. The geological formation is Upper Bagshot Sand 
(Barton Beds). He had seen the same variety on the similar 
sandy soil of Puttenham Heath, Surrey (Lower Greeusand), on 
the Thames Gravel near Old Windsor, Berks, and on walls at 
West Drayton and other places. It is not confined to. areas of 
sand or gravel, for lie exhibited specimens from the London Clay 
of Ashtead Common, near Epsom, Surrey. He had also found 
the same variety on the North Downs at Ranmore Common, near 
Dorking, wliicli is in the Chalk District. The clialk does not, 
however, form the surface at that place, there being a covering of 
some thickness of clay, sand, and stones (mapped '■ Clay-with- 
Flints "). The only example of the red-seeded variety which he 
happened to have seen growing actually on a chalk soil was in a 
Held between Leatherhead and'Headley, Surrey. It is a larger 
plant than his other examples and is determined by Dr. Druce as 
T. lacutopJtyllum, Dahlst. 

A discussion followed, Mr. C. E. Salmon, who showed speci- 
mens from the Chalk and Lower Greensand of the Keigate 
•listrict, the General Secretary, Mr. C. C. Lacaita, Mr. A. J. 
Wihuott,* and Mr. E. G. Baker taking i)art, Mr. Monckton 

Next followed Mr. Reginald A. Malbt, who gave his lecture 
" A miniature Alpine Garden from January to December,'' illus- 
trated by a long series of lantern-slides, many of them coloured. 



Amongst the objects thus shown may be mentioned Saxifraga 

Burseriana, S. GrisebacJiii, S. Strtbrnyi, S. lonr/ifolia, S. Cotyledon 
var. islandica. Anemone vernalis, A. suli^ihurca, NymplKva Mooreana, 
Primula frondosa, P. denticidata, P. manjinata, P. Jrdia', Iris 
sibirica, I. firacilipes^ Campanula AUionii, C. ptusilla, C. ganjanica, 
Shortia fjalacifolia^ S. nnijlora, Petrocallis ivj renaica, Crocus sjiecio- 
siis, N^arcissus Jo/nistoni, N. monojthyllus, N. triandrtts, JS^. minimus, 
Oxalis enncaphiiUa, and 0. lohata. 

Dr. A. Ji. Jiendle, Mr. C. E. Salmon, Mr. T. A. Dymes, Mv. 
C. C. Lacaita, Mr. L. B. Hall, Mr. G. A\^. E. Loder, and Mr. 
H. N. Dixon put questions to the Lecturer, who answered as 
follows. The slides were hand-coloured with aniline dyes, the 
only difficulty being in blending the tints ; he had grown Alche- 
milla alpina in his garden for some years, but had discarded it as 
not interesting him ; his garden at Woodford was 75 feet long 
and 25 feet wide, but its surface was much iiicretised by the 
digging and throwing up of banks for tlie alpine plants ; the slides 
shown were the result of several years' work ; Lumiere slides 
were not found usefid ; and, that Anemone sidplmreo. tiirove with 
him when planted in a rooting space of two feet deep of decayed 
vegetable matter, with constant moisture and perfect drainage. 

April 21st, 1921. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 7th April, 1921, 
were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Mr. Samuel Gordon Smith was admitted a Fellow. 

Prof. Thomas Wibberley was proposed as a Fellow. 

The Certificates in favour of Mr. James Walter White and 
Mr. Thomas Hayton Mawson as Fellows were read for the second 

The Certificates in favour of the Foreign Members proposed on 
the 3rd March were read for the fourth time. 

The election of Auditors was proposed from the Chair, and 
carried by show of hands as follows : — For tiie Council : Mr. 
G. W. E. Loder and Dr. ]<]. J. Salisbury; for the Fellows: 
IMr. ir. N. Kidlev and Dr. W. T. Caiman. 


Tlie President announced that there would be ballots for 
FelloxAS ou the 5t.h May, ;iud on the 2nd and I'ith June. 

Prof. E. Xewsteaj),, A.L.8., then delivered a lecture, 
entitled "Some Observations on the Natural History of the 
Upper Shiri Eiver, Nyasaland." TheLectarer dealt with the com- 
mon types of the flora and fauna of the Upper Shiri River. The 
flora was dealt with under three sections: — (1) The river and its 
banks, (2) the opeu "dambo" or savanna, and (3) the forest. 
As regards the flora of the river, attention was called to the plants 
forming the fringe of the sudd, namely Pistia Stratiotes and Trapa 
hispinosa. The width of the sudd in the river a little south of the 
lake Malombe was given as approximately thirty-seven yards ou 
either side; the width, however, varied at different points. The 
banks of the river in places were clothed witii a more or less 
dense vegetation, consisting of a few palms (species?), the Baobab 
(Adansonia dirfitdta), Kigelia sp., with here and there the «carlet- 
tiowered climber, Comhretum microphyllum, etc. In the open 
dambo, during the dry season, the plants were nearly all resting. 
The commonest of the plants, however, was a species of Asjxcrcu/us 
and an undetermined species of Leguminosse. The forest proper 
is fringed on the river-side by Acacias of various species, of which 
flit-topped species predominated. Hereabouts the Candelabra, 
Eupliorhia grandidens (?), was also very common. In the forest 
the tree most commonly met with was the Iron-wood, Copaifera 
Mopane. The Ebony {Diospyros spp.) was also fairly common, 
and so also was a species of Parhia. 

Illustrations were shown of the giant climber, Klclwia sp., 
Stroj^hdntJius Nicholsoni, and Adenium multiflorwn, the last-named 
plant being fairly common, and blossoming during the dry season. 

In dealing with the insects, special reference was made to a 
highly protected species of Mantis (Taracodes perloides), and tiie 
common Tsetse-fly of the country [Glossina morsitans), the latter 
being the chief factor concerned in the dissemination of Sleeping 
Sickness in man. 

Illustrations of the common Tree-frog, Chiromantls sienimpeUna, 
were shown, and attention was called to its highly protective 
colour and pattern. 

Seventy-eight species of birds were collected, and specifically 
determined. Among these, «as a new and undescribed species of 
flycatcher {Enjthrocercus nijasa'); large flocks of the beautiful and 
rare little lorikeet, Agapornis liliamv, were observed. 

Photographs from life were shown of a large number of birds 
common to the region in question, supplemented by a collection 
of prepared bird-skins. 

After the lecture, which was illustrated by a large number 
of lantern-slides, an animated discussion followed in which 
Lord Rothschild, Dr. A. B. Kendle, Sec.L.S., Lt.-Col. Tull Walsh, 
and Prof. E. S. Goodricli, Sec.L.S., took part. Replies to the 
various questions propounded were given by the lecturer, as to 


whether infection could be carried by small mammals if the large 
ones were exterminated; the identity or difference between 
Trtipanosoma Brucei and T. rhodesit'nse, the latter producing the 
worse attack ; the sudd was generally marginal and attached, very 
rarely breaking off into detached islands loose in the streiim ; on 
the actual banks of the river, mosquitoes {Mansonia nniformis) 
abounded, but happily they did not travel inland. 

May 5th, 1920. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 21st April, 1921, 
were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Capt. Bertram Hanmer Bunbury Symons-Jenne and Capt. 
Francis James Stayner were admitted Fellows. 

Charles Taborn, F.E.H.S., and Walter Sydney Stevens were 
proposed as Fellows. 

The following were submitted to the Ballot, and elected : — 
As Fellows: Arthur Mayfield, INIrs. Bella Dytes Macintosh 
MacCullum, M.A., D.Sc.(N.Z.), William John Phillipps, Herbert 
Sutcliffe, A.R.C.S., Edward Jocelyn Wortley, M.B.E., F.C.S. ; 
as Foreign Members : Prof. John Merle Coulter, Dr. Samuel 
Grarman, Prof. Giovanni Battista Grassi, Prof. Louis Alexandre 
JMangin, and Prof. Jean Massart. 

A vacancy in the list of Associates caused by the death of 
Robert Allen Rolfe was announced from the Chair. 

Reports on collections from the Indian Ocean, for issue in the 
Society's 'Transactions,' Zoology, vol. xviii. at the cost of the 
Percy Sladen Trust, were read as follows, Xos, 2-9 being com- 
municated by Prof. J. Stanley Gardiner, F.R.S., F.L.S. : — 

1. Prof. A. Dendy, F.R.S., F.L.S.— On Hexactinellid Sponges. 

2. Mr. C. G. La.mb. — Dij)tera: Asilidre, Dolichopodidic, etc. 
t\. Dr. HuGK Scott. — Coleoptera: Scydma^nida?, etc. 

4. Mr. II. Gebien. — Coleoptera: Tenebrionida>. 

5. Dr. Max Bernhauer, — Coleoptfe'ra : Stapliylinidje. 

0. Dr. Hugh Scott. — Coleoptera: Distribution of Staphylinida\ 

7. Mr. S. ScHENKLiNG. — Coleoptera : Cleridte. 

8. Miss F. E. Jarvis. — Hydroids of the Western Indian Ocean. 
f». Dr. C. J. VAN DER HoRST. — Madreporaria : Agariciidaj. 


Dr. Hugh Scott gave a resume of Reports Nos. 2-7, and 
Prof. J. Stauley Gardiner summarized those ot Miss Jarvis and 

Dr. van der Horst. 1 , , „„rl 

The President contributed further remarks upon the value and 

interest of the papers read. 

Next followed a communication by Mr.E.R.SPEiER on "Insects 
in Relation to the Reproduction of Coniferous Trees, instancing 
the destruction of the cones of Pseudotsucja Dowjlam, Cai-r., 1 mus 
■ponderosa.mMgl., and P. echinata, Mill., by various insects, whose 
ravages were shown on lantern-slides. v P Ar 

Prof. Goodrich, F.R.S., Bec.L.S., and H. W. Monckton, V.-P. & 
Treas.L.S., made further remarks on the subject. 

Prof W J Dakin gave a comprehensive account of the 
expedition made Ainder his leadership in 1913 of which some 
description is given in the Journal of the bociety /oolog) 
vol. xxxiv. (1919) pp. 127-180, and vol. xxxun (191b) pp. 85-100 
The vertebrates were enumerated by Mr. W. B. Alexandek, and 
the Annelids by Prof. P. Fauvel, in papers laid before the 
Society on the 17th March last. To these were now added papers 
by Prof. S. J. HiCKSON, P.E.S., "On two Sea-pens,^ and by 
Dr W M.TATTERSALLonthe " Ampbipoda andlsopoda. -Uecaus 
regarding the latter papers were given by Prof. Dakin, who 
communicated them. j;*.;^^ 

Prof. Dendy briefly commented on the results ot the expedition. 

May 24th, 1921. 
Anniversary Meeting. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodwabd, P.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 5th May, 1921, 
were read and confirmed. 

Miss Winifred Mary Ailsa Lomas, B.Sc. and William Rae 
Sherrifis, M.A., D.Sc. (Aberd.), were proposed as lellows. 

Certificates in favour of Charles Taborn and Walter Sidney 
Stevens were read for the second time. 

Tbe Treasurer made his Annual Report on the Account,s of the 
Society, and the Statement (see pp. 26-28), duly audited, was 
received and adopted. 



The General Secretary reported that since tlie last Anniversary 
tlie following!; had died or their deaths been ascertained, namely : — 

21 Fellows. 

John Gilbert Baker. 
Francis Maule Campbell. 
George William Carter. 
Albert Jolin Clialmers. 
Frederick Moore Clements. 
Herl)ert Henry Corbett. 
James Hainsuy Drummond. 
Henry Duckworth. 
Capt. Harold Stuart Fergus 
ISir Charles Edward Fryer. 
Peter Goiffon. 

William Harris. 

Rev. Manoah Holhmd. 

Dr. George Bluiulell LongstafF. 

Henry Felix Nortlicote. 

Francis Edward llobotham. 

Henry Frt^lerick Conrad 

John Symons. 
William Alexander Talbot. 
Rev. AV'illiani Walter Watts. 
Rev. Alexander Whyte. 

Jolin Reader Jackson. 

2 Associates. 

I Robert Allen RoH'e. 

Odoardo Beccari. 
Yves Delaire. 

4 Foreign Members. 

Alfred Gabriel Nalhorst. 
Otto Biitschli. 

That the following 16 Fellows had withdrawn :- 

John Kedn)an Bovell. 
Edmund Burke. 
Capt. Malcolm Burr. 
George Francis Scott Elliot. 
Col. William Henrv Wilson 

John Edward Griffith. 
Rev. Albert Augustus Harland. 
James Peter Hill. 

Thomas A'ere Hodgson. 
Montagu Frank Hopson. 
Rev. Edward Francis Linton. 
Thomas Steel. 
J. G. Otto Tepper. 
John Augustus Voelcker. 
Henx'y John AVaddington. 
George Herbert AVailes. 

And that the Council had removed the following from the List, 
in accordance with the Bye-Laws, Chap. XL Sect. 6 : — 

Rev. Henrv Bride Barber. 
Charles Hall Betts. 
Alfred Douglas Hardy. 
Mr-». Maude Maufe. 

Trailokya Nath Mukharji. 
Miss E. M. Evered Parsons. 
John Gervaise TurnbuU. 

During the same period 39 Fellows have been elected, of whom 
34 have qualified up to the present. Also 5 Foreign Members 
have been elected. 


The Librarian's report was read, sliowing that doiiation-s from 
private individuals and editors amounted to 107 volumes and 
347 pamphlets and parts, by exchange 119 vohnnes and 682 de- 
tached ])arts, by purchase (54 volumes and 267 parts ; in all, the 
accessions amounted to 290 volumes and 1296 pamphlets and 
separate parts. 

Books bound amounted to 497 : 4 in half-morocco, 47 in 
buckram, 183 in half-buckram, 142 in cloth, and 121 rebacked. 

Tlie General Secretary having read the Bye-laws governing the 
Elections, the President opened the busines^s of the day, and the 
Fellows present proceeded to ballot. 

The Ballot for the C'ouiu-il liaving been closed, the President 
appointed Dr. O. Srapf, Dr. J. R. Leeson, and Mr. A. W. Sheppard 
Scrutineers; and these, having examined the ballot-papers and 
cast up the \otes, reported tb the President, who declared the 
Council to be as follows : — 

Prof. Margaret Benson, D.Sc. ; * Prof. V. II. Blackman, 
F.K.S.; E. T. Browne, M.A. ; Henry Bury, M.A. ; Stanley 
Edwards, F.Z.S.; Prof. E. S. Goodrich, E.E.S. : *Dame Hele>- 
G^VYNNE-VAUGHAN, D.B.E. : *Sir Sidney E. Harmer, K.B.E., 
F.E.S. ; Dr. B. Daydon Jackson ; C. C. Lacaita, M.A. ; Gerald 
AY. E. LoDER, M.A.; HoRACK AV. Monckton, F.G.8. ; Beginald I. 
PococK, F.R.S. ; *Capt. John Ramsbottom, M.A. ; Dr. A. B. 
Rendle, F.R.S. ; The Rt. Hon. Lionel AValter, Baron Roth- 
schild, F.R.S. ; Dr. E. J. Salisbury ; Charles Edgar Salmon, 
Esq.; *Thomas a. Sprague, B.Sc. ; and Dr. A. SiiiTH AV'ood- 

(New Councillors are shown by an asterisk. The retiring Coun- 
cillors were: Mr. E. G. Baker; Prof. J. B. Farmer, F.R.S.; 
Capt. A. W. Hill, F.R.S, ; Miss A. Lorrain Smith ; and Lt.-Col. 
J. H. TuLL Walsh.) 

The Ballot for the Officers having been closed, the President 
appointed tlie same Scrutineers ; and these, having examined the 
Ballot-papers and cast up the votes, reported to the President, 
who declared the result as follows : — 

President : Dr. Arthur Smith Woodward, F.R.S. 

Treasurer: Horace W. Monckton, F.G.S. 

Secretaries : Dr. B. Daydon Jackson. 

Prof. E. S. Goodrich, F.R.S. 
Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S. 

The President then delivered an Address entitled " Observations 
on some Extinct Elasmobranch Fishes, " Mhich « aa illustrated by 
many lantern-slides (see p. 29). 


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Observations on some Extinct Elasmobkaxck Fishes. 

LiNN^us was unfortunate in his treatment of the sharks, rays, 
and chimeras, which he ultimately removed from the class of 
fishes, and arranged among the reptiles as part ot the order 
Amphibia Nantes. A little later the anatomists Cuvier, Johannes 
Milller, and others, by their more extended researchess hrst 
pointed out the true nature and relationships ot tliese hshes ; 
while in more recent vears the morphologist, Car Gegenbaur, 
and the embryologist, Erancis Maitland Balfour, finally led to our 
modern conceptions of the group. The time has now arrived to 
test their conclusions by reference to the ancestral sharks am 
skates of which the fossil remains have been discovered and 
studied in increasing numbers during the last three decades ; 
and as I have had the opportunity of examnnng most ot these 
discoveries, I propose briefly to discuss our present knowledge ot 
the subiect. So long as most of the extinct forms were repre- 
sented only by isolated teeth and spines, it was impossible to 
determine satisfactorily their relationships, but now that inany 
are known by at least parts of skeletons a detailed study ot them 
is not in vain. Tlie teeth and spines suggested to the early 
observers that since their first appearance in Silurian or Devonian 
times the sharks, rays, and clumceras had always remained much 
as they are at the present day, and could be quoted as remarkable 
instances of persistent types. Every advance m our knowledge 
of better-preserved fossils has tended to show that, hke all otlier 
animals, these fishes have really evolved m many directions. 


li-aving out of consideration the earliest shark-like fislies— the 
Acanthodian«— which developed an unique exoskeleton and appear 
to have left no modern descendants, it may be said that the 
Devonian sharks of the order Pleuropterygii nearly realise our 
conception of the common ancestor. In the typical genus 
Cladoselache^', from the Upper Devonian Waverly Shales ot 
Ohio USA (fi"- 1 a), the slender hyomandibular seems to have 
taken' little part°in the support of the jaws, which are of the 
primitive amphistylic type. The mouth is terminal, and the teeth, 
thoiuvh arranged and reproduced as in the ordinary modern sharks, 
passVins«i^«il^le gradations of shape into the shagreen o the 
head The notochord must have been persistent, and the cartilages 
of the arches, so far as they have been seen, are of diagrammatic 

* B Dean, Mem. Anier. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. ix. (1909), pt. v. ; Hiissakof & 
Bryant, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. vol. sii. (1918), p. 127. 



Fig. 1. 

Series of Successive Types of Elasiiiobraiich Fislies. A. CladoscUiche, typically 
Devonian, with lins supported by simple parallel rods of cartilage, the 
paired fins merely balancers (after Dean). B. Pieiiracaiifhua, typically 
I'eriiio-Carboniferoiis, with paired fins as paddies (after Frifsch). 
C Hi/hodus, typically Jurassic, witli paired fins for swininiing, persistent 
notochijrd, and simple vertebral arches. D. Chlanu/rJosclachc, now exist- 
ing, exemplifying the Cretaceous and Tertiary type, with cartilages pressed 
between the neurals and ha^mals, and the supports of the fins more or 
less irregularly subdivided (after Garman). 


Simplicity. The membrane of the dorsal fin, though subdivided 
into two small remnants, is strengthened by simple parallel rods 
of cartilage, which were doubtless supported by similar rods 
between the muscles. The membranes of the paired fins are 
similarly strengthened by parallel rods, each with a corresponding 
support within the body-wall ; but instead of being notched at 
the axil behind, they extend along the body and gradually taper 
backwards beyond the strengthened part. The paired fins are, in 
fact, obviously mere remnants of a once-continuous pair of folds.' 
There is uo ordinary anal fin, but Dr. Bashford Dean * has 
suggested that it may be represented by the pair of horizontal 
lin-folds, supported within the body-wall by rods of cartilage, 
occurring close to the base of the caudal fin, which is highly 
specialised and heterocercal. The slime-canal of the lateral line, 
as shown by the arrangement of the shagreen along its course, 
must have been an open gi-oove. IStill more interesting, some of 
the muscles and other soft parts are often preserved in the fossils, 
and Dr. Dean f has identified the kidneys, showing their micro- 
scopic structure, "extending remarkably far back beyond the pehic 
fins. The body-cavity and the alimentary canal must therefore 
have extended backwards as far as the end of the tail, thus 
fulfilling Y. M. Balfour's prediction fi*om embryology that this 
condition would eventually be found in primitive vertebrates. 

The identification of the kidneys is especially important, 
because in one specimen of Cladoselache l<:ej)lcri in the British 
Museum (no. P. 9269) they are displaced by crushing behind the 
pelvic fins in such a manner as to look like claspers appended to 
the fins. They have indeed been mistaken for these organs by 
Prof. O. JaekelJ, who has published a restored sketch of the 
fish, which is now unfortunately being copied in text-books. We 
have been able to make a microscope-section of a fragment of the 
fossilised tissue in the specimen in question, and both Dr. Dean 
and I are satisfied that it is kidnev, not cartilage. There is no 
trace of a pelvic clasper in any Cladoselacliid ue have examined 
(we have seen nearly all the known specimens), and the only 
well-preserved pelvic fins end behind in a tapering menbrane. 

Prof. Jaekel's restored sketch just mentioned also erubodies a 
theoretical interpretation of the pectoral fins, which still needs 
more evidence befoi'e it can be established. Apart from a few 
parallel bars, the supports of the pectoral fin within the body-wall 
have not hitherto been clearly seen in the specimens of Cladoselache 
from Ohio ; but in one fragment of an obviously similar shark 
from the Lower Carboniferous of Scotland, descrihed by Traqu:iir§, 
the row of bars supporting the pectoral fin is continued backwards 

* Loc. cit. (1909), p, 233. 
t Loc. clt. (1909), p. 231, text-figs. 30, 31. 

\ Sitzimgsb. k. preuss. Akad. Wiss., phys.-math. CI. 1009, p. 715, fig. 0. 
§ Cladodits neihoni, R. H. Traquair, Trans. Gcol. Soc. Glasgow, vol. xi. 
(1897), p. 41, pi. 4. 



bevond the fin itself by a row of broad (juadraii^ailar cartilages. 
These may also have been retained vvitliin tbt; l)odv-\vall. a's a 
remnant of the support of a formerly extended fin-fojd ; or' they 
may have begun to project outside the body-wall, as Jaekel repre- 
sents them, to form the beginning,' of the p'addle-shaped fin whic-li 
we lind in the next grade ol sharks, the Ichthyotomi. 1 think 
that if they had already begun to enter into a movable paddle, 
they would have been sudiciently well calcified to be preserved in 
many specimens. 

We have already noted that the dorsal fin of Cladosdache is 
subdivided without any essential modification of its primitive 
stiffening rods of cartilage. It is interesting now to add that a 
closely related genus, CtenacantJms, equally generalised, ha.s a 
spine, of the ordinary shark-pattern, in front of each dor.-al iin. 
Dr. Dean * has described part of a well-preserved specimen from 
Ohio, and I have lately found that the nearlv complete fish 
from the Lower Carboniferous of Scotland, nanied Ctenacanthus 
cosieUatus byTraquairt, is not a Cestraciont, as hitherto supposed, 
but a true Pleuropterygian. In the latter specimen (fig. 2), the 
simple tai)ering, parallel rods of cartilage strengthening the 
membrane are seen in both the pectoral and pelvic fins, and they 
are clearly supported by a corresponding series of parallel rods 

Vicr. 2. 

Explanatory outline of the parts shown in the I 
from llie Lower Carboniferous of Scotland, 

of anal Iin, displaced; c. caudal fin ; d. dorst 

fin ; p/v. pelvic fin : s. cartilages of pectoral arch. 

fossil Cienacauthus costellatKg 

, one-eigiiti) nat. size. a. part 

anal Iin, displaced; c. caudal fin ; d. dorsal fin with spine; pet. pectoral 

within the body-wall. Each dorsal fin-spine is supported by a 
triangular plate of cartilage between the muscles ; but the mem- 
brane of each dorsal fin is strengthened by the usual simple 
tapering parallel rods, of which the foremost is much the largest 
and stoutest. There are no traces of an ordinary anal fin, but°the 
area of shagreen-covered skin already noticed by Traquair as 
displaced beneath the caudal pedicle, probably represents the 
horizontal lateral dermal expansion which is so peculiar a feature 

* Loc. cit. (1909), p. 249, pi. xxxiii. text-figs. 42-45. 
t Geol. Mag. [3] vol. i. (1884), p. 3, pi. 2. 


of Clacloselache. A row of broad cartilages among the obscure 
remains of the upper lobe, and the pointed ends of the cartilaginous 
rods in the lower lobe of the heterocercal caudal fin, are also sug- 
gestive of the corresponding structures in the tail of Clacloselache. 
The powerful heterocercal caudal fin of CladosekicJie and Ctena- 
cantJiKs shows that these fishes were hahitually free swimmers, not 
merely grovellers on the sea-bottom. The horizontally extended 
shape of the paired fins of the Pleuropterygii, therefore, cannot 
be explained as an adaptation to a life like that of the skates. 
The fins can indeed only be regarded as the little-altered remnants 
of primitive continuous folds, as already observed; and if the 
axial skeleton were sufficiently well calcified to he preserved in 
the fossils, the cartilaginous fin-supports would doubtless prove 
to be correlated in number with the vertebral arches. 


The correlation just mentioned, which is postulated by our 
present theory of the primitive vertebrate, is actually seen in 
several well-preserved skeletons of the Carboniferous and Permian 
sharks of the order Ichthvotomi *. These were for long the most 
primitive Elasmobranchs known, but they exhibit an advance on 
the Pleuropterygii and approach the ordinary modern Selachii 
in the structure of the paired fins. The pectoral is a unibasal 
" crossopterygian " fin, which may easily have been dex'ived, by 
concentration of the carti]agiiu)us supports, from the polyhasal 
Devonian type of fin, and I still think it may have passed into 
the dibasal or tribasal fin which is specially characteristic of the 
Selachians of later periods. The pelvic fin of the male bears the 
typical Selachian clasper. The only known Ichthyotomi (e, g., 
Pleura canth us, fig. 1 b) are elongated fishes with a diphycercal tail, 
evidently bottom-dwellers, and the paddle-shaped pectoral fiu was 
probably used as in the Dipnoan Ccratodus. 

Like the Pleuropterygii, all the Ichthyotomi hitherto discovered 
have a persistent notochord without even the beginning of verte- 
bral bodies. llasse's determination t of ring-vertebra3 in tv\o 
specimens in the British Museum is based on mistaken observa- 
tions : in the one case (no. 35015) the supposed vertebne are the 
segments of the axis of a displaced pelvic fin, in the other case 
(no. 19665) the structures ap[)ear to be the bases of neural arches. 

Din-ing recent years little has been added to our knowledge of 
the Ichthyotomi. I would, however, remark that a new chondro- 
cranium from the Upper Devonian of Gi-ermany which may belong 
to a primitive shark Xt seems to show symmetrical clefts in its 

* See especially A. Friieuh, Faiiua der Gaskohle Permforni. Bohiiiens, 
vol. iii. pt. i. (189U). 

t C. Hasse, Neiies Julirb. fur Min. etc. 1883, vol. ii. p. 65. 

I Jnfim-ina pandora. O. Jaekel. Palaeontol. Zeitschr. vol. iii. (1921), p. 217, 
text-fig.s. 1-3. 



occipital region like those already noticed by Cope and others in 
the Pleuracanth sknll. There is thus confirmation of the view 
that cranial cartilage sometimes became differentiated into separate 
parts before it was covered with membrane-bones. 


Among the earliest Elasmobranch fishes, there were many in 
which tlie teeth did not fall away from the edge of the mouth 
vvhen they were discarded, as in all modern sharks and skates, but 
became fused with their successors into antero-posterior rows 
which were retained in some way outside or beneath the teeth 
actually in use. These rows, when completely i)reserved, exhibit 
all the successive teeth acquired during the lifetime of the indi- 
viduals to which they belonged ; and from them we learn that 
man)' of the Palseozoic sharks (e.g., C'ampodus and NeUcoprion) 
had successional teeth as numerous and as rapidly-growing as in 
the familiar existing forms. Soine rows, however, such as those 
of Jaiiassa and the Cochliodonts, prove that there were also other 
sharks or skates in which the successional teeth were very few — 
not more than 7 or S durinji: the whole lifetime and each one 
much larger than its predecessor. We know very little of these 
fishes beyond their teeth, but they seem to form a natural group 
intermediate between the priuiitive Elasmobranchs and the 
Cliima?roids or Holucephali. From the slowness of their tooth- 
changes they may be named Bradyodonti. 

The tyi)ical family of the Bradyodonts is that; of the Petalodon- 
t'.dae, represei'.ted by several Carboniferous genera but best kno\\ n 
by the Lower Permian Jcaiassa*. This is a skate-shaped fish, with 
paired fins which seem to have been on the ordinary Selachian 
plan. The teeth are arranged in 5 or 7 antero-posterior scries, 
forming a powerful grinding pavement, chiefly on the symphysis, 
wliere the two rami at least of the lower jaw are firmly fused 
together. Only the latest row of teeth is in use at any time, the 
predecessors in the several antero-posterior series being piled up 
beneath the functional teeth to act as supports (fig. 3). From 
these piles we learn that during the greater part of its lifetime 
each individual Janassa liad only 7 or 8 successional teetli. In 
the Lower Carboniferous Climaxodus f, the teeth from early 
youth to old age are spread in antero-posterior series as a pave- 
ment along a continually elongating symphysis of the jaw, and 
there are shown to be only 5 or 6 teeth in succession during the 
greater part of the individual life. Many of these teeth exhibit 
a conspicuous patch of much-hardened tubular dentine, very 
suggestive of the tritors on the dental plates of the Chima-roids. 

The Carboniferous Psammodontidu' are known solely by the 
teeth of Psammoih'S, which are flattened grinders arranged in one 

* O. Jaekcl, Zeitsclir. deutsch. geol. Gesell. vol. li. (1899), p. 2.59, pis. 14, lo. 
t A. S. Woodward, Quart. Jor.rn. Geol. Soc. vol. Ixxv. (1920), p. 1, pi. 1. 



paired series along the symphysis of the jaw. Each of these 
teeth is so much narrower in front than behind, that there must 
have been very few in succession during tlie individual lifetime. 
The dentine is coarsely tubular and uniform throughout the 
crown of the tooth. In very young individuals tlie teeth of 
the right and left sides are proved to differ a little in width ; and 
in adult individuals all the teeth of one side, so far as known 
both in Europe and America, are very much wider than those of 

Eiff. 3. 



Diagraiiunatic transverse section of jaws with teeth of Janassa bituminusa 
from the Lower Permian of Tliuringia, about nat. size (after Jaekel). Six 
discarded siiccessioLial teeth are seen resting beneatli tlie tootb which is in 
use both in the upper {Ok.) and iu the lower (Uk.) jaw; while another 
successional tooth, above (Ej.) and below (Eff.), is shown ready to come 
into place in due time. Qi'ff. and U/>(/. mark the articular ends of 
the jaws. 

the other siile. The dentition must therefore have exhibited the 
unusual asymmetry represented in fig. 4, and this asymmetry 
would be reversed iu the two jaws. 

The Ui)per Devonian and Carboniferous Copodontidie, which 
are also known only by their teeth, seem to approach the 
Chimoeroids more closely tluin tlie Psammodoutidoe. In them the 
teeth are bilaterally symmetrical, arranged along the symphysis of 
the jaw in a single autero-posterior series, and embedded in a 
greater or less extended plate of highly vascular and softer 
dentine. The succession of these teeth in the typical Carboni- 
ferous genus Coporlus is very difficult to understand ; and in the 




Upjier Devonian genus Acmoniodus *, two of them, of very 
different shape and size, are seen enihedded in a bilaterally- 
symmetrical pentagonal plate of the soft dentine already mentioned. 
The discovery of skeletons of the Copodontidae will prove of great 

In tlie Carboniferous Cochliodontidae the grinding or crushing 
teeth have the same structure as those of the other Brady odonts, 
but they are arranged on the rami of the jaws as in the existing 
Cestracion. As first pointed out by Owen t, most of the antero- 

Fig. 4. 

Diagrammatio oral view of iinsymmetrical paired series of teetb oi Psammodus 
rugosus, from the Lower Carboniferous of Armagh, Ireland, about one- 
half nat. size. 

posterior series of the teeth differ from those of Cestracion in 
being fused into continuous plates, each curving into a little 
scroll at the aiuerior or outer border. The components of these 
plates, however, have now bwn seen in many specimens which 
are marked by partially oblireratetl sutures, and it is clear that 
they were never more than 6 or 7 in number — thus very 
diffei-ent from the long and rapid succession of teeth in the 
Cestracionti(la\ The CocbliodontidiB Mere indeed Bradyodonts. 
Nearly all the genera are known only by teeth, but the generalised 
Helodus is represented in the AVanl Collection in the British 
Museum by several portions of skeletons. In these fossils there is 
no trace of the vertebi'al axis, which must have been Jiolochordal. 

* Acmoniodus clarhei, Hussakof & Bryant, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 
vol. xii. (1'J18), p. 151. pi. 55, fig. 3. 
t Odontography (184t»), p. ()2, 


The paired fins seem to resemble those of a modern Selachian, 
and tlie anterior dorsal iin is provided with a spine. The 
posterior dorsal tin seems to iiave been withont a spine, 
as in the Chimaeroids. In the higlily specialised Cochliodont 
Deltoptychius* there are tuberenlated spiny plates on the bead, 
snggestive of some on the bead of the earliest known typical 
Cbiinaeroid Mi/nacuuthus, wbich occurs in the English Lower Lias. 
I^ may be added that the resemblance ot" the Cochliodont 
dentition to that of tlie Chimaeroids has already been observed 
both by Owen t and Egerton + ; and some of the Cochliodouts 
and Chimaeroids have been grouped together by Jaekel § under 
the name of Tracbyacanthidae. The so-called teeth of Chimaeroids 
from Devonian formations (e.g., Pti/chodus) probably belong to 
fishes of a vei'y distinct grouD. 


Traquair's discovery of Tristycli'ms\\ in tlie Calciferous Sand- 
stone of Eskdale, Dumfriesshire, shows that there were already 
ordinary sharks, with dibasal or tribasal pectoral fins and a 
normal tooth-succession, at the beginning of the Carboniferous 
period. Until Lower Jurassic times, all seem to have retained 
the persistent notochord ; and the few well-preserved neural 
arches which have been seen are long and well separated, without 
any intercalary cartilages. Since then most of the true Selachii, 
as I terui them, have acquired vertebral centra, and a consolida- 
tion of the neural arches with intercalated cartilages ; most of 
them (including even the most primitive, like Chlamydoselaclie, 
fig. 1 n) also show various irregular fusions and subdivisions of 
the cartilage-supports of the fins. They have also evolved into 
more numerous families, and several parts of their skeleton have 
become specialised in different ways. 

The Hybodonts (fig. 1 c), which for the most part exhibit the 
primitiv^e notochordal condition until the Lower Cretaceous 
period,' are especially interesting because, while their dentition 
and their general ap|)earauce resemble those of the existing 
Cestraciontidae, their skull is very different and more closely 
agrees with that of the NotidauidjB H . They are indeed a 
generalised group from which several later families appear to 
have arisen, and they are the dominant sharks of the J urassic and 
early Cretaceous periods. In Upper Jurassic rocks, however, we 
begin to find good evidence of several modern families of both 

* A. S. 'Woodward, Proc. Greol. Soc. vol. Ixxi. (1915), p. Ixviii, text-fig. 2. 

t Odoutograpliy (1840), p. 65. 

X Quart. Joiini. Geol. Soc. vol. xxviii. (1872), p. 236. 

§ Sitzungab. Ges. Naturf. Freunde, Jierlin, 1890, p. 130; also ibid. 1891, 
p. 127. 

II Geol. Mag. [3] vol. v. (1888), p. 83. 

*fr A. S. Woodward, Foss. Fishes Weald. & Purb. Form. (Mon. Palaeont. Soc, 
191(5;, p. 6, text-fig. 3. 


sharks and skaies, aiul some of the fossils are essentially identical 
with forms living at the jjresent day. The Cestraciontidjo, 
Notidaniila^, Scylliida), fS(|naiini(lii', and Khinohatida), of which 
tine skeletons are known from the J^ithographic >Stone ot (Ger- 
many, were certainly already diiferentiated in Upper Jurassic 
times. The iSj)iiiacidte were also neaily in existence, one tish 
having been found which is only distinguished from the 8i)inacid8e 
by retaining a small anal lin *. 

The typically modern sharks of the family Lamnidaj did not 
appear until the Cretnceous period, and were not abundant until 
the time when the Chalk tormation was deposited. The Car- 
chariida3 arose even later, and their remains are not known from 
rocks earlier than the Tertiary. The great skates also began to 
be ditferentiated towards the end of tlie Cretaceous period, and by 
the beginning of the Tertiary tliey were almost the same as in 
existing seas, only with a different geographical distribution. 

Of progressive specialisations of certain skeletal structures 
which can he followed among the fossils, perhaps the most 
interesting is tlie evolution of the rostrum in the saw-fishes or 
Pristida). We have already seen that Ehinobatidfe occur in the 
Upper Jurassic. J{hl)iobatus-[ike fishes in the Upper Cretaceous 
of the Lebanon, begin to have the rostrum elongated and 
strengthened, and fringed with a row of sharp enamelled teeth 
loosely fixed along each lateral edge t- Onchopristis X, f^'om the 
Upper Cretaceous of Egypt, and Oncliosaurus §, from many 
Cretaceous formations, have these rostral teeth larger and barbed 
at the apex, with a tendency to reduction of the enamel. Pro- 
pristis |(, from the Lower Eocene of Africa, has a stdl longer 
stiffened rostrum, with the lateral teeth peg-shaped, loosely fixed 
in very shallow sockets, and with scarcely any trace of enamel. 
The modern Pristis, which ranges from the Middle Eocene 
op wards, has the peg-shaped rostral teeth sunk in deep sockets of 
cartilage. In tlie early stages of the development of the rostral 
weapon there was thus much variety ; in the latest stage there is 
only one form. 

This tolerably complete history of the Pristid rostrum, which 
has only lately been discovered, is an illustration of the help 
afforded by the fossilised extinct Ela^^mobranchs in undei'standing 
the isolated survivors of the Subclass at the ])i'eseut day. Nearly 
every addition to our knowledge of the fossils during recent 
years, indeed, has helped to lill gaps in the series ; and researches 

* Protosjjindx annectens, A. S. Woodward, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1918 (1919), 
p. 233, pi. 1. figs. 2, 3. 

t SclcrorJii/nchus atavun, A. S. Wooclward, Catal. Foss. Fislies Brit. Mus. 
pt. i. (1889). p. 7(>, pi. 3. fig. J, and Proc. Zool. Soc. 1889, p. 449. See also 
O. P. Hay, Bull. Aim-r. Mus. >!it. lli>>f. vol. xix. (1903), p. 398. 

X F. Siromer, Al)liaridl. k. bay. Akad. Wiss., uiatb.-pliys. CI. vol. xxviii. 
Abh. 8 (1917), p. 12, pi. 1. 

§ E. Stromer, /oc. cit. (1917). p. 11. 

II E. Fraas, Neues Jahrb. fur Min., etc., 1907, vol. i. p. 1, pi. 1. 


like those of Eegaii * on tlie general morphology, and o£ Hide- 
wood t on the axial skeleton of existing groups, are enhanced in 
value by the contributions made by palaeontology. We have seen 
that the earliest known El;isuiol)ranctis almost realise the ancestral 
vertebrate type as now conceived. Very soon the remnants ot" 
lateral fin-foiils, which must liave acted merely as two pairs 
of balancers in these tishes, concentrated into paddles, and these 
again passed into stout-based fins adapted for swimming. After 
this advance, the upper jaw-cartilages, which had already been 
supported by contact with the postorbital region of the skull, 
gradually assumed a firmer connection with its base in the 
Bradyodonts which eventually became Chimserojds, while they lost 
their direct support in nearly all the modern sharks and skates 
which depend on the hyomandibular and a ligament for jaw- 
suspensiou. After the differentiation of the jaws, vertebral 
centra began to appear, and finally there were additional growths 
and various fusions of cartilages which led to the diversity in the 
Elasmobranch skeleton observed to-day. Fossils are gradually 
adding to our knowledge of the successive stages through which 
this ultimate diversity arose, and we may hope soon to be able 
to trace most groups of sharks and skates backwards to their 
generalised common ancestors. 

Mr. Percy Thompso.n^ then moved : — " That the President be 
thanked for his excellent address, and that he be requested to 
allow it to be printed and circulated amongst theFellous," which, 
after being seconded by Mr. J. C. Shenstone, was put and carried 
by acclamation. 

The President liaving acknowledged the Vote of Thanks, pro- 
ceeded to address Dr. Dukinfielb Henky Scott, F.R.S., 
reciting his services to Botany and handing to him the Linnean 
Gold Medal. He said :— 

Dr. Scott, — 

The Council of the Linnean Society desires to express its 
appreciation of your numerous and valuable contributions to 
botanical science by awarding to you the Linnean Medal, the 
liighest distinction in its power to bestow. Since your first 
paper on the development of articulated laticiferous vessels, 
written 40 years ago, you have continued to devote yourself to 
structural botany with unflagging zeal, and your published 
memoirs are modnls both for the exposition of new facts and for 
the concise statement of morphological conclusions. Your early 
researches soon brought you into association with the late Prof. 
W. C. Williamson, whose pioneer work on the structure of the 
petrified plants found in certain coal-seams was attracting wide 

* Prop. Zool. Soc. 1900, pp. 722-758, with figs, 
t Phil. Traus. vol. 210B (1921), pp. 311-407. 


attention anion<^ botanists; and from Ibi'S onwards you have 
taken a loreiiiost |)lace in advancing our know ledge ot" the hiter 
Pala50zoic flora. You began by co-operating w itii Prof. William- 
son in three imi)oi-tant memoirs on the Calamites and on 
Lj/f/inodendron, publi.shed in the ' Philosophical Transactions,' for 

1895 ; and after his death in that year you continued alone 
to add oilier memoirs to the same series. In your account of 
the ISphenopliyllales, you described Sphenophyllum fertile, a new 
form of fructification, and also Cheirostrobas, a remarkable cone 
to be regarded as the type of a new family. Your memoir 
on Zie/)«/ocary»OM ali'orded the final proof that some Lycopodiaceous 
plants in the coal-period developed seed-like bodies, and you 
made another valuable contribution to our knowledge of lycopod 
fructification by your description of Spencerites. Among the 
Pteridosperms, you were the first to recognise a species of 
Medidhsa from British Carboniferous rocks, and your descrip- 
tions both of that geiuis and IJeterawjiuin, and of the new 
genus Sutdijffia, made fundamental advances. You also joined 
Prof. Y. W. Oliver in an exhaustive study of Layenostoma which 
established its reference to Lyginodendron. Among your numerous 
contributions to our knowledge of primitive terns, your discover}' 
of Botrichio.rylon, with its secondary wood, is memorable ; and 
you were the first to find germinating spores in Stauropteris. In 
otlier memoirs you have described the stem-structure of the 
Cycadotilices and Cordaitales, particidarly Calamopitys, Mesoxylon, 
and I'itys. Y'our researches, indeed, have thrown light on the 
phylogeny and relationships of almost every group of Carboni- 
ferous plants, and your joint work witli Prof. E. C. Jeffery on 
Stereopteris, Arch(:i:opitys, and other plants from the AVaverly 
Shales of Kentucky, deals with some of their immediate ancestors. 

While actively engaged in research yourself, you have also 
stimulated others to follow your example. As Assistant Professor 
first at University College, then at the Eoyal College of Science, 
and afterwards as Honorary Keeper of the Jodrell Laboratory at 
Kew, you were able to exert personal influence. In 1884 you 
and Prof. Bower published a useful translation of de Bary's 
" Comparative Anatouiy of the Vegetative Organs of the Phanero- 
gams and I'erns "' ; in 18S8 you helped to revise Huxley and 
Martin's well-known " Practical Biology " ; while in 189-1 and 

1896 you reached a still wider circle of students by the two parts 
of your admirable " Introduction to Structural Jiotany." In 
1900 you published the first edition of your '• Studies in Fossil 
Botany,'' which has become a classic and is now beijig issued in a 
third edition. In 1908 you revised the English translation of 
Solereder's " Systematic Anatomy of the Dicotyledons," and in 
1911 you wrote a little book which has fascinated many of us, 
"The Evolution of Plants.-" Since 1893 you have also promoted 
botanical science by editing the 'Annals of Botany.' 

Finally, the Linneaii Society remembers with gratitude your 
long and devoted service as member of Council, as Secretary, and 


as President. 1 know it eagerly endorsee the action of the 
Council in offering vou mark of its adin.rat.on and esteem , 
and as one who has "long enjoyed both your tnendsh>p and youi 
scientific comradeship, it gives me the greatest pleasure to be the 
means of conveying the Medal to you. 

The recipient made a suitable reply. 

The General Secretary having laid on the table certain obituary 
notices, the proceedings terminated. 


For several vears past our Meetings have missed the pi;esence 
of the vetenm botanist, Johx Gilbert Baker, who, m the 
memory of many of us, was at one time an assiduous trequenter 
of these rooms, and an indefatigable contributor to our publi- 

'"'^Boru at Guisborough, Yorkshire, on the 13th January, 1-834 
he was only eight months old when his parents, John Bakpr and 
his wife Mary Gilbert, removed to Thirsk. where our late iellow s 
early boyhood was passed. In 1843 he was placed at the Iriends 
School at Ackworth, and there began to show his bent by making 
a collection of local plants. Three years later he was transferred 
to the Friends' School at Bootham, York, already known tor its 
vio-orous development in natural history study. In his tour- 
teenth year Baker was awarded the annual prize tor his collection 
of botanical specimens, and became curator ot the school 

herbarium. , , i . i i i • j? 4-1 „,. 

In tl>e autumn of 1847 Baker quitted school to help his tathei 
in business, and for the next eighteen years he was busy m 
Thirsk, but without abandoning his love for i)lants. in i^^^y •'« 
contributed a paragraph to the ' Phytologist,' 111. p. /38, on the 
occurrence of Carex Persoonii in the north-east of Yorkshire, lie 
collaborated with John Nowell in a, supplement to Baines s llora 
of Yorkshire,' which came out in 1854, and the next year saw the 
issue of a pamphlet on British plants classified according to their 
eeognostic relations. In 1859 he became Curator and Secretary ot 
the Thirsk Botanical Exchange, which has preserved its existence 
and now is known as the Botanical Exchange Club and ^"Ci^ty, 
which came south about the same time as our late lellow. 
Amongst Baker's friends were Daniel Oliver, then kuown as 
Hertius,' a young Northumbrian botanist, who, tour years his 
senior, had in 1858 been installed by Sir William Hooker as 
Librarian at the Royal Ganlens, Kew. ^ 

The year 1863 witnessed the publication ot Bakers nrst 
important work, 'North Yorkshire,' a volume of nearly 400 pages. 


with iiiap.s, unci an expansion oi thw views put on record in the 
1855 tract; it was printed at Tliirsk, where the bulk of it was 
stored on the author's busijiess premises, when a lire in 1804, 
due Id tlie carelessness of a passer-by, destroved the house and 
contents, iniludin^ Ins own lierhariuiii and botanical library, ile 
had in Auj^u>t LStiU married Hannah Unthank, and their first- 
born, Edmund (xilbert, an inlanL bt)rn on the Uth February, 18(54:, 
was carried out to safety. 

Tlie sympathy of his large circle of botanical and other friends 
made good, in part, his botanical losses, though the stock of his 
' JSorth Yorkshire " could not be replaced. But Baker's future 
life was determined by this accident ; in the same year he had 
publislied in tiie ' iS'aturalisL' for ]8ti4 a revision of the British 
Hoses, which even drew attention on the part of foreign botanists ; 
in 1865 he printed a monograph of British Mints in the ' Journal 
of Botany.' In 1802 Mrs. iiorrer liad given to Kew the whole 
of her late husband's herbarium, and the incorporation of a 
certain portion was needed for the Director's immediate work. 
Sir W. Hooker had noted tiie excellence of Baker's work on 
Koses, and also his increasing inclination to the study of ferns 
in the Club reports; the invitation to this was sent, but in 
August 1865 Sir \V. Hooker died at the age of 80. Among the 
unpublished material left by the veteran was tlie unfinished 
MS. of the 'Synopsis Filieum,' the pi'eface, and proofs of the 
first three sheets. The new Director's hands were full of 
executive work, and the completion of the ' Synopsis ' could only 
be done at Kew. This involved the creation of a new post, whicli 
was arranged thus. In 1801 Oliver, already mentioned as the 
Librarian at Kew, had been allowed to augment his stipend by 
accepting the Chair of Botany at University College, vacated 
by Dr. .lohn Lindley due to failing health, and in 1804 by the 
Keeper of the H.erbarium, A. A. Black, resigning that post to 
seek health in a warmer climate. The Keepership and Librarian- 
ship were then amalgamated, and the Assistant Directorship lapsed 
when the younger Hooker succeeded his father. The post of 
Eirst Assistant was confirmed on the 1st April, 1806, Baker 
having taken up his duties in anticipation on the 1st of January 
in that year. On the 5tli of April, five days after the official con- 
firmation of his new appointment, he was elected a I'ellow of 
our Society. 

Soon after he was thus permanently settled in his new 
appointment, he was permitted to follow the example of his 
chief and add to his income outside. Thus from 1869 to 1881 he 
was lecturer on botany at the London Hospital Medical School ; 
in 1874 one of the lecturers to young gardeners at Kew, which 
lie retained till l'J04, five years after he had retired from ofiice ; 
also lecturer at the Chelsea Physic Garden from 1882 to 1896. 

AVhen Prof. D. Oliver retired at sixty years of age. Baker was 
promoted to the vacant office on 1st June, 1890, which he held 
until he himself reached the age of 65 in 1899. On leaving office 


he still utilized the herhariiiin and garden, and though gradually 
his phjsical strength tailed, he retained possession ot his mental 
powers to the end. He died at Kevv on 16th August, VJ2(i, iu 
his 89th year, and was huried on the follo\\ijig Thursday, 19th 
August, iu the Friends' Burial Ground, Loudoji lload, Isleworth. 

Baker's work after his arrival at Kew was prodigious, largely 
due to tlie fact that he concentrated his attention upon famdies 
which did not need the help ot" the microscope to describe them. 
Mr. George Bentham more tlian once said to the present writer 
that "Baker never soaks a Houer." Tet Baker's astounding 
output was accomplished in a quiet manner, entirely devoid ot 
fuss or the visible hurry plainly shown b}" his chief (Proc. Linn. 
Soc. 1916-17, p. 56). No doubt tlie secret lay in the large 
amount of time spent in work at home after official hours ; be 
really lived for systematic botany. 

The ' Synopsis Filicum ' has already been mentioned ; it came 
out in 18*J8, reaclung a second edition in 1874, and he was at 
once looked upon as a leading author upon vascular cryptogams, 
leading to his being engaged on the ferns for the great Brazilian 
Flora (187u). But even before the 'Synopsis' appeared. Baker 
had printed a list of cultivated Selaginellas in the ' Gardeners' 
Chronicle ' for 1867, a medium wiiicii brought out no inconsider- 
able part of his pioneer work for cultivated plants. A I'evision 
of JS^arcissus came out in the ' Journal of Botany ' in 1870, which 
was reshaped in 1875 as part of Buj'bidge's ' A'arcissus ' volume. 
Baker was also busy for Oliver's ' Flora of Tropical Africa,' 
elaborating for the first volume in 1868 the Ampelidese, Sapin- 
daceae, and Conuaracese, and in the second (1871) the whole of 
the Papilionac(?ae, 257 pages, nearly one-half of that volume, and 
in the third (1877) the small families of Myrsineae and JSapotaceae. 
In the same year as the 'Synopsis ' appeared Baker was responsible 
for the official catalogue of the ferns cultivated at Kew. Mr. Wilson 
Saunders, of Reigate, was printing his ' liefugium botanicum,' 
plates and descriptions of interesting but not showy plants, and 
Baker contributed to the five volumes from 1869 to 1873 ; and 
from 1870 to 1875 he helped in editing the 'Journal of Botany,' 
in which so many of his shorter essays appeared. He gave an 
account of Yuccas in the ' Gardeners' (I'hrojiicle ' for 1870, and in 
the same autumn he had his "Geographical Distribution of Ferns"' 
printed in the Transactions of our Society, and in our Journal 
for the next year he produced his "Monograph ot British lioses." 

Baker's publications from this period onwards became so frequent 
and many that tlie writer must sunniiarize them after alluding 
to the volumes he wrote. ' Elementary Lessons in Botanical 
Geograjjliy' (1875); the ' Flora of Mauritius and tlie Seychelles' 
(1877); Composita) (187:3-1884), Connaraceiio, and Ampelidea? 
(both in 1871) for Martius's ' Flora Brasiliensis ' ; 'A Flora of 
the English Lake District ' (1885) ; ' Handbook of the Fern 
Allies' (1887); 'Handbook of the Bromeliacea3 ' (1889); 'A 
summary of the new J^erns . . . since 1874' (Oxford, 1892); 


' llaiidbuoli oHlie Iriileu; ' (1S'J2) ; ami willi G. 11. Tate, ' A New 
Floni of Xt)i'tliiiiiil)ei-liiii(l and Duihain' (NHwcastle-oii-Tvne, 
1868). As to Culoiiiiil floras, lie continued to co-operate on them ; 
to the 'J-'lora of Tropical Africa,' 'Flora t'apcnsit?,' and 'Flora of 
IJritisli India' (LeijuMiinosa?, vol. ii. pp. 5(i-;i()()) he contributed 
valuable portions. To our own Journal, besides the " Monop;raph 
of J3ritiHh lioses " s|)oken of ai)ove, he sent revisions of Tiiliaceae, 
Scillea?, and Chlorogalea', Tulipeae, Asparagaceaj, " Systeina 
Iridearum " (in our lOth volume), llypoxidacea}, Colchicaceae, 
Alcineae, and Yuccoidese, the tuber-bearing Solanuins, and many 
papers of new species from Madagascar. In the ' Journal of 
Botany' we may note "Dactyloid Saxifrages" (1870), a Mono- 
graph of Xijihion (1871), Ca|)e Species of Anthericum (1872), 
Aechmea ( 1 87!)), IsoHes (188U), Pitcairnia (1 88 1 ), Sdagmella (1 884), 
and Tillandsia) (1887-88). Amongst his many contributions to 
the ' Gardeners' Chronicle ' were these : — Yuccas (1870) ; all 
kuown Lilies (1871-) ; Crocus (1873); Iris (1876); Afjave 
(1877) ; Aquileyia (1878) ; Hardy Seuipervivums (1879) ; Crinum 
(1881); Ci/damen (1883); Cultivated Asters (1884); New 
(Tarden Plants, a running series from 1888 to 1892. 

Tilt? "North Yorkshire" was reprinted in the l^-ansacfions of 
the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, re-issued in 1906. 

The last contribution in our Journal is " ARevised Classification 
of Roses, 1905,'' printed in vol. xxxvii. pp. 70-79, in some degree 
a forerunner of his descriptions in Miss AVilhnott's volumes 
"The genus Rosa," 1910-14. 

Our Linuean Medal was presented to John Gilbert Baker in 
1899; he was elected F.R.S. in 1878; the Victoria Medal of 
Honour was awarded by the Eoyal Horticultural Society in 1897, 
who appc^inted him an Honorary Life Fellow in 1888 ; lastly, in 
1919 the University of Leeds conferred upon him the Honorary 
Degree of D.Sc. 

His character is admirably summed up by Sir David Prain, 
whose words we are permitted to add. 

" The sense of proportion which rendered Baker so dis- 
tinguished as a systematic wrilei- made him equally effective as a 
teacher. . . His style was lucid and concise, while he possessed 
the happy gift of ability to emphasize the salient features of his 
subject without neglecting its details. Baker's published works 
ensure the perpetuation of his memory as the last of a singularly 
gifted circle of systematic botanists. While any of them survive, 
those who woi'ked with or were taught by Baker will elierish the 
recollection of one of the kindest and best of men." [B. D. J.] 

Francis Maule CampisEll, who was born at Edmonton, Middle- 
sex, in August 1843, and baptised on the 1st of September in that 
year, died in his sleep at Nutdeld, Surrey, on 31st December, 
1920. He was but little known to most of our Fellows since his 
retirement to Wales and his marriage in 1902, but before that he 


was frequent in his attendance at oar meetings, and occasionally 
exhibited specimens of Araciuiida, wliicli he specially studied. In 
our own publications are to be found papers on Te(/en(i)-ia, the 
House-spider — its cocoon, glands in its maxillae, parthenogenesis, 
and the pairing of the species ; stridulating organs m Steatoda and 
Linypliia : on the flight of Dragonflies and the Humming-bird 
Hawk-moth ; these extended from 1S80 to 1883. Upon his 
election on the 19th December, 1878, he was living at Rose Hill, 
Hoddesdon, and in February 1886 was chosen as President of the 
Herts Natural History Society, serving the customary two years, 
and at the successive Anniversary Meetings in 1887 and 1888 
delivering an address, the first being on 'The Means of Protection 
possessed by Plants,' suggested hy the recent issue of E. x\. Prior's 
'Flora of Hertfordshire,' and the second on ' Structural Variations 
in the Eyes of Animals in reference to their Function ' — both 
printed in the fifth volume' of that Society's Transactions. Other 
papers written by him on 'Instinct,' 'Habits and Economy of our 
Social Wasps, ' Tiie Eussian Fly,' and ' A White Stoat at Hoddes- 
don,' from 1886 to 1892, are also in the Transactions of the 
Herts Society. 

In 1902 he married a Welsh lady and removed to Bryullwydwyn, 
near Machynlleth, in Montgomeryshire, where he remained till 
1919, when, having become a widower, he removed to South 
Nutfield, Surrey, and after some months he married again, 
passing away, as previously stated, on the last day of 1920. He 
was also a Fellow of the Zoological, Entonjological, and Royal 
Microscopical Societies. [B. D. J.l 

Feedeeick Moore Clements was born in England, but being of 
a roving disposition, he travelled in Central Africa, there meeting 
Mr. F. O. Selous, and tinally settled at Sydney, New South Wales. 
He was successful in pliarmacy and had a good knowledge of 
medicinal plants; he cultivated many of them in a large and beau- 
tiful garden a short distance outside Sydney, where also he had an 
aviary containing several hundreds of native and foreign birds. 
He gave liberally to patriotic objects — .£1000 on " Austialia Day " 
and i;500 on "Belgium Day." His valuable library was bequeathed 
in great part to the Linnean Society of New South Wales. In 
his will he directed that many charities in England should benefit, 
especially the parish oi' Clun, in Shropshire, \\ here the poor were 
to receive cei'tain gifts every Christmas, He Mas elected Fellow 
ot" our Society on the 1st March, 1917, and died at his house, 
"Braiiea" at Stanmore, on the outskirts of Sydney, on the 
17th August, 1920, and was buried two days later at the Waverley 

About two years ago he ])rinted aiul distributed a little 
pamphlet, ' Some Faces and Places of Clem,' a characteristic pro- 
duct of the man; it contains a catalogue of the plants in his 
garden, amounting to nearly 800 names. [B. D, J.] 


TliP doo+li of IIkrbekt Hekry Corbett, who died at Doncaster 

on flip nth of J.'imiiirv hist, had this achlitional element of pathos 
in tlint. elected last year to the Presidency of the Yorkshire 
Xatnnlists' Union, it was too recent for his assiiiuption of its 
fnncfions hefore his death. 

He was horn at " Broxups,'' the house near Besses o' th' Barn, 
between Bury and Mancliester ; when five years of age the 
family removed to Cheadle llulme. His education was received 
at Dr. Key worth's school at Alderley Edge, and later at Owens 
College, Manchester. For a short time he was in his father's 
office in Manchester, hut the profession of an architect and sur- 
veyor did not satisfy him, and he returned to Owens College to 
study medicine. After passing his examination he deputised for 
various medical men at Bolton, AVhaley ]}ridge, and Cheadle, 
settling finally at Doncaster in 1888, succeeding to the practice 
of Dr. AVadsworth. Later he became a homeopathist, probably 
through the influence of the Capper family in Liverpool ; he 
married Jessie Capper in lsr»2, the daughter of a distinguished 
entomologist, and the union was a congenial and happy one. 
Their home became a meeting-place for naturalists and a centre 
for new activity in the Doncaster Scientific Society, with in- 
creased membership and a systematic exploration of the local 
flora and fauna; he filled the office of Secretary and then Presi- 
dent for several years, and it was largely due to the influence 
of our late Fellow that the Municipal ^Museum was established, 
which, from modest beginnings, grew to the purchase.of a suitable 
building for display and future extension. As the first Curator 
he had the task of arranging the exhibits, and during the absence 
on service of tlie present Curator, he I'eassumed his old functions. 
]Iis local collection of Coleoptera is housed in the ^luseum. 

On the outbreak of the great war, his only son Vincent 
volunteered for service, was wounded and spent some months at 
home recovering ; he rejoined, but in October 1918, shortly before 
the Armistice, he was killed in action. This, added to the loss 
of his wife, six months earlier, made an indelible mark, and the 
subject of our remarks thereafter devoted his life to his three 
daughters, who survive him. On the 5th March, 1919, he was 
elected Fellow of the Entomological Society, and the next day 
Fellow of the Linnean Societ}^ being formally admitted to the 
latter on the 5th June following, the last occasion when the pre- 
sent writer saw his friend of nearly forty years' standing. At the 
annual meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Bradford, 
9th December, 1920, he was elected President for the ensuing 
year, and accepted the position with great pleasure, which gave 
great satisfaction to the members of the Union. At the moment 
of election he was staying at Broadstairs, recovering from a 
severe operation, returned home, seemingly much the better for 
his stay in Kent, and expressed himself feeling almost as well as 
ever in his life. On the 2nd January, 1921, however, the old 


trouble made itself felt again, with a second operation, from 
which he failed to recover, and died, as mentioned previously, five 
days after becoming the President of tlie Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, and was buried in Doncaster Cemetery on the 8th of 
January last. 

From early life he had been devoted to Lepidoptera, especially 
the smaller species, and his first paper came out in ' The P]nto- 
mologist' for 1876, when the author was 19; and diu'ing his 
subsequent career his pen was busy in recording local obser- 
vations. Interwoven with an intimate and sympathetic account 
of Mr. Corbett's life, will be found nn ample statement of the 
entomological laboui's of our late Fellow, by Mr. E. Gr, Barford, 
in 'The Naturalist' for April last (pp. 145-149), with a portrait, 

[B. D. J.] 

James Eamsay Dbummond, B.A. (Oxon), was born at sea, off the 
coast of Madras, on the 1^5th May, 1851. Having been educated 
at Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Oxford, he joined tlie Indian Civil 
Service in 1874. He served in the Punjab as Assistant Commis- 
sioner, District Judge, and Deputy Commissioner until 1905, when 
he retired. Before leaving India he acted for a short time for the 
Cilrator of the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, who was then absent 
on leave. After his return to England lie lived first at Kew and 
then at North Acton, where he died rather unexpectedly on 
April 11th of the present year. He was cremated at Golders 
Green, whence the ashes uere talven to Scotland, 

J. R. Druinmond was a nephew of the two great plant collectors, 
James and Tiiomas Drummond, who contributed so largely to 
our knowledge of the floras of West Australia and Nortli-we*t 
America respectively, and shared with them in the common 
heritage of love of plants and enthusiasm for botany. He him- 
self collected largely in the Western Punjab, whose flora he knew 
intimately, and only to a lesser extent in the neighbourhood of 
Dalhousie and Simla, and in the Upper Gangetic plain, besides 
employing native collectors in various parts of the AVestern 
Himalaya. He intended to write a Flora of the Punjab, but, 
partly owing to enfeebled health, he was unable to carry out the 
plan on which he had set his heart. He had an unusually discri- 
minative eye and a remarkable memory which aided him very 
much in any of the many problems he set himself to work out. 
Unfortunately only few of them matured into publication. But, 
whether he made personal use of those gifts or not, he was always 
ready to place them, as well as his linguistic knowledge and 
general versatility, unstintedly at the disposal of others. He was 
equally liberal in the distribution of his collections, which were 
intended lor the great botanical herbaria at home and abroad, and 
of which he actually distributed the first sets before the war. 

[0, Sxapf.] 


Capt. I1A.IIOLD Stuart Ferguson, JNr.B.K., who died on the 5th of 
January hist in his seventieth year, was the son of a well-known 
London physician of the early Victorian days. Educated at 
Eton, and for a short time at Wimbledon, he passed into 
AV^oolw ich Academy, and in due course obtained a coiiunission in 
the Royal Artillery. After four or five years in the Service, he 
resigned his commission and |)roceeded to India to take up coffee- 
planting. In 1880 he was offered and accepted the post of 
English tutor to the three Princes of Travancore, and when they 
no longer required his tutelage h« was appointed second in com- 
mand of the Xair Brigade of native troops maintained by the 
Maharajah of Travancore. A few years later, while at home on 
leave, he married Isabel Julia, daughter of CdI. Hamilton 
Maxwell of the Indian Staff Corps, and niece of Lady Roberts. 
Returning to India, he held various appointments under the 
Travancore Government, including tiiat of Director of the Public 
Museums and Government (wardens at Trevandrum. There his 
great love for wild creatures siiowed itself in the care bestowed 
on the condition of the birds and animals kept in the Gardens. 
At the same time his collectors continually brought in rare speci- 
mens of birds, animals, and plants. Retiring from India in 1904, 
he settled at Ascot and became one of the private secretaries of 
Lord Roberts, V.C, but on the death of that distinguished soldier 
he moved to London and took up war- work. AVhile his three 
sons were fighting for their country, he \\as engaged daily at the 
llead([uarters of the London Rifle Brigade till the disease, which 
eventual!y proved fatal to him, obliged him to stop work. 

Capt. l"'erguson always took a great interest in the birds and 
animals of the part of India where he was stationed, and in 1902 
he published in the 'Journal of the Bombay Natural History 
Society ' an account of the birds of Travancore. On 4th June, 
1891, he was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society. On his 
retirement from India he became a constant visitor to the 
Zoological Gardens at Regent's Park, and before he died he 
was nominated a Member of the Council of that Society. 

Before he went to India he played cricket for the M.C.C., 
I Zingari, and Eton Ramblers, and was a member of the M.C.C., 
Surrey Comity Club, and Xational Sporting Club. He obtained 
his International cap as an Association football player, and was 
selected to represent Scotland against England at Rugby football, 
but could not play as he was sailing for India. 

His long jump of 21 ft. 2} in. held the amateur record for 
several years till it was beaten by Commander C. B. Fry. 

Shortly before his death he was nominated M.B.E. for services 
in connection with his war-work. 

A man of science, a fine sportsman, a generous host, and a 
charming companion, he leaves behind him a host of friends. 
Miiltis ille bonis J^ehilis occidit. [T. F. Bourdillox.] 


"William Harris, Govermneiit Botanist and As.sistant Director 
of Pnblic Gardens in Jamaica, was born at Eiiniskillen on the 
15tb November, 1860, and after some • years' experience in 
gardening, was in 1879 taken on the staff at the Eoyal Bptanic 
Gardens, Kew. Two years later he was appointed on the 
Director's recommendation to take charge of King's House 
Garden, Jamaica, Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.M.G., tlien being 
Director of Public Gardens and Plantations, and in due course 
acted as Siiperintendent in each of the five gardens in that island. 
On Mr. W. Fawcett's retirement in 1908, Harris became 
Superintendent of the Public Gardens of the Departn)ent of 
Agriculture ; in 1917 he was appointed Government Botanist, and 
in 1920, a few months beft)re his death, was promoted to be 
Assistant Director. By his loss botanical exploration in Jamaica 
has suffered greatly. He was an indefatigable collector, and 
spent bis holidays in the botanical exploration of every part of 
the island, roughing it in the bush, with the most meagre shelter 
for the night. Last year he suffered throat trouble, and went to 
Kansas City, where his eldest son was living, to consult a 
specialist. The disease was found to be cancer, and he died in 
hospital on the 11th October, 1920. He had been a Fellow of 
the Linnean Society since 6th April, 1899. 

Botanically he is commemorated by the genera Harrisia, Britton 
(Cactacese), and Rarrisella, Fawc. & Rend. (Orchidea?), and many 
species have been named after him. [B, D. J.] 

JoHX Eeaber Jackson, who died at Lympstone, Devon, on the 
28th October, 1920, w-as the last survivor of the official staff of 
the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, from the time of Sir William 

He was born at Knightsbridge in May 1837, but at the age of 
six he was taken with the rest of the family to Canterbury. His 
early education was conducted by his father until 1851, when he 
was sent to London, where he continued his studies under the 
supervision of an uncle. Having become acquainted with 
Prof. Thomas Bell, then President of the Linnean Society, he 
was in turn introduced to Sir William Hooker, Dr. John Lindley, 
and Robert Brown, resulting in his receiving the appointment as 
Curator of the Museum at Kew, then in course of formation, 
which he carried on alone for nearly 20 years, when an assistant 
was granted. Although his official duties engrossed nearly all his 
time, he managed to become the author of several works, such as 
the ' Official Guide to the Kew Museums,' which, originally the 
work of Daniel Oliver, in the fifth edition, 1871, and sixth edition, 
1875, were added to by Jolni R. Jackson ; he also edited a new 
edition of Barton & Castle's 'The British Flora mediea' in 1877, 
and issued his ' Commercial Botany of the Nineteenth Century ' 
in 1890. In addition he contributed numerous short articles to 
serials, as one on the Whangee Cane in the 16th volume of our 

LINN. see. PBOCEEDINGS — SESSION 1920-1921. e 


Journal (Botanyi, many on medioinal plants to the ' Pharma- 
ceutical Journal' and ' Clieiiiist and Druggist,' 'The Gardeners' 
Chronicle,' and 'The Technologist,' 

Oil rcachinj^ the age oF 05 in 1902, he left Richmond and 
settled at Lynipstone, -where he lived until his death as recorded 
above. He was elected an Associate on the 2nd April, 18G8, and 
was thei'efore the oldest Associate in the list by eleven years. 

[B. D. J.] 

For some time before his death, at his residonce on Putney Heath, 
on the 7th INlay, l!)2l. Dr. Gkorge IJluxdell LoxciSTAFF, 
M.A. (Oxon), had been in ill-health, so that the announcement of 
his death was not unexpected. He was the son of a medical man 
at Wandsworth, George Dixon Longstaff, M.H., and was born 
on the 12tli February, 1849, educated at lliighy, and New College, 
Oxford (Scholar, First Class in Natural Science), where an accident 
early in his academical career destroyed the sight of one of 
his eyes, afterwards at St. Thomas's Hospital, London. IMuch 
of his time was subsequently devoted to municipal and philan- 
thropic work; for four years, 3 889-1903, he was a member of 
the London County Council, and was also a A^ice-President of the 
Statistical and Entomological Societies. In 1912 he published 
his ' Butterfly Hunting in Many Lands,' the fruit of his varied 
travel; his recreations were chiefly entomology, botany, and 
travelling. He became a Fellow of the liinnean Society on the 
19th June, 1913, but had been previously a treqiient vieitor with 
Mrs. Longstaff, wlio had been elected in 1908. Besides tl:e 
Societies already mentioned, Dr. Longstaff was a Fellow of the 
Geological and Chemical Societies. [B. D. J.] 

The recent death of Prof. Alfeed Gabriel XA'rnoiiST has been 
felt, not only in the domain of paloDobotany, but in a w ide circle 
of friends, many of them in this country. He was born in 1850, 
but after he had readied man's estate, his life was practically 
spent in the service of the State Museum in Stockholm. 

The question of assigning better accommodation for the 
botanical portion of the collections belonginir to the Academy of 
Science, including an intendant for the palfeobotanic subdivision, 
was mooted in 1881 , and strongly supported by Earon Nordenskiold 
in the Bigsdag, but without immediate success. The following 
year the application was again put forward, and now cou]iled with 
the request that "Doctor of Philosophy Alfred Galiriel Kathorst 
may be appointed for life, or till he. be appointed to some other 
state service " ; this was secured in 1884. The building assigned 
to the new subdivision and its head was in Wallengatan, in a 
two-storied building, well-remembered by all who have since then 
visited Nathorst in his corner room, and where so much of his 
scientific work was done, with the library close at hand. The 
building itself was old, and at the oj)posite end to Nathorst's 
room, cracks showed themselves, even before the contents could 
be removed into the new building at Frascati, now termed 


" A^etenskn|is:il<a(leuiieii, Stockholm,*' as a postal address. biiuself lias drawn up the official account of the pa]a?o- 
botanical section in the quarto volume, ' Natiirliistoriska Riks- 
museets histoiia, Stocklioliu * [printed at Uppsala, 1916], 
pp 245-273. 

Secure in this quiet workroom, Nathorst sj)ent the rest of liis 
official life, save when absent on exploring expeditions or scientific 
visits. One great disadvantage he had, that of total deafness, 
but it was marvellous to see how quickly he grasped the purport 
of a question, even when only a few words had been written dow n 
on his tablets. His daughter, Friiken Kuth Nathorst, frequently 
acted as her father's interpreter by finger-speech. The writer 
remembers tliat wheuXatborst was in London for the Centenary of 
the Geological Society in 1907, he was taking charge of the Swedish 
visitor by the tube railway from the dinner at the Criterion to 
Cromwell Road for the reception, when, on emerging from the 
exit of the station in the darkness, Nathorst instantly gripped his 
arni and gave the name of the street they were entering. 

The new buildings were occupied in 1916 ; and the next year 
Nathorst attained the age of 67, w hen he was obliged to retire on 
account of age. He continued his work till the autumn of last 
year, in spite of some slight heart-attacks, but at last he had to 
lay down his pen, and after some weeks of increasing debility he 
breathed liis last on the 20th January, 1920. 

Beginning in 1869 with a paper on the Cambrian rocks of 
Scania, he was occupied with recent Arctic plants and plant- 
remaiuo in several papers publislied in Swedish journals and one 
in the English ' Journal of Botany' for 1873, meanwhile gradually 
tending towards research on fossil plants, as his contribution to 
Sweden's fossil flora in the Stockholm ' Handlingar' of 1S76, and 
his interesting account of WiUiamsonia flowers from Yorkshire in 
the ' Ofversigt ' for 1880 show. He was elected a i'oreign 
Member of our Society in 1908. 

In later years he elaborated new methods of investigation, as 
the application of collodion to fossils, which, when set, was stripped 
off and mounted on slides, which, when examined by the micro- 
scope, showed the stomata distinctly. 

As for his explorations, he visited Spitzbergen in 1870 and 
1882, bringing home rich collections; in 1898 he led an important 
expedition primarily to Beeren Island and Kung Karls Land in 
search of Andree ; the account of the latter came out in two 
volumes in 1900, and the Scientific ])ortion in a series of papers. 
In 1875 he began a long series of papers on the KhfEtic flora 
of Scania, and we owe to him much of our present-day knowledo'e 
of the Arctic floras from Devonian folate Tertiary times; he also 
published on Jurassic plants from Graham Island, Japan, New 
Siberian islands, and the Yoi'kshire coast. A large number of 
genera was establislied by him, amongst them Pseudoboniia, Lyco- 
strobits, CepJuilotheca, WieJandiella, t'ljciidocepliahin, and Campto- 
pteris ; to him also we owe the term Cycadophyta.j [B. D. J.] 

Hi. OF ILu. UB« 


KoBERT Allex Rolkk. Oil April ISlh of the present year 
Kobert Allen RoH'e, an Associate of the Society for \i(') years, was 
laid to rest in ]{icliiuoiid Cemetery under a pall of glorious 
orchids, — the last and fair tribute of the great establishment he 
had served, and of tlie friends who were uuitftd witli him in the 
cult of that noble family. AVith him a hard and earnest worker, 
driven by a deep and unwavering enthusiasm that amounted 
almost to a religion, has gone from us. Neither endowed with 
the liberal education and the broad outlook of a Lindley nor with 
the domineering self-sure personality of a Keiclienliach, he has 
yet, from a comparatively moderate position jind constrained by a 
multitude of divergent duties, created for himself a world-wide 
reputation as an orchidologist whose loss will be felt for a long 

He was born at Ruddington, a small vilhige near Nottingham, 
on JNIay 12th, 1855. He was brought up as a gardener, and was 
for some time employed in the gardens in AV'elbeck Abbey, the 
seat of the Duke of Portland. It was from there that he came to 
Kew in 1S79 ; but already in the following year he aa as appointed 
an assistant in the Herbarium, winning the post in a competitive 
examination against eight other candidates. He « as early brought 
into contact w ith the Orchidaceae, and his first publication in that 
direction was a " Revision of the Genus rJialo'nopsis" in the 
'Gardeners' Chronicle' of 1886 (vol. xxvi.). Other papers and 
notes on orchids followed in the next years, but it was not until 
1893, the year when lie founded the ' Oirhid Review,' that he 
concentrated his efforts on the Orchidaceas. The ' Orchid Review,' 
the special organ of the Orchid growers, remained his faithful 
ward and companion to the end of his life, whilst the more 
exclusively scientific results of his studies in Orchidaceae are 
spread over various journals and the two great floras of Tropical 
Africa and South Africa (' Flora Capensis '). The Linnean Society 
especially owes him a paper on the genus Vanilla (Journ. vol. xxxi. 
1896, pp. 439-478) and the section of the Orchidaceae of the 
'Index JFlorae Sinensis' (Journ. vol. xxxvi. 1903, pp. 5-67). The 
numbers of new species of Orchidacese described by R. A. Rolfe 
amounts to many hundreds, the 'Kew Bulletin' alone being 
responsible for the publication of almost 500 under the title 
" New- Orchids." His output does not rival in numbers the pro- 
digious figures realised by Reichenbach and some modern authors, 
but in thoroughness it compares well w ith any of them, and this 
is ungrudgingly recognised in letters which have come to hand 
since Rolfe's death from France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, 
and America, \\hilst in his own country his authority was 
unchallenged. However, the Orchidaceaj were not the only field 
where he left his mark. In an institution like Kew no one can 
specialize in any one branch to the exclusion of all others. The 
demands on its workers are manifold and the opportunities end- 
less. So found Rolfe himself, occupied with research work here 
and there outside the domain of his favourite studies, partly in 


the execution of his duties and parti}' followiuo the temptations 
of alhiring problems. But it is eliaracteristic of the man that all 
those excursions into side paths ran along definite lines with a 
starting-point in eai-ly days, so liis work on galls (first paper 1881), 
Selaginaceas (1883J, the flora of the Philippines (1885), hybrids 
(1887), etc. His keen interest in the problem of hybridisation 
led him on to the study of the species of liosa and Ruhus, but 
here, like many others, he never came to any settled conclusions, 
and his work reuiained sluit up in the cabinets of the Herbarium, 
or perhaps found a new sprouting ground in a congenial mind, 
for he was communicative enough when he got warm and found a 
willing ear. 

R. A. E-olfe was to have retired from the post of an Assistant in 
the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, last year, 
but extension of service for one year was granted. This he did 
not live to complete. His last illness and death came unexpectedly 
early, for until then he showed, apart from increasing deafness, no 
signs of old age, and was full of plans for future work and even 
for a journey of exploration to Central America. He was an 
Honorary Fellow and Member of the lloyal Horticultural Society, 
and shortly before his death was awarded by the same Society the 
Victoria Medal and the Gold Medal of the Veitch Memorial 
Trust Fund. 

Further references to his life aud work may be found in the 
'Kew Bulletin' for 1921, pp. 123-127, and in the 'Orchid 
Review,' vol. xxix. pp. 5-8. Portraits of him were published in 
the ' Gardeners' Chronicle ' of 12th February and 23rd April of 
the present year, and in the ' Orchid Review,' I. c. 

R, A. Rolfe married, in 1881, Miss Caroline Berkeley Thatcher, 
of Clifton aud Cheddar, by whom he is survived, as well as by one 
daughter aud three sons. [O. Staff.] 

Piee' Anbrea Saccakdo was born at Treviso, on the 23rd of April, 
1845, the son of the engineer, Francesco, of Selva (Volpago), and 
his wife Elena, born Vidotta, of Treviso. His early^education was 
received at Selva and afterwards at Venice, and subsequently 
at Padua, at which University he graduated in medicine and in 
philosophy in 1866. 

His earUest emploj'ment on emerging from his University was 
Assistant to Roberto de Visiani, entering upon his duties in 
ISToveraber 1866, retaining the post until 1872, when he was 
appointed Professor of Natural History at the Technical Institute 
of Padua, tlien newlv founded, until Visiani retired from the Chair 
of Botany, and Saccardo was called to lill his place in 1877 as 
Professor and Director of the Botanic Garden, which was con- 
firmed upon the death of Visiani in February 1878. He remained 
there for the long period of forty-two years, retiring on reaching 
the age of 70 in 1915. 

54 PnoCEKUlNG.S OK Til f, 

Padua beiii^f tlireuteiied uilli boiiiljardiut-nt as a consequence oi 
the disaster of Caporetto in Novemljer 1917, he removed to 
Avellino to tlit^ house ot" his son-in-law, Prof. TrottiM-, who had 
married liis dauj^hter Maria, .staying tliei'o till June 191 'J, when 
he went back to Padua. A (short illness, which did not at tirst 
seem serious, carried him otf on 11th Pebruary, 19:^0. 

It is said that Saccardo's first attempt at tiie study of botany 
was in 1857, a boy of twelve, when an uncle had planted an 
orchard with ticketed specimens; upon this the youngster began 
to collect and determine the plants of the countryside, and 
followed up his acquisition of this herbarium by establishing 
a small botanic gai'den at ISelva. His ' Prospetto della flora 
trevigiana' was his first printed botanical work; it came out 
during 1863-64 in the Venetian ' Atti,' and its success seems to 
have been the deteiiniuing cause of his devotion to botany; a 
revision was issued in 1917, one of his last efforts, as 'Flora 
Tarvisina renovata.' His attention was then attracted to 
cryptogams, mosses at first, and the ' Mycologiae \ enetse Specimen' 
(1873) betrayed the mycologist, who was destin>.'d to work so 
strenuously amongst the fungi. Armed with microscope and 
micrometer, and gifted with a retentive memory, he issued in 
succession 'Fungi Veneti novi vel critici' (1873-82; ; 'Notae myco- 
logicae,' ended in 1918; ' Mycotheca Veneta,' a set of 1600 dried 
specimens, and ' Fungi italic! autographice delineati ' (1877-86), 
1500 plates, the originals being drawn and coloured b)' the author. 
In the late 'seventies Saccardo initiated the journal ' Michelia.' 

His 'Conspectus geiierinn Pyreuoniycetum italicorum systemate 
carpologico distributorum ' shows that he had been studying the 
problems of mycology so as to evolve a system founded upon the 
forms of fruit, a scheme which our own countryman, M. C. Cooke, 
attacked as artificial and better adapted tor the use of girls and 
idle brains, whicli was vigoi'ously answered by Saccardo. During 
this time he was busy on tlie great work of his life, ' Sylloge 
fungoruni,' the first volume of which saw the light in 1882, and 
closed with the 22nd volume in 1913, having 72,U00 species, with 
MS. material in addition, which would bring up the number to 
80,000. Help in this vast work was received from Berlese, 
De Toni, Trevisan, Sydow, his son Domenico, his son-in-law 
Trotter, and many others. 

A full bibliography of the work of our late Foreign Member will 
be found in the ' Xuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano,' n. s. xxvii. 
(1920) pp. 5S-74, by Dr. Domenico Saccardo, which is imme- 
diately followed by a posthumous paper, " Mycetes boreali- 
americani," of fourteen pages. He was elected one of our Foreign 
Members on the 4th May, 1916. [P. D. J.] 

Henry Fulueeick Conrad Saxdee was born in 1847, and early 
in life was employed by Messrs. James Carter at their nursery 
at Forest Hill. AVhilsf here he met with Benedict lioezl, the 


well-knowa plant colleetor, with whom he entered into a business 
arraiii;-einent : Roezl to collect, and Sander to receive and dispose 
of the specimens. 

Sander started in business on a ver}' modest scale in George 
Street, St. Albans, but by 1873 KoezFs consignments of orchids 
and other exotics became so extensive that he decided to erect a 
suitable glasshouse, much of which was put up with his own 
hands. The business proved so successful that in 1881 he 
established the present large nursery outside the town of 
St. Albans. At one time he employed no fewer than 23 col- 
lectors in different parts of the world, and his importations 
became so large that he held sales of orchids four days a week 
in London. During this decade he established a branch in New 
Jersey, U.S.A., but as the distance from home was great, it was 
sold. In 1894 an important step was taken by founding a new 
nursery at St. Andre, near Bruges, which grew into a large 
undertaking, witli 100 glasshouses, 30 being given up to orchids; 
his three sous were associated in the bu-^iness. 

The luxurious foUo volumes of ' Reiclienbachia ' were due to his 
liberality: he received the Victoria Medal of Honour upon its 
establishment, was Chevalier of the Order of the Crown of 
Belgium, and was elected F.L.S. on the 2nd December, 1886. 
He died at Bruges after an operation on 23rd December, 1920, 
and was buried in the cemetery of St. Albans on the 30th of the 
same month. [B. D. J.] 

Dr. Franz Steindachner, who was elected a Foreign Member 
of the Linnean Society in 1887, died at Vienna on 10th December, 
1919, aged 85. He was a student and friend of Louis Agassiz, 
and devoted the greater part of his hfe to systematic ichthyology. 
He was especially interested in freshwater fishes, and himself 
made large collections during various journeys in Spain and 
Portugal, California, and Brazil, Early he joined the staff of 
the Natural History Museum in Vienna, where he arranged his 
collections and prepared a long and valuable series of papers and 
memoirs published chiefly by the Vienna Academy of Sciences. 
His pioneer contributions to our knowledge of the freshwater 
fishes of Spain, Portugal, and Brazil are especially noteworthy. 
He also published some of the first detailed descriptions of fossil 
fishes from the Tertiary formations of Austria. At the Museuii), 
Steindachner took immediate charge of the reptiles and amphibians 
as well as fishes, and he occasionally wrote on the new forms 
received. In 1899 he was promoted to the directorship of the 
Museum, which he held until his death. Notwithstanding his 
arduous administrative duties, he still retained his enthusiastic 
devotion to ichthyology, and he always seemed to have leisure to 
meet and discuss his favourite study with his younger colleagues. 
He lived in the official dwelling beneath the jNIuseum, and his 
genial hospitality, for many years dispensed with the aid of his 


sister, will always be reiiiombered with pleasure by those who 
had the good t'ortuue to experience it. He was a great naturalist, 
worthy of the esteem and affection in wliich he was held. 

[A. S. AV.j 

E.\cluding perhaps the late Sir Dietrich Brandis and Mr. Gamble, 
no other Indian forester in recent years has done so much to 
add to our knowledge of systematic botany in India as AVilmam 
Alexandeu 'J'albot, whose sad death occurred in Switzerland on 
the 23rd July, 1917. 

Mr. Talbot came to Switzerland in 1911 shortly after retire- 
ment from the Indian Forest Service, bringing the greater part 
of his valuable herbarium with him, and accompanied by his sister 
who had been his devoted companion for so many years in India. 
Soon after arrival he purchased the historic mansion known as the 
Chateau de Rougemoiit, situated in the Canton Vaud, hoping to 
spend the remainder of his days midst the ideal surroundings of 
that beautiful spot in useful botanical work; but this he was not 
permitted to do for very long. He only survived in Switzerland 
for a comparatively short time, namely, six years. 

About six months or so before his death, he complained of a 
feeling of weariness and disinclination for further botanical study ; 
a rest was suggested, and it was thought that after this he w ould 
be able to resume his pa»sionately-loved work, but such, unfortu- 
nately, was not the case. His health rapidly declined, and he 
passed peacefully away at the c()ra])aratively early age of i)2 years, 
34 of which were spent in the Bombay Forest Department. 

Mr. Talbot, who was an Irislmian, was educated at Foyle 
College, County Londonderry — a college which had the honour 
of turning out two brothers. Lord and Sir Henry Lawrence of 
Indian Mutiny fame. John Nicholson, the hero of Delhi, it is 
interesting to note, hailed from an institution close by in the same 

After passing an examination in London for the Indian Service, 
he was sent to the Ft)rest School at 2sancy in the Vosges for a 
three years' course of study in forestry. Having completed this 
course, he went out to Bombay and arrived there in December 
1876, being posted as an Assistant Conservator of Forests, to the 
Thana District, a district situated at the foot of the western pro- 
jection of the Ghats. Here, however, he was not permitted to 
remain very long; after a few months he was transferred to 
Khandesh, on the Deccan table-land. It was while serving in 
Khandesh that an episoile occurred which very nearly terminated 
Mr. Talbot's career. When out shooting on one occasion in the 
Satpura Hills, a magnificent wounded bison charged him in the 
bamboo jungles there. Many would have been unable to know 
wiiat to do in such an emergancy, but Mr. Talbot with great 
presence of mind lay flat on the ground, permitting the infuriated 
bison to pass over his prostrate form. 


After a stay of a few raoutbs in Khandesli aud Kolaba respec- 
tively, he was' moved iu 1878 to the Southern Circle of the Bombay 
Presidency, in which are comprised the splendid high seedling 
forests of North Kauara, forming as they do an unbroken chain 
of about 3000 square miles of tropical woodland. 

One can imagine what pleasure and delight arrival m this 
region must have afforded Mr. Talbot. With his keenness lor big 
game shouting and love of botany, here were conditions of an ideal 
character for him, which he did not fail to take advantage ol to 
the fullest possible extent, especially as he had the good \ovtmie 
to be left undisturbed in this region for seventeen years, or halt his 
total pi-riod of service. This was probitbly due to Ins having soon 
gained the contidenee of his chief, Col. Peyton, the Conservator, 
who was an intrepid sportsman and keen lover of nature, and he 
recognised in Mr. Talbot the very man to do full justice to the 
situation in which he was placed. 

It was while out on shooting expeditions with Col. Peyton and 
excursions with others, that Mr. Talbot, aided by his trained 
powers of observation, was able to collect the store of botanical 
information which he put together in book form first in 1894. 
This was his first modest attempt at a systematic work on the 
trees, shrubs, and climbers of the Bombay Presidency, and it was 
published under the authority of theBombay Government. Several 
new species were included in this work, as well as numerous 
others not first noted as found in the Bombay Presidency. _ 

Eight years of further close botanical worli enabled hmi to 
bring out in 1902 another and much enlarged edition of his first 
book, which was again published by Government and contained 
still more trees, shrubs, and climbers new to science and several 
other species also not known to exist previously in the Presidency. 
But Mr. Talbot was now reaching senior rank, and it became 
necessary to transfer him from Kanara to a post of an adminis- 
trative character. Much to his chagrin accordingly, he was moved 
in 1903 to assume control of the Northern Forest Circle of the 
Bombay Presidency. It was while in administrative charge ot 
this circle that the 'idea of bringing out an illustrated and much 
enlarged edition of his previous work, 'Forest Flora ot the 
Bombay Peninsula and Sind,' Pooi.a (1909-11), 2 vols., 4to, took 
concrete form. AVith the co-operation of his sister, who is a 
talented artist, and who is responsible for the illustrations m the 
book which are mostlv from nature, he started on this laborious 
and ambitious task. They both worked assiduously together on 
this mwjnam opus for eight years, i.e. till 1910, when Mr. lalbot s 
enforced retirement from the service owing to age (55 years) was 
brought about. This work, however, was practically «omp_leted, 
and it was published by Government at a cost of Ks. ly,000 
i.e. about £1000. Mr. Talbot was given an honorarium ot 
Rs. 5000, /. e. £333, for his service and 50 free copies for pre- 
entation to friends. 


liealising the heavy aiid re.spansible duties attached to the post 
of an adininistrative ollicer in cliarge oF a circle, the completion 
ot this last work, consisting of two volumes of quarto size and 
11415 pages with 54U illustrations, while actually in harness, 
cannot but be characterised as a great achievement, reflecting the 
greatest credit on the author. 

For the last tlnee years of his service Mr. Talbot was senior 
Conservator of Forests in Bombay and atlviscr of (Tovernment on 
all forest questions, and resided at Poona and Mahableshwar, both 
hill stations and suuiuier resorts of (iovenimeut; but the social 
attractions of these ])laces never appealed to liim. He was by 
nature of a shy, I'etiring disposition, preferring the companionship 
of his sister and a few friends to the usual gaieties and pleasures 
that are associated with life at hill stations. 

Very great sympathy is felt for Miss Talbot, who has never 
recovered from the shock of her brother's death, and who is still 
in Switzerland lamenting his loss. [G. M. Ryan.] 

HEEMA.NN VocuTiNG w as born ill Blomberg, on the 8th Februarys 
1847, the son of a market-gardener, and with his two brothers 
and a sister he passed his early childhood among flowers. After 
his schooldays he spent 16 years as under-gardener in the princely 
garden of Detmold. During this period he began his botanic 
training, and was helped by an apothecary, AVessel, in Detmold, 
the author of a local llora of the Princedom of Lippe. From this 
place he passed at the beginning of 1867 to an assistant's place in 
the Berlin Botanic Garden, when Alexander Braun was Director, 
and largi'Iy through his influence he studied the kindred sciences 
and mathematics, Aschersou, Kny, and Pringsbeim being amongst 
his teachers in botany. In 1870 he i-eturned to Blomberg, and in 
1871 he issued his first paper, on Myriopluillum ; and in the same 
year he spent three months at Kew^ for improvement. The next 
year, 1872, Pringsbeim, who had a strong belief in his pupil's 
powers, offered him the post of assistant in his private laboratory, 
which offer was joyfully accepied. W^hilst here Ybchting pre- 
pared for the examination for the doctorate, which he obtained 
at Gottingen in 1873. The April of the following year he became 
assistant to llanstein at Bonn. When Pfeft'er removed to Basel 
in 1877, Vochting succeeded liim at Bonn, and the next year he 
succeeded to Pie tier when the latter removed to Tiibiiigen. In 
1887, PfelTer again migrated, this time to Leipzig, and for the 
third time A^uchting again occupied his vacated [)Osition, and at 
Tiibingen he passed the remainder of his days. Soon alter his 
7Uth birthday in February, 1917, his health began to fail, and a 
summer holiday in Switzerland failed to restore it; at a Basel 
hospital he was informed that his state was hopeless from internal 
cancer; lie journeyed home to Tiibingen, and after some months 
of hospital treatment, died on the '2o{\\ November, 1917. 

His preliminary treatise has already been cited, but, in addition, 
may be nami'd ' Bildnng der Knollen,' 1887; 'Transplantation 


am Pflanzenkurper,' 1892 ; ' Einfluss des Lichtes auf der BliitUen,' 
1S93; 'Bliithen-Anomalien,' 1898; ' KnollengeAyachse, 18J9 , 
' Anatomie uud Patholo-ie des Pflanzeukorpers 1908. 

The writer twice met Prof. Vochtin--ouce when lie spen - some 
tnne in London, and more recently when he came over in 1 JOJ to 
receive the honorary degree of 8c.D. at the Darwui Celeb- on 
at Cambridc^e in 19u9. The recollection will always be retained 
of a charming and unassuming personality, with the gladness of a 
child and the wisdom of an old man; the great war brought 
sadness to him, two of his sons being kiUed m action. llis 
election as a Foreign Member was comparatively recent namely 
on the 1st May, 1913. L^^. -U.J.J 

Julius ton Wiesneu died in October 1915, and was buried on 
the 12th of that month. He was born on the 20tb January, 
1838, the yoimgest of a family of eight, at Tscheschen in Moravia, 
whence the familv removed to Briinn when the subject of our 
memoir was quite young. Prom 1849 he was at the Gymnasium at 
Briinn when Mendel was teaching from 1854-1868 ; he sett ed in 
Vienna in 1858, and here among his teachers were lenzl, Uuger, 
and Ettingshausen. At the age of 22, in the year IbbO he took 
ti.edecrreeof Ph.D. at Jena, became extraordinary Professor of 
Physiological Botany in 1868 at the Polytechnic Institute in 
Viennn, and two vears later, full Professor at the lorest Institute 
at Mariabrunn, followed in 1873 by his appointment as Professor 
of Anatomy and Physiology of Plants at Vienna University, and 
from ]880 he withdrew from teaching at the Polytechnic so that 
he mioht concentrate his efforts on his work at the University, 
where"" he was destined to devote 36 unbroken years; then, in 
consequence of attaining the age limit, in 1909 he retired 

Amongst his best known works may be mentioned Die 
Eohstofte des Pflanzenreiches,' Leipz.g, 18/3, ed. 2, 1900 ; Uie 
Enstehung des Chlorophylls,' Wien, 1878; /Das Bewegungs- 
vermo'^en der Pflanzen ; eine Kritische Studie uber das gleich- 
nami<^eAVerk von C. Darwin,' 1881 : ' Elemente der Anatomie 
und Physiolo-ie der Pflanzen,' which attained a tilth edition in 
1906- whilst his researches on the influence of gravity on leaves, 
autumnal leaf-fall, the conservation of chlorophyll and the 
action of light on plants, etc., are well known and j^PP^'eci^ited. 

He was elected a Foreign Member on the 1st May, 1902 ; he 
WIS happy in having a fortunate youth, a quick and successful 
career, sound health, long life hardly touched by care, an ample 
output of scientific work, preserving throughout an optimistic 
^ ^D. D. J .J 



June 2nd, 1921. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

Tiie Minutes of tl.e Anniversary Meetiiig of tbe 24th May. 
1921, were read and confirmed. ^ 

Tiie report of the Donations received since tlie Meeting 
was lai.l before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to thi 
several Donors were ordered. 

The President announced that he had appointed the following 
A*? ^^-.V.^'^-P^'^'^'denls for the ensuing year:— Mr. E. T. Browne, 
Mr. U. t. Lacaita, Mr. Hoeace W. Monckton, and Lord Roth- 


Major Staiiley Smyth Flower was admitted a Fellow. 

Lekshminarayanapuram Subramania Subramaniam, Murray 
Koss Hendrrson, and Professor Walter Garstang, M.A., D Sc 
Associate''*''''' ^'"°^°'^'^ '"''' ^^"o"'«' ^nd Miss Matilda Smith as an 

Certificates ir. favour of Miss Winifred Mary Ailsa Lomas, 
B.Sc and William R.e Sherriffs, M.A., D.Sc. (Aberd.), were read 
tor the second time. 

V ^HiT i'"^-^^' ^;^^^-' ^^•^•' ^•^'•' W''^^'^'" Frederick Bumsted, 
±^R M.S., Reginald Ernest Massey, Prof. Rajkumar Sen, M.Sc, 
Wilhatu Edward Hollows, Santi Prosad Sen Gupta, B.Ag. 
l.R.H.S Shanker Ganesh Sharngapani, B.Ag., Donald AVard 
Cutler, M.A John Noel Milsum, F.R.H.S., and John Hvacinth 
Power, F.Z.S., were elected Fellows. 

Prof. Garstano opened a discussion by reading a paper on 
Recapitulation. He urged that Haeckel's Biogenetic Law was 
essentially a theory of ancestral heredity. The adult was the 
creative phase, and "like produced like." Hence ancestors created ; 
heredity transmitted; and development repeated the order of 
creation. But a generalized recapitulation bv ontogeny of the 
essential grades of ancestral structure was' possible* without 
involving successive adult images in the ontogeny; and the mor- 
phological test to apply to these rival theories was whether the 
stages ol ontogeny did, or did not, more closelv resemble successive 
atlult organisations than the corresponding formative sta^res of 
ancestral ontogeny in cases where the ancestry was sufficiently 
known. This morphological test was invariably in favour of what 


might be called the " persistence theory " of recapitulation, and 
against the theory of accelerated adult incorporations. A tiny 
Btalked larva was probably a feature of every Crinoid from 
Cambrian age to the present ; the heterocercal tail of a Teleost 
larva was found in the larval as well as in the adult stage of a 
Sturgeon ; ti.e " Emar;/ inula'' stage of Fissurdia was much closer 
to the early post-larval stage of Emanjinula than to its final con- 
dition ; the larval Portnnion lacked the last thoracic feet, like every 
other Isopod larva; and a Tadpole resembled the larva of a 
Pohjpferus or Dipnoan far more closely than it resembled the 
adult of any possible Piscine or Stegocephalic ancestor. 

The so-called law of " tachygenesis ''' had been made much of by 
palaeontologists. But in the case of Ammonites we had no means 
of distinguisliing between environmental influences and hereditary 
factors. The Echinospira larvte of Lamellaria showed how deeply 
environmental influences might affect the growth of jjclagic shells, 
so as to produce a cyclical series of changes as complete as in any 
Ammonite, yet independent of any influence from successive adult 

The discussion was continued by Prof. E. W. MacBride, F.R.S. 
(visitor). Dr. F. A. Bather, F.ll.S. (visitor). Prof. E. S. Goodrich, 
F.R..S., See.L.S., Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., Dr. W.Bateson, F.E.S., 
Dr. W. D. Lang (visitor), Mrs. C. B. Hodson, and the President, 
Prof. Garstang replying. 

Prof. E. S. Goodrich agreed witb Prof. Garstang that an 
organism in its development does not recapitulate its phylogeny, 
but merely tends to repeat the ontogenetic stages of its immediate 
ancestor. He pointed out a fundamental fallacy in the argument 
for Recapitulation when it assumes that organisms start their 
development from the same point as their ancestors. Taking for 
instance the Fish, Amphibian, Reptile, and Mammal, as stages in 
phylogeny, the Amphibian does not start as a Fish, travelling 
along the same road and proceeding a liltle farl-her. Still less 
does the Mammal start as a Fish or Amphibian or even a Reptile; 
its egg is mammalian from the first. The successive stages differ 
essentially as much from each other in the egg as they do in the 
adult. In so far as they tend to pass through the same develop- 
mental stages as their near ancestor, it is because they start with 
approximately the same complex of transmitted factors of 
inheritance and develop under the same conditions. Phenacodus, 
Hijracotlierium, Mesoliippus may be considered to represent stages 
in the phylogeny of the horse. But we may infer that if the 
one-toed Horse passes through a three-toed stage, it is because its 
near ancestor the three-toed MesoluppuslmiX an embryo with three 
w-ell-dnveloped toes ; and so on down the series. Such cases may 
be compared to the alleged instances of recai)ituh>tion among 
Ammonites and other fossil Invertebrates. The case of the 
Brazilian tortoise, cited bv Prof. MacBride, differs in no essential 
from that of Portunion. The tortoise passes through a "chelonian" 
hard-shelled stage before it becomes soft and adapted to life in 


crevices just as the Isopod passes through a crustacean stage 
before adapted to a parasitic life. In these tiTe 
chvergeuce bet^veen the okl and the new u.ode of life takes place 
la e, and the modification is in the -adult" stage only; but in 

ontogenr"'""'' ""^ '"'''"''"' '^ ""^' ^'"''^ ''''"'" "' *""-^' P°^"^ ''^ ^''^ 

June 16th, 1921. 

])r. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 2nd June 19'>1 
were read and confirnied. ' ~ ' 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellous, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Mr. Albert Edward Mills, Mr. Henry Ball, and Mr. Arthur 
Mayfield, were admitted Pellows. 

Miss Kathleen Bever Blackburn, M.Sc.(Lond.), was proposed 
as a lellow. '■ ^ 

The following certificates were read for the second time-— 
Lekshmniarayanapurani Subraniania Subraiiianiam, Murray Ross 
Henderson, and Prof. Walter Garstang, M.A., D.Sc. (Oxon)- as 

an Associate, Miss Matilda Smith. \ /' 

Messrs. George Tertius Dickson, John Francis Donald Tutt 
James Kobert Ainslie, James AValter AVHiite, Thomas Ilayfon 
Mawson, Prof. Thomas Wibberley, and Charles Taborn, were 
elected Pel Jo us. 

The first communication was by Mr. Alfred O. Walker, who 
had sent from his garden a supply of capsules from one. plaiit of 
Papnver nmbrosiun, hort., which botanists regard as a variety of 
the Corn-poppy, P. Rhoeas, showing carpellody of the stamens. 
The General Secretary showed an illustration of a similar occur- 
rence in another variety of the same s|)ecies, P. Rhmts var. com- 
mutatum, in Worsdell's ' Plant-teratology,' vol. ii. p. 182, pi. 45. 
Dr. Rendie pointed out that the satellite carpels contained' im- 
perfect ovules. Mr. Henry Ball and Mr. R. Paulson also took 
(lart in the discussion. 

Mr. Wii,fi{ed Mark AV'ejsb exhibited a siiecimen of a wood- 
louse rare in Britain, Ligidinm Jn/pnomm, which he had found in 
Berkshire recently; its pre\ious records were Surrey in 1873 by 

linnea:?^ society of londox. 63 

the Eev. T. R. R. Stebbing and 1902 in Essex by himself. Prof. 
E S noocU-ich, Sec.L.8., made a few remarks upon the exhibition. 
'[Since the i\Ieeting Mr. K. S. Bngnall, F.L.8., !ias reported 
tliat Dr. W. E. Colhnge has also recorded this species, " whilst I 
have taken it in verv large numbers in the Bath district, and tliis 
Easter a single si)ecimen in Lancashire. In the Bath district it 
is one of the comu)onest of species."] 

Prof. A. H. Reginald Buller, introduced by Dr. A. B. Rendle, 
Sec L S., gave a discourse " Upon the Ocellus Eunction of the 
Subsj)or'angial Swelling of Pilohohis." He stated that the sub- 
sporangiarliwelling of PUoholus functions, not merely as part of a 
squirting apparatus, hut also as an ocellus, which receives the 
heliotropic stimulus \\ hich causes the stipe to turn the fungus gun 
toward the light. The swelling is transparent and refracts light, 
like'tlie bulb of a Florence tlask filled with water. Its diameter 
is always greater tlian that of the black sporangium which it 

supports. , 1 ,1 in 

The sporaiigiophore of l^ilohohis appears to be the only ortho- 
heliotropic plant organ known which takes up its positively helio- 
tropic position owing to the possession of a special light-perceiving 

cell-structure. " 

PUoholus may well be described as a fungus with an optical 
sense-organ or simple eye ; and, in using its eye for laying its gun, 
it ap])ears to be unique in the plant world. 

The paper was illustrated with models. A fuller account of 
\\ie Pdoholus eye is about to appear iii the 'Transactions of the 
British Mvcological Society.' 

A discussion followed in which these were engaged : Mr. E. J. 
Butler, Prof. R. R. Gates, and Capt. Ramsbottom, Prof. Buller 

Major R. B. Setmouii Sewell, I.M.S. (visitor), read a paper by 
Dr. N. Annandale (who was prevented by illness from presenting 
the paper himself), entitled "The vegetation of an ishand in 
Chilka Lake on the east coast of India, considered as a preliminary 
to a study of its fauna," of which the following is an abstract :— 

In order to a])preciate the fauna of a small island in the Cliilka 
Lake on the east coast of India, the Author has found it necessary 
to study the vegetation. The area of the island is about one-third 
of a square mile, and the rocks are composed of garnet-bearing 
qiiartzite wliich yields an infertile and scanty soil on weathering. 
The climate is relatively dry. The vegetation consists mainly of 
trees, shrubs, and perennial creepers, with a great scarcity of 
herbs, ferns, and epiphytes, and a complete absence of palms, 
bamboos, screw-pines, and orchids. The genus Flcus has the 
largest number of species (7); tlie . commonest tree is the Nim 
{Azadirachtd indica), the commonest shrub Gh/cosmis pentajjhi/lla, 
and the commonest creeper Vitis quadrangidaris. Several distinct 


zones of vegetation can be disHiimiislied. The most interesting 
is the central thicket, in which Ficrnt (jihhosa is rapidly replacing 
F. benr/alensis, giving space also, by its less spreading habit, for 
trees and shrubs of other genera. The peculiarities of the fauna, 
and especially its deliciencies nnd iieneralized character, can be 
correlated directly with the vegetation. 

The slides which followed were explained by Major .Sewell. 

Col. ]\r. J. (jodfeuy read his paper on the fertilization of the 
orchitl genus Ct'/>hahui(/ter((. as observed by him in the south of 
France on 0. rubra, 0. ensifolia, and C. i/randij!ora, the last being 
the species which was studied by Darwin. The Autiior bohU that 
Ceplialanthera is an old genus, existing before ?J]^nj^)adis came into 
being, and was not derived from the latter. 

Dr. Kendle commented on several points of interest in the 
paper, and a question was put by Mr. T. A. Dymes which was 
answered by the Author. 



List in accordance lulth Bye-Laws, Chap. XVII. Sect. 1, of all 
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pondence ot" William Swainson. 

Ko^-al Soe-ietv : Contribution towards Mr. F. Chapman's paper on 
Funafuti Foraminifera, £50. 

Prof. E. Hay Lankester : Contribution towards illustration, £30 5s. 

Portrait of Dr. St. G. J. Mivart. presented by Mrs. Mivart. 


Royal Society: Contribution toward Dr. Elliot Smith's paper, £50. 
Legacy from the late Dr. R. C. A. Prior, <£iOO free of duty. 
Mrs. Sladen : Posthumous Portrait of the late Walter Percy 

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Royal Society : Grant in aid of third volume of tlie Chinese Flora, 

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The same: Bulliard (P.). llerbier de la France; Dictionnaire ; 

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Royal Societv : First grant in aid of Dr. G. II. Fowler's ' Biscayan 

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Royal Society : Second grant towards ' Biscayan Plankton,' £50. 
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Roval Swedish Academy of Science: Copies of portraits of C.von 

Linno, after Per Krafi't the elder, and A. Roslin, both by 

Jean Haagen. 

J,I>'X. SOC. piiOCEF.DIXGS, — SESSION 1920-21, f 



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' C. V. LiniR:. by J. U. Sclieffei'(r739). 

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(1739) at Linncs llammarby : the bronze original designed 
for the faf;ade of the new building for the Royal Academy of 
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Miss Sarah Marianne Silver (afterwards Mrs. Sinclair), F.L.S. 
Cabinet formerly belonging to Mr. S. W. Silver, F.L.S. 


The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Second grant 
towards publication of Mr. Stanley (jardiner's Researches in 
the Indian Ocean in H.M.S. ' Sealark,' £-20(). 

Prof. James William lielenus Trail, F.R.S., F.L.S. : Gift of £100 
in Trust, to encourage Research on the Xature of Proto- 


Royal Society : Grant towards Dr. G. II. Fow ler's paper on 

Biscayan Ostracodn, £50. 
Sir Joscpli Hooker : Gold watch-chain worn by Robert Bro\Vn, 

and seal «ith portrait of Carl von Linne by Tarsie., 
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The same : First Donation towards the fourth volume, £130, 



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of Mr. E. P. Stt'bbiag's paper on Hiiualayau Chfrmes, 

£46 15s. 2(?. 
The lat-e Mr. Francis Tagart, .£500 free of Legacy Duty. 
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Legacy I 'uty. 
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The same : First Donation towards the fifth voUnne, £80. 


Royal Society : Grant towards Dr. E. R. Gates's paper on 

Mutating Oenotheras, £00. 
Sir Frank Crisp, Bt., Wallichian Cabinets, £50. 
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Royal Society : Grant towards Miss Gibbs's paper on the Flora of 

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Miss Foot : Cost of illustration of her paper on Euschistus. 
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towards the fifth volume, £10. 
The same: First Donation towards the sixth volume, £190. 


The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Second 

Donation towards the sixth volume, £80. 
Miss Foot : Cost of second paper on EnschistKS, £32 lO^'. 
Royal Society : Donations towards the cost of a paper by 

Mrs. Arber, D.Sc, £40. 
The same : towards paper on Utakwa River plants by Mr. H. N 

Ridley, C.M.G., F.R.S., £50. 
Miss Marietta Pallis : Instalment of cost of her paper on 

Plav, £30. 
Thomas Henry Riches, Esq. : Dr. A. R, AVallace's library on 

Natural History, 
Sir Frank Crisp, Bt. : New shelving for Wallace's Volumes. 




Mr. E, lleroii-AUen : Contribution to i-ost of pajjer on Foramini- 

iera of N.W. Scotland, £44. 
Messrs. JI. Takeda and C. West: Contribution towards the 

illustration oF tlieir paper, £40. 
Royal Society : Contribution towards the illustration of two 

papers by I'rof. Dendy, i;40. 
The same: Contribution towards Mr. Swynnertou's paper on 

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J)r. .). D. F. Gilchrist, for the illustration of his paper on 

Jasus Ldhiiulii, £'M. 
Miss JM arietta I'allis : Jialance of cost of her paper on Plav, 

i'ilO 16s. ChZ. 
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' Codex Aniciae Julianic ' at Vienna. 


British Ornithologists' Union, etc. : Contribution towards cost of 

:Mr. H. N. llidley's paper, i'2n. 
The Royal Society : Second contribution towards the printing of 

Mr. C. F. M. Swvnnerton's paper on Form and Colouring, 

Sir Frank Crisp, Bt. : 'Lindenia,' Ghent, 1891-1901. 17 vols. 

sm. fol. 

Dr. B. Daydon Jackson : MS. index to Linnean Society's Journal, 

Botany, vols, xxi.-xl. (1884-1912) and the Botanic entries 

in the ' Proceedings'* for the same period. 


The Royal Society: Third contribution towards the printing of 
Mr. C. F. M. Swynnerton's paper as above, <£50. 

The High Commission for the TJnion of South Africa, for the 
printing of Dr. J. D. F. Gilchrist's paper on Jasux Lalandli, 
Part 11., £60. 


The Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Additional Giant in aid of 
publication of 'Transactions,' 2nd ser., Zoology, vol. x\ii. 
part 4, £72 10s. 

The same : Grant in aid of publication of four papers on the 
lloutman Abrolhos Islands, £100. 

The Royal Society : Donation in aid of papers by Mr. N. E. 
Brown and Mr. S. L. Moore, £90. 

Dr. AV. Rushton Parker: Donation of a large series of por- 
traits of Naturalists and Persons after whom Genera h:ne 
been named, and work on rearrangi'ment and annotation of 
the entire collection, 



L 1 B R A U Y. 


Agar (W. E.). Cytology. AVith special reference to the Mela- 

zoau Xucleus. Svo. London, 1921'. 

Arber (Agnes). Water Plauts. A Study of Aquatic Ant^io- 

spernis. Svo. Camhridyc. 19l!ii. 

Arcangeli (Alceste). Sulla ricerca microcheinica del fost'oro nei 

tessuti vegetali. (Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. xviii.) 

Svo. Pisa, 1902. C. C. Lacaita. 

11 mimetisuio nel regno vegetale. (Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. 

xix.) Svo. Pisa, 1903. C. C. Lacaita. 

Appunti sul tallo dell' Usnea sidphurea, Pr. (Atti Soc. 

Tosc. Sci. Nat. xx.) Svo. Pisa, 1904. C. C. Lacaita. 

rcangeli (Giovanni). Esperieuze effettuate sopra uu piccola 
allevaiuento di Baco da seta. (Atti K. Accad. Georgofili, xxv.) 

Svo. Firenze, 1902. C. C. Lacaita. 
Sulle disposizioni igieniche da adottarsi riguardo 

alimentazione per Funghi. (Soc. Ital. Med. Internat. Cot)gr. 
Med. xi.) Svo. lioma, 1902. C. C. Lacaita. 

Sul Tetranijchus aurantii Targioni-Tozzetti e sul Tetnini/- 

clius telarius (L.) Uuges. (Agric. ital. 1903.) 

Svo. 1903. C. C. Lacaita. 
Di nuovo sugli avvelenamenti per funghi, (Atti E. x^ccad. 

Georgofili (4) i.) Svo. Firenze, 1904. C. C. Lacaita. 

— — Per I'iuaugurazione dell' esposizione regiouale dei crisan- 

temi tenuta in Pisa dal 10 al 20 Novembre, 1904. (Bull. P. 

Soc. Tosc. Orticol. xxix.) 4to. Firenze, 1904. C. C. Lacaita. 

Suir esplorazioni polari e sui gbiacci polari. (Proc. Verli. 

Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. xxiv.) Svo. Pisa, 1915. C. C. Lacaita. 

Alcune altre osservazioni sulla Victoria regia, Liudl. (Proc. 

A^erb. Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. xxv.) Svo. Pisa, 1910. 

C. C. Lacaita. 
Di nuovo sulle piante di Plnus Plnea \ar. fra(/llls, colti\ate 

neir Orto botanico pisano. (Proc. A^erb. Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. 

xxv.) Svo. Pisa, 1910. C. C. Lacaita. 

Sopra alcuni fossili della Sardegna e di Jano. (Proc \'crl'. 

Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. xxv.) Svo. [I'isa, 191(5]. C. C. Lacaita. 

Di nuovo sopra alcune varieta. del Diospyros Kakl e sul 

Melanogramma del Kako. (Proc. Verb. Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. 
xxvi.) Svo. [P<«rt]. C. C. Lacaita. 


Arcangeli (Giovanni). Sopra alcime variofa del Diospyros KaJci 

e sopra una Mdhillia rhcontrutu in una di esse. (Proc. Verb. 

Soc.Tosc. Sei. Nat, xxv.) bvo. Pho, lUKJ. C. C. Lacaita. 


An Atlas of Antient Geograpliy. By Samuel Butlkk. 

8vo. London, 18G7. 

School Atlas of Classical Geograpliy. By Alex. Keith 
JoiiNSTox. 4to. London, 18G6. 

Popular Atlas of the British Isles. By G. AV. ]3acox. 

4to. London, 19U4. /Jr. W. Rushton Parker. 
Austen (E. E.). See British Museum (Natural History). Guide 

Books, etc. Economic Scries, No. 1 a. 
Bacon (G. W.). See Atlases. Popular Atlas of the British Isles. 
Baker (Richard, T.). Tlie Hardwoods of xlustralia and their 

Economics. 4to. Si/dnei/, 1919. Author. 

Beddard (Frank Evers). Mammalia. (The Cambridge Natural 

History.) 8vo. 1909. Br. W. Rushton Parker, 

Blanford (W. T,). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon 

and Burma. 8vo. London, 18y':5-1921. 

Mollusca, Til. : Land Opcrculales. By G. K. Gude. 
Bose (Sahay Ram). Polvporaceae of Bengal. (Bull. Carmichael 

Med. Coll.. No. J.) " 4to. Calcutta, 1920. Author. 

Boulenger (George Albert). See British Museum (Natural 

History). Eeptiles : Monograph of the Lacertidte. 
Bradley Bibliography. See Rehder (Alfred). 
British Museum (Natural History). 

British Antarctic ('Terra Nova ') Expedition, 1910. 

Zoology. Vol. II. No. 9. Mollusca, Part III. Eupteropoda (Pteropoda 
Tbecosoiiiata) aiid Pteiota (Pteropoda 
Gyiiinosoiiiata). By Anne L. I\L\ssy. 
No. 10. Mi)!liisca, Part IV. Auatomy ot Pelecvpoda, 
By E. H. BuRNE. 
„ Vol. IV. No. 3. Ecliinoderma. Part IT., and Enteropneiista. 

LarvocolEcliinoderuiaaiid Enieropiieusta. 
By E. W, MacBuide. 


Monognipli of the Laccrtidae. By George Albebt Boulengek. 

4to. London, J 920. 


Studies ou Acari. No. 1. The Genus Dcmode.r, Owen. By 
Stanley Hikst. 4to. London, 1919. 


Dipterous Insects. 

A Handbook of British Mosquitoes. By AVilli.vm Dickson 
Lanoe. 4to. London, 1920. 


Lepidopterous Insects. 

Catalogue of tlie Lepido.ptera Pliakenae in tlie British JMiiseum. 
Vol. II. 8iippleinent. Catalogue of tlie Litliosiache (Arctiaiuc) 
ami Pha!a3iioidida!. By tSir Geouge Y. Hampson. Text and 
Atlas. 8vo. London, 1920. 


Sanin)ai'3' Guide to the Exhibition Galleries. 8vo. London, 1 920. 
Economic Series : 

No. 1 a. — The House Fly. Its Life-History and practical 
Measures for its Su[)pression. By E. E. Austen, 

8vo. London, 1920. 

JN'o. 9. — Birds beneficial to Agriculture. By E. VJ. Ebo- 

HAWK, 8vo. London, 1919. 

No. 10. — Marine Boring Animals injin-ious to submerged 

Structures. By W. T. Calman. 8vo. London, 1919. 

No. 11. — Furniture Beetles. Their Life-History and how to 

check or prevent the Damage caused by the Worm. By 

Charles J. Gahan. 8vo. London, 1920. 

Britton (Nathaniel Lord) and Millspaiigh (Charles Frederick). 

The Bahama Flora. 8vo. JVetu York, 1920. 

Britton (N. L.) and Eose (J. N.) The Cactacese. Descriptions 

and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus Family. Vols. I., II. 

4to. Washinc/ton, 19 ld~'20. Tagart Bequest. 

Bull (Henry Graves). Notes on the Birds of Herefordshire. 

Svo. London J,- Hereford, 1888. Rev. G. R. Bullock-Webster, 
Butler (Samuel). See Atlases. An Atlas of Antient Geography, 
Burne (R. H.). See British Museum (Natural History). ' Terra 

Nova' Expedition. Zoology, vol. ii. no. 10. 
Carano (Enrico). Sulla particolare strut tura delle radici luber- 
izzate di Thrincia tahtrosa, DC, (Ann. Bot. i.) 

8vo. Boma, 1903. C. C. Lacaita, 

Alcune osserAazioni sulla movfologia delle llypo.vidaceo'. 

(Ann, Bot. ii.) Svo. Roma, 1904, C. C. Lacaita. 

Contribuzione alia conoscenza della morfologia e dello 

oviliippo del fascio vascolare delle foglie delle Cicadacee. (Ann. 
Bot. i.) Svo. Roma, 1903, C. C. Lacaita, 

Su la struttura di stami anomali nel Peqmver RJucas, L. 

(Ann. Bot, ix.) Svo. Roma, 1911, C. C. Lacaita, 

Su' I'origine e su la differenziazioue del tessuti nelle foglie. 

(Ann. Bot. ix.) Svo. Roma, 1911. C. C. Lacaita. 

— Eicerche sull' embriogenesi delle Asteracee. (Ann. Bot. 
xiii.) Svo. Roma, 1915. C. C. Lacaita. 

SuU'emhriologia di Foinsettia pnlcherrima,^. Grab. (Ann, 

But. xiii.) Svo. Roma, 1915. C. C. Lacaita. 

Carpenter (G. D. Hale) A Naturalist on Lake Victoria. With 
an Account of Sleeping Sickness and the Tse-Tse Fly. 

Svo. London [1920]! Author. 


Cash (James) :iiul Wailes (George Herbert), assist ed I)y John 

lloi'Ki.NSoN. Tlie IJiitisli i'resli water Jvjiizopoda and Jleliozoa. 

Vol. V. ll.'liozoa (Kay Society). Svo. Lu,ido)i, 1921. 

Cavara (Fridiano). Sulla necessita della coltura di piante 

inedieiiiali in Italia. (R. Istituto d'Jiicor. Xapoli, 1918.) 

4to. J\'ai>oli, I'JIS. C. C. Lacaita. 
Clements (Frederic E.). Dant liidiiaturs. The lielatioii of 
Plant Coinmuiiities to Process and Practice. 

4to. Washington, 1920. 

Cockayne (L.). New Zealand Plants and their Story. Second 

Eilition. Svo. Wellington, N.Z., 1910. 

Collinge (Walter E. ). The Necessity of State Action for the 

Protection of Wild liirds. (Avicultural Mag. x.) 

Svo. 1919. Author. 
Cornish (C. J.). The Living Animals of the World. 2 vols. 

4to. London, [?]. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 
Dawe (M. F.). Account of a Journey through the AN'e.steru 
Portion of Colonihia, showing the Possibilities of the Ecouonnc 
Development of the Districts visited. 

4to. London, [1919]. Author. 
De Wildeman (Emile). Plantes nouvelles ou peu conuues 
contenues dans I'llerhier de I'Hortus Thenensis. Avec les 
descriptions ou annotations de M. Era. de "Wildeman. Vols. I., 
II., livr. 1-3. 4to. Bvuxelles, 1904-1910. 

Dixon (H. N.). Contributions to Antarctic Bryology. (The 
Bryologist, xxiii.) Svo. 1920. Author. 

Dobie (Wm. Murray). On the Cilia of Grantla. (Goodsir's 
Ann. Physiol.) Svo. 1851. Lister Institute. 

Dragnewitsch (Pawla). Spongien von Singapore. Inaugural- 
Dissertation der Hohen philosophischen Fakultiit der Uuiver- 
sitat Bern zur Erlangung der Doktorwiirde. 

Svo. Bern, 1905. Lister Institute. 
Dymes (Thomas Alfred). Tlie Nature-Study of Plants. In 
Theory and Practice for the Hobby Botanist. With an Intro- 
duction by V. E. Weiss, F.E.S. Svo. London, J 920. Author. 
East (Edward M.) and Jones (Donald F.). Inbreeding and Out- 
breeding. Their Genetic and Sociological Signiticatice. 

Svo. Philadeljihia, 1919. 

Engler (Adolf) and Gilg (Ernst). Syllabus der PHanzenfamilien. 

8th Edition. Svo. Berlin, 1919. 

Fiori (Adr.). L'allevamento dei Pioppi dai semi e sua convenienza 

tecnica ed economica. (L'Alpe (ii.) vi.) 

Svo. Firenze, 1919. C. C. Lacaita. 
Fitch (W. H.) and Smith (W. G.). Illustrations of the British 
Flora. 4th Edition. 

Svo. London, 1916. JJr. W. Rushton Parker. 
Fox (R. Kingston). Dr. John Eothergill and his Friends. 

Svo. London, 1919. Author. 

Fristedt (Konrad). Sponge.s fiom the Atlantic and Arctic 

Oceans, and Behring Sea. (Dvega-Exped. Vet. laktt. Bd. iv. 

18S7.) Svo. Stockhohn, 1887. Lister Institute. 


Galian (Charles J.). 'See British Museum (Natural History). 

(il aide 1-iooks, etc. Eeono in if Series, ^'o. 11. 
Gilg (Erust). 'SV Eiisfler (Adolf). 
Gude (G. K.). >See Blanford (W. T). The Faiinu of British 

Liidi:i, iiicludino- Cevlon and Burma. MoUiisca, HI. 
Guppy (H. B.). Fossil Botauv in the Western AVoiUl. An 
Apin-eciation. (Anier. Jouru'. Sci. xlix.) 8vo. 1920. Author. 
Earley (John). Contributions to Medical Science. 

8vo. 1864-188!). Author. 
Hirst (Stanley). Si'e British Museum (Natural History). 

Arac'hnicla. Studies on Acari. No. 1. 
Johnston (Alex. Keith). See Atlases. School Atlas oF Classical 

Johnston {Sir Harry). British Mammals. 

4to. London, 1003. J)r. W. Rusliton Parker. 
Jones (Donald P.). See East (Edward M.). 
Jourdain {liev. F. C. R.). See Mullens (W. H.). 
Keane (A. H.). The World's Peoples. 

8vo. New York; 1908. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 
Kidd (Walter). Initiative in Evolution. 

Svo. London, 1920. Author. 

Kirkpatrick (R.), Descriptions of South African Sponges. I.-III. 

Svo. Cape Town, 1902-3. Lister Institute. 

Lambe (Lawrence M.). Catalogue of the recent marine Sponges 

of Canada and Alaska. (Ottawa Nat. xiv.) 

Svo. 1900. Lister Institute. 

Description of a new Species of calcareous Sponge from 

Vancouver Island, B.C. (Ottawa Nat. xiii.) 

Svo. 1900. Lister Institute. 

Notes on Hudson Bav Sponges. (Ottawa Nat. xiii.) 

Svo. 1900. Lister Institute. 
A new recent marine Sponge {Esperella hellahellensis) from 

the Pacific Coast of Canada. (Ottawa Nat. xix.) 

Svo. [Otian'a, 1905]. Lister Institute. 
Lang (William Dickson). See British Museum (Natural His- 
tory). Insects (Dipterous). A Handbook of British Mosqui- 
Lankester (Sir Edwin Ray). Extinct Animals. 

Svo. 1909. J)r. W. Rushton Parker. 
Lendenfeld (Rohert von). Spinosella infamVdmlum, n. sp. 

Svo. AUenhurg, S.A., 1912. Lister Institute. 

J)er Tierstamm der Spongien. 8\o. Lister Institute. 

Lindman (C. A. M.)- Svensk Fanerogamtlora. 

Svo. Stoel-hohn, 1918. 
Lydekker (R.j. A Geographical History of IMannnals. 

Svo. Camhrvhje, lS9(). Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 
MacBride (E. W.). See British Museum (Natural History). 

' Terra Nova' Expedition, Zoology, vol. iv. no. ^5. 
Marindin (G. E.). A smaller Classical Dictionary of Biography, 
^Mythology, and Geography. 

Svo. London, 1910. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 


Massy (Auue L). ,SV.. British Museum (Natural History) 

lena^ovji Expedition, Zoology, vol. ii. no U 
Mattiroli (Oreste). Contribuzione alio .studio 'della MoniUa 
sitoplula (Afout.) Sacc. (Atti K. Accad. «ci. Torino, Hi.) 

^^■"- TorUio, 101, s. c. C. Lacaita 

I bulbi del Mugmrl conwsiun Mill, (t'ipollaccio col (ioccoi 

proposti come aluiienfo anche alle popolazioni dell' Ifilia 
.settentnonale. (Ann. li. Accad. Agric. Torino, Ixi.) 

Svo. y'oW/io. ]!JlH. C. C. Lacaita 
Mayer (Alfred Goldsborough). Medusiu of the World. 
^■"I. I. \ ,,,, „ , 

II M"6 ilydromedusir. 
,. HI. The jNcjphoincdusre. 
4to. Wasldnriton, B.C., 11)10. Taeart Rpnnp<st 
Metschnikoff (El.), lieitriige zur Morphologie de, Spon,.en 
Ti/rn 1, .ni, T T. , «\'o. Oc/mrt, ]><7(j. Lister Institute. 

Millspaugh (Charles Frederick). ,SV. Brittoii ( Nathaniel Lord ) 
Morgan (Thomas Hunt). Tl.e Physical Basi.s of IJcreditv. 
__ ni 1 .p,^ , ^"-'O. PhiliKM^yhia ,^- London, \U)V.)\ 

Moss (Charles Edward). Assisted bv .Specialists in certain 
Grenera. I he Cambridge Eritish ".Flora; illustrated from 
Drawings by E ^\^ Huxxtbux. Vol. III. I'ortulacace* to 
I'umanaceic. (lext, pp. xvi, 200; Plates, pp. vi.) 
HIT Ti ,»^ ^ 4to. ( 'iintftridnc, li)20 

Mullens (W. H.), Swann (H. Kirke), and Jourdain (i?^,. FOR)' 
A Geographical liibliographj of British OrnithoUmy from the 
Earlie-st Iiuies to the End of 1918. Arranged under Counties. 

■M- • TV 1 ^, . , Svo. London, 1920. 

Murray s Handy Classical Maps. Eleven. 

_ ^ ^^ ^, 8vo. /voWoH, 1903. />r. W. Rushton Parker. 
Paxton (Joseph). Botanical Dictionary, comprising the Is'ames 

History, and Culture of all Plants 'knoNvn in Britain. \e\y' 

Edition by Samuel Hekemax. 

Sno. London, 1868. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 
Pearl (Raymond). Sterilization of Degenerates and Criminals 

considered from the Standpoint of Genetics. (Euo-enics 

Eey,ew,1919.) Svo. Author. 

~Vir II ^;-;"l5^"''\"^e of some general Biologic Principles in 

Public Health Problems. (Journ. Amer. Med. Assoc, l.xxiv.) 

T).iix.^c ^ ^ ru . .- ^^o. Chic(uio,\\m. Author. 

Pelly (S. A.). Glossary and ^otes on Vertebrate Pahcontolo.n' 

P. +..1^ l,^ '^^■"•^f'^'«", (1918). 7^r. W. Rushton Parker. 
Porter (Noah). See Webster (Noah). 

Pusa. lieport of the Proceedings of the Tl.ird Entomological 
Meeting held at Pusa on the 3rd to loth Februarv, 1919 In 
Ihree A olumes. Edited by T. Baixbrigge Eletchkr. 

Po^Q^.f i>ir ■ Svo. Ca7r«««, 1920. The Editor. 

Kay Society. PnhlmUions (continued). 

Cash (James) and Wailes (George IlEnBE.sT), assisted by John Hopki.v- 
SON. and Hdiozoa. Vol. V. 
Jiehozoa, by G. H. Wailes. 

8vo. 1921. 


Rehder (Alfred). The Bradley BibliograpLy. A Guide to the 
Literature of the Woody PJauts of the Wurld published before 
tlie Beginning of the Twentieth Century, Vols. l.-Y. 

4to. Cambrvlge y^Mass.), 1911-1918. Frof. C. S. Sargent. 
Rose (J. N.). 'SVr? Britten (N. L.). 
Saunders (Howard). An illustrated Manual of British Birds. 

bvo. London^ 1899. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 

A List of British Birds, lievised to July 19U7. 

8vo. London, 1907. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 

Scudder (Samuel Huhbard). Index to the known Fossil Insects 

of the World. 8vo. Wasliington , 1891. 

Shaw (George Russell). The Genus Pinus. (Arnold Arboretum 

Bubs. jSo. 5.) 'ito. Cambridge, 1914. 

Skeat {liev. Walter W.). A concise Etymological Dictioniiry of 

the Eiiirlish Language. 8vo. O.vford, 1887. 

Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 
Smith (William). A Dictionary of Greek and Koman Biography 
and Mythology, by various AVrittrs. 3 vols. 

8vo. London, 1873. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 

A Smaller Dictionary of Greek and B(unan Antiquities. 

Svo. London, 1907. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 
Spencer (Leonard J.). The World's Minerals. 

8vo. London, 1911. Dr. W. Rusliton Parker. 
Swann (H. Kirke). See Mullens (W. H.). 

Swartschewsky (B.). Materialui taunui gubok' diernago morya 

. (Monaysnida). (Beitr. z, Kenutniss der Schwamm-Launa des 

8ch\\ arzen Meeres.) Svo. Kiev, 19o5. Lister Institute. 

Tenipere (J.). Spicules d'Eponges. Svo. 189/. 

Lister Institute. 

Thomson (J. Arthur). Outlines of Zoology. 

Svo. Edinburgh, etc., 1914. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 

Topsent (E.). Sur une magnifique Geodia megasireUa Carter du 

Museam de la Bochelle. Svo. La Eochelle, 1911. 

Lister Institute. 
Urban (F.). Zur Kenntniss der Biologie und Cytologic der 
Kalkschwamme (Eamihe Clathrinida?, Minch.). 

Svo. Leij)zig, 1910. Lister Institute, 

Wailes (George Herbert). See Cash (James). 
Weaver (John E.). The Ecological Relations of Boots. 

4to. Washington, 1919, 

Webster (Noah). International Dictionary of the English 
Language, Revised and enlarged by Noah Pouter. 

4to. Jjondon Sf Springjidd, Mass., 1891. 
Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 
White (C. T.). A rare and beautiful native Tecoma. 

Svo. Fred. Turner. 

Wight (Robert). Icones Plantarum Indian Orientalis; or Figures 
ot Indian Plants. 5 vols. (vol. 6 missing). 

4to. Madras, 1840-52. Sir Arthur Dorward. 


Wight (Robert). ^^I)icilegiuuJ ; or ;i Selection of 
Xeili,'lieny Plants. '^ 41 o. Madras, 1840-51. 

^ir Arthur Dorward. 

Wilson (Ernest Henry). The Clierries of Japan. (Ainold 

Arboretum Pubs. No. 7.) ^Svo. Carnhraiie, 1916. 

The Conifers and Taxads of Japan. (Arnohl Arboretum 

Pubs. No. S.) 4to. Cambrkbje, 1916. 

Woods (Joseph). Letters of an Architect from France, Italy, and 

(iieece. Vols. I. and II. 4to. London, 182s. 

Miss Elizabeth Wood. 

Woodward (Horace B.). Stanford's Geological Atlas of (Jreat 

Jiritain and Ireland. 8\o. London. \\)\A. 

Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 



Shetland Plants. By G. Clabidge Druce. 
(See page 14.) 

In July and Au-ust of 1920 I visited the mainland and Unst 
in compauv with Prebendary the Eev. R. J Burdon. The wea her 
was not propitious, for we followed a spell of dry weather ^^h ch 
hastened the flowering period, while the ram we met was t^o 
recent to have had much influence upon the vegetation. We 
Imd the advantage of having Mr. Beehy's notes, made on his 
nu.nerous visits, and we can testify to the general accuracy of his 
nninstaking and unwearied labours in this by no means easily 
;xplored cfistrict. I was able to add the following «PfCies to 
the flora --CVmsfmm siihtetrandrum, Bursa Brittonn, Rhiuanthus 
horealis, Potamogeioa sueclcm, P. ruUlus, and PoavrmjaU'. 

Seneko aquaticus Huds. is common and diiferstrom tl.e southern 
form in its leaser stature, more conspicuous hgnles, and its more 
compact inflorescence which, as Beeby says forms an u.vered 
uvramid. S. Jacobcea L. is practically absent, being limited to a 
small area of the coast near Scallouay, wbereas .S aqimticas ,s 
frequent as a roadside weed, and is especially noticeable mi allow 
and derelict potato- or oat-fields, where from a distance it sug- 
gests Chn,scmthemum segetum. (Dr. Druce suggested the name 
var. ornatus for the Shetland form.) 

Plantano. On the wind-swept disintegrated serpentine hills to 
the north of Balta Somid grow many forms of P. mardima^Mi 
P Comnopm and variable P. lanceolata. One plant m particular 
belon.nn- to the maruhna section was quite striking from its 
conspicuous woody rootstock thickly beset witl. the persistent 
leaves of former years' growth ; the, leaves themselves crowded, 
broad, short, and very hairy with loose rather short shaggy hairs; 
the inflorescence short. This form is not, I think, represented 
in Beebv's gatherings ; nor does it seem to be known from the 
P-iroes ■ It may be in part what some botanists call mtuor llook. , 
others would refer it to hirsiUa Syme. Hooker founded hismuwr 
unon an Ork.iev plant described as having linear lanceolate leaves. 
Svme (Eug. BJt. vii. 172) changed the name to hlrs^<ta describmg 
the leaves as linear-strap-sl.aped or semi-cylindrical. Such a 
form does occur both in Orkney and Shetland, but the torm now 
described (for which Dr. Druce suggests the name P Edmon- 
stoni) has shorter broader leaves which recall those ofc Lcluveria 
often having a pruinose sheen. The P. ^tncea .^. lano.a o\ 
Rdmonston's Mora Shetl., a narrow-leaved plant ui which the 


leaf-bases have a tuft of white hairs, also occurs in both Orkney 
and Shethmd as well as on the Scottish mainland. Plants with 
short broad hairy leaves also occur in Orkney, as at llellie Hoy, 
but they are not so sturdy as that from lialta, which so far" I 
have failed to match in herbaria. Cultivation and Further study 
are necessary to determine whether it may be a distinct species, 
and also to eliminate the possihilitv of a hybrid parentage. 
P. htnceolala miglit afford the hairhiess and broader leaves, kit 
its root branching and leaf arrangement are (juite different. 

lilunanlhas ij ra- idandicm Chab. was found in both the known 
localities on a holm in Jkirga \vater, where it was discovered by 
Beeby (see Ann. Sc. Nat. Hist. 1&07, 23.'5), and on the cliffs at 
Naxavord. Osfcenfeld reports it as frequent in the Faroes and 
clearly distinguishable from R. minor, being allied to R. boreaUs 
and Ji. Dnunmond-IJaiii. 

Polamoijeton suecicus (Richt.). One of the special objects of my 
northern visit was to clear up the question of the recorded 
occurrence of P. vaginatus Turcz., to \\ hicli IJennett had referred 
the specimens gathered by li.-eby in tlie J.ochs of Asta and 
Tiugwall. My examination of iieeby's herbarium led me to 
doubt the accuracy of this identification, which has been sub- 
sequently questioned by HSgstrom (Grit. Research. Pondweeds). 
We paid three visits to these lochs, which lie in an interesting 
valley about six miles from Lerwick, but weve only able to collect 
barren specimens of plants which seem identical with those 
obtained by Eeeby. Hagstroin unhesitatingly rejected these from 
P. va,fin((tm- and refers them to P. suecicus Richt., a hybrid 
between P. pecthmtus and fdlformis, as var. infenncdlus forma 
pechnatoides llSgstr. P. vaginatus Turcz. mav therefore disappear 
from our list. 

P. rutilus AVolfg., hitherto only known with certainty from 
Lyn Coron, Angelsea, we found growing plentifully in the Lochs 
of Tingwall and Asta, and also in the Loch of Bardister at AV^alls. 

A short time was spent in the Orkneys, Avhere we had the 
advantage of the company of Colonel H. Halcro Johnston, F.L.S. 
This resulted in adding two species to the Scottish ftovn—iiMteUa, 
identified by Mr. James Groves as K. nidifica Ag., \yhich we 
dredged up in the Loch of Stenness, and previously only recorded 
from an aged specimen too poor for figuring, fouiid by the Rev. 
E. S. Marshall in 180(>' in a lagoon north of Wexford Harbour, 
and Chara canescens which was growing with it, and hitherto 
kuown only from the south of England and Wexford. 


The collection of portraits oE Naturalists recently 
added to and rearran^^ed by Dr. W. lUisliton Parker, 
can be readily consulted as it is housed in a cabinet 
in the Council llooni. 

The Linnean portraits forn) a collection distinct 
from the foregoing, but can be easily inspected. 


SESSION 1920-1921, 

yule. — The follow incr are „ot iiulexed :— Tlie name of tlie Cliairinan at ejieli meeiiiig ; 
speakers wliose remarks are not reported ; and passing allusions. 

Abrolhos Islands, s^c JFoutniaii Abrol- 

lios Islands. 
Abstract of Paper (Drufe), -7. 
Aicipiter tiisiis (Linn.) Pall., Further 

researches (Owen), 2. 
Accounts, 26-18. 
Additions to Library. 69-76. 
Attariciida?. t^ee Madrcj)oraria. 
Aiiislie. J. R., elected, 62 : proposed, 

17 ; sec. reading. 19. 
Alexander, \V. B., A'ertel)rate fauna of 

Houtinan .Vbrollios Islands, iS. 
Alpine Garden, lliniature (Malby), 19. 
Amphipoda and Isopoda from the 

Abrolhos Islands (Tattersall), 23. 
Aiic/iioiiej'iilf/t'iis, J. Gay, referred to, 1 3. 
Annandale, Dr. N.. admitted. 17: 

Vegetation of an island in Cliiika 

Lake, 63. 
Aunelides Polychetes, .<"■ Iloutnian 

Abi-oihos Islands. 
Anniversary Meetincr. 23. 
Arber. Mr.-'. A.. Leaf-tips of certain 

Monocotyledons. 10. 
Asijida?. .<r/' Diptera. 
Associates, vacancies in List announced. 

6, 22: deaths rep<jrted. 24. 
Auditors elected, 20. 

Baker, E. G., Councillnr retired, 25. 
Baker, J. G.. deceased. 24: obiluai-y. 

Ball, II.. admitted. 62: elected, 15: 

proposed. I : sec. reading. 6. 
Barber, Rcv.H. P.. removed fnim List. 

Barnard, K. II., elected, 1 5 ; proposed, 

I ; sec. reading, 3. 
BfCcari. Dr. O,. death reported. S. 24. 

Benefactions, 65-68. 

Benson. Prof. .M., elected Councillor, 


Bernhauer. Dr. M., Coleoptera : Sta- 
phylinida', 22. 

Belts, C. II.. removed from List. 24. 

Birds from Texel (Turner), 18. 

Blackburn. Miss K. B.. propo.sed, 62. 

Blackmail. Prof. Y. II.. elected Coun- 
cillor. 2<;. 

Bodger, J. W.. admitted. 8 : elected, 5 : 
sec. reading, 3. 

Botanical Secretary (Dr. A.B. Bendle), 
elected, 23. 

Bovell. J. R.. withdrawn, 24. 

Browne, K. T.. ap])ointcd V.-P., 60 ; 
elected Councillor, 25. 

Biitschli, O., deceased, 24. 

Buller, Prof. A. H. R.. Ocellus func- 
tion of the subsporangial swelling of 
I'i/ohohi,i, 63. 

Bumsted. W. F., elected, 60; pro- 
posed. 5 : sec. roadiuii. 6. 

Burke, Iv, withdrawn. 24. 

Burr, Capt. il., withdrawn, 24. 

Bury, II.. elected Councillor. 25. 

Caius, Rev. Prof. J. P.. proposed, i : 
sec. reading, 3. 

Caiman. Dr. W. T.. elected Auditor, 20. 

Campbell, F. M.. deceased, 24: obit- 
uary, 44. 

Canada, src General .Secretary. 

Carpellody of the stamens in Pa/javer 
ii/iifirofiiiti, hort.. exhibited (Walker), 

Carter, G. W., deceased, 24. 

Cash Statement received and adopted, 
23 : printed as audited, 26-28, 


Cephalanthcra, Rich , Fertilizatiou in 
(Godfery), 64. 

Chalmers, A. J., deceased, 24. 

Cbapmau, ¥., Sherborniva, a new genus 
of fossil' Foraiuinifera from Tas- 
mania, 18, 

Cbilka lake, Vegetation of an island in 
(Aniiandale), 63. 

Ohrislv. M.. \Vistnian"s Wood, 9. 

Clark, "Rev. J. U., collector of mosses, 2. 

Clements, F. M., deceased. 24.; obituary, 

Cleridaj from the Indian Ocean(Schenk- 

ling), 22. 
Clupeids, young, a new type of Teleos- 

ttan cartilaginous Pectoral Girdle 

found in (Goodrich), 3. 
Colt man-Rogers, C, adnutted, 19 ; 

elected, 15; proposed, i ; sec. read- 
ing, 6. 
Coniferous Trees, Insects in relation to 

the repi-od. of (8peyer), 23. 
Cooper, sec Omer-Cooper. 
Corbett, H. II., deceased, 24; obituary, 

Coulter, Prof. J. M-, elected For. 

Memb., 22; proposed, 15. 
Conucillors elected and retired, 25. 
Craib, Prof. W. G., admitted, 11. 
Crane, H. II., admitted, i. 
Culler, D. W.. elected, 60; proposed, 

11; sec reading, 1 5. 

Dakin. Prof. W. J., Account of his 
expedition to the Abrolhos Islands, 23. 
Darbisbire, Prof. O. V., admitted, 3. 
Darfur, Plants from, coll. by Capt. 

Lvnes (Lester-Garland), 5. 
Dastur, R. H., elected, 5 ; sec. read- 
ing, 3- 
Datura, Liun., Contrib. to the tera- 
tology of (De Toni), 12. 
Deaths recorded, 24. 
Delage, Prof. Y., death reported, 8, 

Dendy, Prof. A., On Hexactinellid 

Sponges, 22. 
De Toni, Prof. G. B., Contribution to 
the Teratology of the genus Datura, 
Linn., 12. 
Dickson, G. T., elected, 62 ; proposed, 

14 ; sec. reading, 17. 
Diptera: Asilidaj, Dolichnpodida, &c., 

from the Indian Ocean (Lamb), 22. 
Dixon, II. N., Mosses of the WoUaston 
Expedition to Dutch New Guinea, 2. 
Dod, see WoUey-Dod. 
Dolichopodidai, sec Diptera. 
Dorrien-Smith, Major A. A., elected, 5 ; 

proposed, i ; sec. reading, 3. 

Druce, Dr. G. C, on Shetland plants, 
14 ; alistra'^t, 77. 

Drummond, J. R., deceased, 24 ; obit- 
uary, 47 

Duckwortii, II., deceased, 24. 

Dutch New Guinea, see Dixon, II. N. 

Dvmes, T. A., Seeding and germination 
of Itiiscits acidcatus, Linn., 1 1. 

Edwards, S., ehcteA Councillor, 25. 
Elections report«d, 24. 
Elliot, G. F. S., withdrawn, 24. 
iClliot, Col. VV. H. W„ withdrawn, 24. 
Elwes, H. J., on breeding of the Vak, 7. 
Endemic genera in relation to others 
(Willis), 3. 

Fanlham, Prof. H. B., sec Porter, 

Dr. A. 
Farmer, Prof. J. B., Councillor retired, 

Fauvel, Prof. P., Annelides Polychetes 

de I'Archipel Houtman Abi'olhos, 

Ferguson, Capt. H. S., deceased, 24. 
Fertilization of the orchid genus Cepka- 

lanthcra. Rich. (Godfery 1, 64. 
Finlayson, R. A., admitted, i. 
F'lagellate, New, found in the blood of 

a bouy fish (Porter & Fautiuim), 8. 
Flower, Major S. S., admitted, 60. 
Foreign Members, deaths reported, 24 ; 

vacancies announced, 8 ; new elec- 
tions, 22. 
Fryer, Sir C. E., deceased, 24. 

Garmau, Dr. S., elected For. Memb., 

22 ; proposed, i 5. 
Garstang, Prof. W., proposed, 60 ; sec. 
reading, 62 ; opened discussion on 
Recapitulation, 60. 
Gebien, H., Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae, 

General Secretary, Annual Report, 24; 
elected (Dr. B. D. Jackson), 25; 
benefits derived by Naturalists from 
the operations of the National Trust, 
16; ou JohnGoodyer, 16 ; Norsemen 
in Canada in a.d. 1000, with the 
plants they reported, 5. 
Goddard, T. R., admitted, 5. 
Godfery, Col. M. J., Fertilization of 

the orchid genus Cephalanthcra, 64. 
Goiffon, P., deceased, 24. 
Goodrich, Pi of. E. S., elected Zoological 
Secretary and Councillor, 25 ; on a 
new type of Teleostean cartilaginous 
Pectoral Girdle found in young Clu- 
peids, 3 ; exhibited Hymenopterous 
para.sites of grain-infesting insects, 
5 ; on Recapitulation, 6r. 

1920-1921. g 



Toodyer manu- 

Goodver, John, some of Ins manu- 
scripts exliibi((>(l, 15. 

Cirassi, Pr..r.a. B., elected For. Memb., 
22 ; proposed, i 5. 

Grillith, J. E.. witlxli-awn, 24. 

Guntlier, R. T., on Goodve 
seri2>fs, 1 ^ 

Gupta. S. P. S , elected, 60; propoeed, 
1 1 ; sec. rejxiiiijj, 15. 

Gwvniio-Vaiijjlian, Prof. Dame Helen, 
elected Councillor, 25. 

Haeckel's Biogenolie Law, Discussion 
Oil, 60. 

Jlniner, S. H., 011 the National Trust, 

Hardy. A. D., removed from List, 24. 

llari.ind. Rev. A. A., withdrawn, 24. 

Jfarlaiid, Dr. S. C. elected, 15; pro- 
posed, I ; sec. reading. 6. 

Ilarmer, Sir 8. R, elected Councillor, 

Harris, W., deceased, 24; obituary, 

Henderson, M. R., proposfd, 60 ; sec. 
reading, 62. 

Hexaetir.ellid Sponges from the Indian 
Ocean (Dendy), 22. 

Hiokson, Prof. S. J., on two Sea-Pens 
from the Abrollios Islands, 23. 

Hill, Capt. A. W., Councillor retired ' 

Hill, J. P.. withdrawn, 24. 

Hodgson, T. v.. withdrawn, 24. 

HoUnnd, Rey. M., deceased, 24. 

Hollows, W. E., elected, 60 ; proposed, 
II ; sec. reading, i 5. 

Hopson, M. F., withdrawn, 24. 

Horst, Dr. C. J. van der, Madrepo- 
raria, Agiiriciidse, 22. 

Houtniaii Abrolhos Islands, Account of 
expedition to the (Dakin), 23 ; Verte- 
brate fauna (Alexander), 18 ; Anne- 
lides Poiychetes (Fauvel), 18. 

Hydroid.s from the Western Indian 
Ocean (Jarvis), 22. 

Hymenopterous parasites of grain-in- 
festing in.^ects (Goodrich), 5. 

Indian Ocean, Percy Sladen Trust 
Exp"d. to the, new Reports read, 

Insects in relation to the reprod. of 
Coniferous Trees (Speyer), 23. 

I.sopoda, sec Amphipoda. 

Jackson, Dr. B. D., elected Councillor, 

25 : and General Secretary, 25. 1 

Jackson, J. R., death reported, 8. 24; 
obituary, 49. j 

Jarvis, Miss F. E., Hydrokls of tFie 
V\ astern Indian Ocean, 22. 

Kitching, W. H., iidmiited, 11. 

Lacaita, C. C, appointed. V.-P., 60; 

eleclerl Councillor, 25 ; on Auenmie 

fiUgcnii, 13 ; on John Goodver. 16. 
Lacey, H. «., admitted, 8; elected, 5; 

sec reading, 2. 
Lamb, C. G., Dipleru: Asilida?, Doli- 

chopodida;, etc., 22. 
Leaf-tips of certain Monocotyledons 

(Arber). 10. 

Leeson,Dr. J. R., appointed Scrutineer 

Lester-Garland, L. V., Plants from 
Darfur coll. by Capt. Lvnes, 5. 
I Lhasa and Central Tibet (Walsh), 7. 

Librarian's Report, 25. 
; Library, Additions and Donations 
I 69-76. 

Ligidinm hi/pnprum exhibited (Webb), 
; Lint(m, Rev. E. F., withdrawn, 24. 
; Loder, G. W. E., elected auditor, 20; 
elected Councillor, 25. 
Lomas, Miss \V. M. A., proposed, 23 ; 

sec. reading, 60. 
Longstaff, Dr. G. B., deceased, 24; 

obituarj-, 50. 
Lynes, Capt.. collector, 5. 
Lyon, S., proposed, i ; see. reading, 5. 

MacCallum, Mrs. B. D., elected, 22 ; 

propo.sed, i ; sec. reading, 6. 
Macedonian plants, coll. made by H.M. 

Forces (Ramsbottom & Wihnott), 12! 
Madreporaria, Agarii-iidas, from 'the 

Indian Ocean (Horst), 22. 
Malby, R. A., a miniature Alpine 

Garden from January to December 

Mangm, Prof. L. A., elected For. 

Memb.. 22; proposed, 15. 
Massart, Prof. J., elected For. Memb.. 

22 ; proposed. 15. 
Massey, R. E., elected, 60 ; proposed, 5 ; 

sec. reading, 6. 
Maufe, Mrs. M., remo\ed from List 

Mawson. T. H"., elected, 62 ; proposed, 

19 ; sec. reading, 20. 
Mayfield, A., admitted, 62 ; elected, 

22 ; proposed, 1 ; sec reading, 6. 
Medal, Linnean, presented to Dr. D. H. 

Scott, 39-41. 
Mills, A. E., admitted, 62 ; elected, 15 ; 

proposed, 1 ; sec. reading, 5. 
Miln, G. P., elected, 5 ; sec. readinir, 2. 



Milsum, J. N., elected, 60 ; proposed, 
II ; sec. reading, 15. 

Moncktou, H. W., appointed V.-P., 60 ; 
elected Councillor and Treasurer, 
25; Distrib. of Taraxacum eri/thro- 
spermiim, Andrz., iu tLe S.B. of 
England, 19. 

Mosses of tlie Wullastou Expedition to 
Dutch New Guinea (Dixon), 2. 

Mukliarji, T. N., removed from List, 24. 

Natliorst, Prof. A. G., death reported, 

8, 24 ; obituary, 50. 
National I'rust, benefits derived by 

Naturali.sts from its operations (Gen. 

Sec), 16. 
Nevvstead, Prof. R., Obs. on the Natural 

History of the Upper Sbiri River, 

Nyasaiand, 21. 
Norsemen in Canada in a.D. looo, with 

the plants they reported (Gen. Sec), 

Northcote, H. F., deceased, 24.. 
Nyasaiand, see Newstead, Prof. R. 

Obituary Notices, 41-59. 

Ocellus' function of the subsporangial 
swelling oi' Pilobolus (BuUer), 63. 

Omer-Cooper, J., admitted, 3. 

Owen, J. il., Further researches into 
the life and habits of the Sparrow- 
lla,viik,Acci2nter nisus (Linn.) Pall., 2. 

Papaver umhrosum, hort., showing car- 
pellody of the stamens, exhibited 
(Walker), 62. 

Parasites, Hymenopterous, of grain- 
infesting insects (Goodrich), 5. 

Parker, Dr. W. R., on bird-notes, iS. 

Parsons, Miss E. M. E., removed from 
List, 24. 

Pearsall, W. H., admitted, 5. 

Percy Sladen Trust, Ex]5ecl. to the 
Indian Ocean, further reports read, 
22 ; cost of publication to be borne 
by the Trust, 22. 

Pfeffer, Prof. N., d^ath reported, 8. 

Pnillipps, W. J., elected, 22 ; proposed, 
I ; sec reading, 6. 

Pilobolus, Ocellus function of the sub- 
sporangial swelling of (Buller), 63. 

Pocock, R. I., elected Councillor, 25. 

Porter, Dr. A., and Prof. H. B. Fan- 
tham, New flagellate found in the 
blood of a, bony fish, 8. 

Power, J. H., elected, 60 ; proposed, 
14 ; sec. reading, 17. 

President (Dr. A. Smith Woodward), 
appointed Scrutineers, 25 ; appointed 
Vice-Presidents, 60; elected, 25 

Observations on some ext'nct Ela.s- 
niobranch Fishes (Presidential Ad- 
dress), 29-39. 

Presidential Address, 29-39. 

Pugsley, 11. W., admitted, i. 

Ramana-Sastriu, Dr. V. V., elected, 5 ; 
see. reading. 3. 

Ramsbottom, Capt, J., elected Coun- 
cillor, 25. 

Ramsbottom, Capt. J., and A. J. Wil- 
mott, oil a military collection of 
JMacedoniaii plants, 12. 

Recapitulation, Discussion on, 60-62. 

Removals from List by Council, 25. 

•Rendle, Dr. A. B., elected Botanical 
Secretary and Councillor, 25. 

Richards, R. M., elected, 5 ; sec. read- 
ing, 3- 

Ridley, H. N., elected auditor, 20. 

Robotham, F. E., deceased, 24. 

Rogers, see Coltman-Rogers. 

Rolfe, R. A., death reported, 22, 24; 
obituary, 52. 

Rothschild, The Lord, appointed V.-P., 
60 ; elected Councillor, 25. 

BuscHs acideatus, Linn., seeding and 
germi .ation (Dynies), 11. 

Saccardo, Prof. P. A., obituary, 53. 
Salisbury, Dr. E. J., elected auditor, 

20; elected Councillor, 25. 
Salmon, C. E., elected Councillor, 25. 
Sander, H. F. C, deceased, 24 ; obitu- 

!^rv- 54- , . 1 

Sargent, Prof C. S., accorded special 
vote of thanks for Donation of 
books, 17. 

Sastriu, see Ramana-Sastrin. 

Schenkling, S., Coleoptera: Cleridffi, 

Scott, Dr. D. II., Linnean Medal pre- 
sented to, 3. 

Scott, Dr. H., Coleoptera: Scydmie- 
nidaj, &c., 22 ; Distrib. of Staphy- 
linida?, 22. 

Scrutineers appointed, Z5. 

Scydniivjnidti!. "&c., from the Indian 
Ocean (Scott), 22. 

Sea-pens, On two (Hickson), 23. 

Secretaries elected, 25. 

Sen, Prof. R., elected, 60; proposed, 6 ; 
sec. reading, 8. 

Sewell, Major R. B. S.. read Dr. Annan- 
dale's paper on Chilka lake, 63. 

Sliarngapani, S. G., elected, 60; pro- 
posed, II ; sec. reading, 15. 

Shepjiard, A. W., appointed Scrutineer, 

Sherhornina, a new genus of Fossil 
Foraminifera from Tasmania, 18. 



SherrifTs. Dr. VV. R., proposed 23 ; sec. 

reading, 60. 
Shetland plants (Druce), 14. 
Siboiir, Louis Ulaise, Vironite de, 

elected. 5 ; sec. reading, 3. 
Sladon Trust, see Percy filaden Trust. 
Small, W., elected, 60; proposed, 5; 

sec. reading, 6. 
Smith, Miss A. L., Comicillor retired, 

Smith, S. G., admitted, 20 ; elected, 1 5 ; 

proposed, i ; sec. reading, 6. 
Smith, Miss M., propo.sed as au Asso- 
ciate, 60; sec. reading, 62. 
Smith, .sec Dorrien-Sniitli. 
Sparrow-Hawk, Further researches 

(Owen), 2. 
Speyer, E. R., Insects in relation to 

the reproduction of Coniferous Trees, 

Sprague, T. A., elected Councillor, 25. 
Spratt, Miss E. R., admitted, 14; 

elected, 5 ; sec. reading, 3. 
Stapf, Dr. O., appointed Scrutineer, 25. 
Stnphylinidae from the Indian Ocean 

(Bernhauer), 22; Distrib. (Scott), 

Stayner. Capt. F. J., admitted, 22. 
Steel, T.. withdrawn, 24. 
Steindachner, Dr. F., death reported, 

8 ; obituary, 55. 
Stevens, W. S., proposed, 22 ; see. 

reading, 23. 
Subramaniam, L. S.,prcposed. 60; sec. 

reiidiiig. 62. 
SutclifTe. H.. elected, 22 ; proposed, 5 ; 

sec. reading, 6. 
Symons-.Teune, Capt. B. H. B., admit- 
ted, 22; elected 15; proposed, i; 

sec. reading, 6. 
Symons, J., deceased, 24. 

Taborn, C, elected, 62; proposed, 22; 

sec. reading, 23. 
Tagart Bequest, volumes purchased by 

means ot, shown, 2. 
Talbot, W. A., deceased, 24; obituary, 

Taraxacum eri/throspermum, Andrz., 

Distrib. in S.E. of England (Monck- 

ton), 19. 
Tasmania, ^ee Chapman, F. 
Tattersall, Dr W. AE., Amphipoda and 

Isopoda from the Abrolhos Islands, 

Teleostean cartilaginous Pectoral Gir- 
dle, new type found in young Clu- 
peids (Goodrich), 3. 

Tepper, J. G. O., withdrawn, 24. 

Teratology of Datura, Linn., Contrib. 

to(DeToni), 12. 
Thompson, P., moved the vote of thank.s 

for President's ,\(ldress, 39. 
Treasurer, Annual Report, 23. ■;6-2S ; 

elected (H. W. Moii(;klon), 25. 
Turnbull, J. G., removed from List, 


Turner, Miss E. L., Some birds from 

Texel. 18. 
Tutt, J. F. D., elected, 62 ; proposed, 

17 ; sec. reading, 19. 

Upper Shiri River, Njasalaiid, Obs. on 
its Natural History (Newstead), 21. 

\'aughan, yee Gwynne-Vaughan. 
Vice-Presidents appointed, 60. 
Vochung, Prof. H., obituary, 58. 
Voelcker, J. A., withdrawn, 24. 

Waddington, H. J., withdrawn, 24. 

Wailes, G. H., withdrawn. 24 

Walker. A. O., exhibited I'apaver 11m- 
hrosttm, hort., showing carpellody of 
the stamens, 62. 

Walsh, E. H. C, Lhasa and Central 
Tibet, 7. 

Walsh, Lt.-Col. J. H. T., Councillor 
retired, 25 ; on certain Flagellates, 9. 

Watts, Rev. W. W., deceased, 24. 

Webb, W. M., exhibited rare wood- 
louse, Ligidium hypnorum, 62. 

White, J. W., elected, 62 ; proposed, 
19; sec. reading, 20. 

Wliyte, Rev. A., deceased, 24. 

Wibberley, Prof. T., elected, 62 ; pro- 
posed, 20; sec. reading, 22. 

Wiesner, Prof. J. von, obituary, 59. 

Willis, Dr. J. C, Endemic genera in 
relation to others. 3. 

Wistman's Wood (Christy), 9. 

Withdrnwals, 24. 

Wollrtston Expedition Mosses, see 
Dixon, H. N. 

Wolley-Dorl, Lt.-Col. A., elected, 5: 
sec. reading, 2. 

Woodlouse rare in Britain exhibited 
(Webb), 62. 

Woodward, Dr. A. Smith, elected Pre- 
sident & Councillor, 25. 

Wortley, E. J., elected. 22 ; proposed. 
5 ; sec. reading, 6. 

Yoshida, Dr. S., admitted, 19; pro- 
posed, 6 ; sec. reading, 8. 

Zoological Secretary (Prof. E. S. Good- 
rich), elected, 25. 





134th session. 

Yiiou November 1921 to June 1922. 

L N ]) X 

r R 1 .\ T I'] 1) FOR THE L I N N E A N S C I E T Y. 



PUBLICATIONS: Skssion July 1921-July 1922. 

Journal, Botany. 

Vol. XLV. No. 304. 12/- 

Vol. XLVI. „ 305. 12/- 

Journal, Zoology. 

Vol. XXXTV. Xo. 231. 10/- 

„ 230. 12/- 

Transactioiis, Zoology. 

Vol. X. Part 11 (Index). 3/- 

Yol. XVIII. Part 1. 86/- 

Proceediiigs, 133rd Session, Xovember 1921. 6/- 

List of [Fellows, Associates, and Foreign Metnbersj, Xov. 1921. 





November 3rd, 1921. 

Dr, A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 16th June, 1921, 
were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received siuce the last Meeting was 
laid hefore the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Mr. William Edward Hollows was admitted a Fellow. 

A certificate in favour of Miss Kathleen Bever Blackburn, 
M.Sc.(Lond.), was read for the second time. 

The following were proposed as Fellows : — 

Hugh Eraser Macmillan ; Frederick Albert Mitchell-Hedges ; 
Willis Openshaw Howarth, M.Sc. ; Benjamin Millard Griftiths, 
M.Sc.(Birui.); Miss Margaret Collins, B.Sc.(Syd.); Robert Gurney, 
M.A. : Miss Flora Amelia Gordon ; Prof. George Matthai, 
M.A. (Cantab.); Prof. Edward Hindle, M.A., Ph.D., A.R.C.S. ; 
Herbert Bennett Williamson; Frederick Berry-Lewis Butler; 
Miss Isabel Soar, Ph.D. (Loud.) ; Frank Howard Lancum, F.Z.S. ; 
Clive Errol Lord ; and Sydney Garside, ]\LSc. 

Miss Matilda Smith was elected an Associate. 

The President announced that there were four vacancies in tlie 
List of Fellows, and that a Ballot would be taken to till those 
vacancies on the 17th November. 



A statement w.-is made from the Cliair, announcing tiie instal- 
lation of an electric exhaust-fan to aid in the hetter ventilation 
of the Meeting Kooni, and tliat a new boiler for central heating 
was in position, and would be available in a few days. 

The first exhibition was by Dr. P. Tn. Jcstesen, of photographs 
of llajjlesia Arnoldi taken in [Sumatra in 1920. (Communicated 
by Sir Daniel Morris, K.C.]M.(i.) The lantern-slides were 
explained by Dr. A. B. Kendle, F.K.S., Sec.L.S., who also showed 
the plates illustrating Koberfc Brown's classical memoir in the 
13th volume of the Society's Transactions, a century ago. 'Mr. II. 
N. EiuLEY mentioned that he had never seen a flower a yard in 
diameter as usually quoted, nor of Ji. IJasseltii ; as usually met 
with sporadically in the forest, they were about 18 inches across. 
The plant is parasitic on vines (Cissus) ; the (lower opens early 
and has a rattier faint carrion smell for an hour or two. The 
JMalays call it •' Kurubut," almost the same name as they give to 
Thottea rjrandijlora ; it is collected and sold as an astringent. 

Dr. A. B. Eendle sliowed specimens, bearing fruit, of a hybrid 
between the sweet orange Citrus Aurantium var. sinensis and 
C. trifoliata, the wild orange of Cliina and Japan, which had been 
sent by Mr. Kichard H. Beamisli, F.L.S., from his garden at 
Glounthane, Co. Cork. The hybrids between these species are 
known as Citrange, and have been made with a view to impart 
the greater hardiness of C. trifoliata to the sweet orange. The 
hybrid shows transitions between the unifoliate leaf of the sweet 
orange and the trifoliate leaf of the other species ; it is evergreen 
like the sweet orange while C. trifoliata has deciduous leaves. 
The fruit, which is larger than in C. trifoliata, has a soft hairiness 
recalling the hairy diameter of the fruit of that species. Mr. C. 
C. Lacaita added a few remarks. 

The General Secretary then gave an account of the recently- 
completed Catalogue of the Linnean Herbarium. He stated that 
his first reference to the Elerbarium was made nearly 50 years 
ago, when he found that Mr. E. Kippist, at that time Librarian, 
could not explain certain signs employed by Linnaeus, the meaning 
of which had been lost. The speaker's first published contribution 
to a knowledge of the herbarium was made in 18S8, upon the 
Centenary Anniversary of the Society, when he was commissioned 
by the President, Mr! AV. Caiiuuthees, P.E.S., to draw up an 
account of the growth of the collections, their purchase by Dr. J. 
E. Smith, and lastly, their acquisition and tenure by the Society. 
In turn followed an account of the Banksian desiderata supplied 
from the Linnean stores ; the List of the genera with the number 
of sheets in each, and the Index issued in 1913. A diversion to 
the zoological collections came to publication in the next year; 
then Tulbagh's considerable collection in 1918, and finally the 
present MS. which had taken more than two years to compile. 
The guiding idea has been to supply the answer to future enquiries 


such as " Who wrote lliat?" by givin<]; the writer's name to each 
label or comment, wherever possible, the Linnean letters affording 
an invaluable help to identitVing handwriting. The JMS. has been 
drawn up for reference in after years ; it includes the inter- 
pretation of many signs used by Linnajus, the meaning of wliicli 
had been lost for more than a century, but was now rediscovered. 
Lantern-slides in explanation of these points were shown. (See 

Mr. Ja-Mes Groves presented a paper on Charophyta collected 
by Mr. Thomas B. Blow in Ceylou. He prefaced his reuuirks by 
referring to the great services Mr. Blow had rendered in making 
large collections of these plants in the course of travels in many 
parts of the world ; and to the great beauty and excellence of the 
specimens, some of which were exhibited, due to Mr. Blow's care 
and attention in floating them out, in spite ot' the work having 
often to be done under very difficult conditions. 

.Mr. Blow gave some particulars of the districts visited on each 
occasion, and of the means of transit, much of which had to be 
accomplished over rough roads by bullock-cart at a very slow pace, 
and stated that many of the specimens -were obtained from tanks 
which had been in use when large tracts of country, which are 
now lying waste, were in cultivation. 

Miss Hilda M. Coley show(Kl thirty drawings of succulent 
plants from the collection of Mr. W. C. Gr. Ludford, of Four Oaks, 
Birmingham, chiefly of FhyUocactus, Cereus, Echinocactus, and 
3Iamillana, with certain Cape plants as Aloe, Gasteria, Haivortliia, 
and Crassula. 

Dr. A. B. Kendle commented oji these admirable drawings. 

November 17th, 1921. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair, 

The IMinutes of the General Meeting of the 3rd November, 1921, 
were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting was 
laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the several 
Donors were ordered. 

Certificates for the following were read for the second time : — 
Hugh Fraser jMacmillian ; Frederick Albert Mitchell-Hedges : 
Willis Opensliaw Howartii, M.Sc. ; Benjann'n IMillard Grifliths, 
M.Sc.(Birm.); Miss Margaret Collins, B.Sc.(Syd.); Robert Gurney, 
M.A.; Miss Flora Amelia Gordon; Prof. George Matlhai 
M.A. (Cantab.); Prof. Edward Hindle, M.A., Ph.D., A.E.C.S. ; 
Herbert Bennett Williamson; Frederick Berry-Lewis Butler; 
Miss Isabel Soar, Ph.D. (Loud.) ; Frank Howard Lancum, F.Z.S, ; 
Clive Errol Lord ; and Sydney Garside, M.Sc. 



Norman Douglas Simpson, Ji.A. (Cantab.), and Douglas Miller 
Rei'l were proposed as Fellow s. 

The following were elected Fellows by ballot: — 

Prof. Walter Garstang, M.A., D.Sc.(Oxon.); Walter Sidney 

Stevens; Miss Winifred Mary Ailsa Lomas, B.Se. ; and William 

Kae Sherriffs, M.A., B.Sc.(Aberd.). 

The President remarked upon a repre.sentation of a section of 
Derbyshire from East to West, executed in samples of the 
respective rocks by Mr. White Watson, who was elected a Fellow 
in 17U5 and whose death was reported at the Anniversary ^Meeting 
of 18li7. He was connected with the Post Oftice and the dispatch 
of the mails, and in 1794 he prepared the representation aliove 
mentioned, issuing also a pamphlet descriptive of it. The British 
Museum (Natural History) possesses the pamphlet but not the 
tablet here shown, which measures 19" by 13". As the tablet 
is somewhat remote from the pursuits of the Linnean Society, the 
Council has suggested that it would be appropriate to transfer 
the tablet to the Trustees of the British Museum. It was given 
to the Society on the 24th May, 1810. 

On a show of hands this suggestion was adopted. 

The President exhibited a newly-discovered human skull from 
the lihodesia Broken Hill Exploration Company's mine in N.W. 
Rhodesia. It evidently belonged to an extinct race of cave-men, 
with a skull nnich resembling that of the European cave-men of 
the Neanderthal race, but with an erect skeleton. 

Prof. E. S. Goodrich, F.R.8., See.L.S., proposed a vote of 
thanks to the President for this exhibition, the first made before 
any scientific society ; this was accorded by acclamation. 

Capt. A. W. Hill, F.E.S., then gave an account of his recent 
official visit to the Cameroons and Nigeria. He described the 
settlement of Victoria and gave its historj'", passing to the Botanic 
Garden there, having an area of 200 acres, with laboratory, 
herbarium, and museum buildings, now awaiting restoration to 
their proper function. The site is admirable, and the soil good ; 
connected with this garden are the experimental plots of tea and 
cinchona at Buea, at an altitude of 3300-3600 feet on the 
Cameroon Mountain. 

The lecturer then sketched his journey in Nigeria and his visit 
to the Bauchi Plateau, Northern Provinces, where he had the good 
fortune to enlist the services of Mr. H. Y. Lely, the Forestry 
Officer of the district, and others for collecting specimens of the 
local flora. Over 600 specimens liave already been received at 
Kew from Mr. Lely, and so far as they have been determined show 
a large proportion of new species. The flora of the plateau shows 
interesting affinities with the flora of Abyssinia and Nyasaland. 

The lecture was illustrated by a large series of lantern-slides. 

Dr. Stapf, F.R.S., and Dr. Rendle, F.R.S., See.L.S., contributed 
further remarks, and Captain Hill briefly replied. 


December 1st, 1921. 

Dr. A. Smith AVoobward, F.Il.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The jMinutes ot' tlie General Meeting of the ITtli jVoveniber, 
1921, were read and confinned. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting was 
laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Certiiicates for the following were read for the second time : — 
Norman Douglas Simpson, B. A. (Cantab.), and Douglas Miller 

Mrs. Alice Sophia Bacon, B.Sc.(Lond.), was proposed as a 

The President gave notice of a proposed change in the Bje-Laws, 
enlarging tlie permissible number of Fellows from 710 to 800. 

It was also announced from theCliair that a Dinner would take 
place after the meeting of the Society on 19th January, 1922. 

The first communication was by Prof. W. IVeilson Jones, 
M.A., entitled "Notes on the Occurrence of BracJiiomonas '' (see 
Abstract, pp. 57-59). 

Sir N. Yerinoloff, K.C.B., Dr. E. J. Salisbury, Dr. W. T. 
Caiman, and Mr. H. N. Dixon contributed further remarks, and 
the author briefly replied. 

Mr. J. Burtt-Dayy then gave an account of the distribution 
of Saliv in South Africa. He remarked that confusion of species 
iu this region was partly due to tlie dimorpliism of the leaves, 
those of young shoots being often quite different from the adult 
leaves. We can recognise in South Africa ten possible species or 
varieties, and iu tropical Africa twelve named species, only one 
being common to both areas, a form characteristic of the Limpopo 
Biver basin, but not crossing the Zambezi ; the other nine are 
strictly endemic, mostly in very limited areas, so that cross- 
pollination is practically impossible. Usually each species is 
confined to one particular drainage-basin ; where more than one 
species is found in the same basin, it is due to erosion, the streams 
being formerly united. Thus the distribution of S. Woodii 
and ^. fjarii'inna suggest a coast origin and subsequent ascent to 
the mountains following the erosion of the streams; had it 
originated on the Drakensberg, the two could hardly have failed 
to reach the same drainage-basin, as they now occur only fifty 
miles apart. S. Woodii may be the connecting-link by ^ay of 


Poudoluiul, the Traiiskei, aiul Eastern Cape witli ^b>. Safsaf in 
Kliodesia. Altliongli the Orange lliver is now isolated from 
Angola by the wastes of the Kalaliari, it is possible that these 
three sj)ecies, or a common ancestor, came down from the north 
during the time when the Ciinene discharged into the Orange 
lliver by way of tiie Molopo. A form of S. Safsaf, called 
S. huiJleiisis, Seemen, is found on tributaries of the Cunene Kiver. 
A discussion followed, in which the President, Dr. liendle, and 
Mr. E. G. Jiaker took part, the author replying. 

The last paper was by Mr. iMiiiLEa Cnuisxy, " The Problem of 
the Pollination of our British Primulas." 

A discussion by J)r. D. H. Scott, Mr. C. C. Lacaita, Mr. T. A. 
Dymes, Mr. J. Burtt-Davy, and Mr. H. li. Darlington followed, 
and the author replied. 

December loth, 1921. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 1st December, 1921, 
were read and confiruied. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting was 
laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

A epecial vote of thanks was passed to Dr. W. Eushton 
Paukee, F.L.S., for his gift of the * Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
llth edition. 

A certificate in favour of Mrs. Alice Sophia Bacon, B.Sc. (Lond.), 
was read for the second time. 

The following were proposed as Fellows: — Miss Edith Philip 
Smith, B.A.(Oxon.), and Miss Elaine Mary Eees, B.Sc. (Lond.). 

The President read for a second time the proposed change in 
the Bye-Laws, Ch. I. § 1, enlarging the number from 710 to 800 

It was also announced from the Chair that Ballots would be 
taken for Fellows on the 19th January aud 2nd February, 1922. 

The first communication was by Capt. F. A. Potts, M.A., on 
the work of the Carnegie Institution in the Marine Biology of 
Samoa. Photographs of the Island of Tutuila, with its wooded 
cliffs and enveloping coral-reefs, were shown, and descriptions 
given of the fish fauna, with illustrations taken under water by 
officials of the Institution. 

The discussion was opened by the President, followed by 
Dr. G. P. Bidder and Prof. E, S. Goodrich, F.E.S., Sec.L.S., the 
author replying. 


The second communication was a paper by Prof. G. C. Bourne, 
F.E.S., on "The iianiiiidse, a Study in Carcinology '*' ; and in the 
absence ot: the author, was read by ProF. E. fci. Groodrich in 

Dr. W. T. Ciihnan, r.R.S., cdiitributed a few furtlier remarks. 

January 19th, 1922. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodwabd, F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the loth December, 

1921, were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors Mere ordered. 

Khubchand Isardas Thadani, (Bomb.), M.Sc. (Texas), was 
proposed as a Pellow. 

Certificates in favour of the following were read for the second 
time:— Miss Edith Philip Smith, B. A. (Oxen.), and JNIiss Elaine 
Mary Eees, B.Sc.(Lond.). 

The following were elected Fellows : — 

Murray Ross Henderson ; Miss Kathleen Bever Blackburn, 
M.Sc. (Lond.); Frederick Albert Mitchell-Hedges, F.R.Gr.S.; 
Willis Openshaw Howarth, M.Sc. ; and Benjamin Millard 
Griffiths, M.Sc.(Birm.). 

The proposed alteration in Ch. I. § 1 of the Bye-Laws in- 
creasing the maximum number of Fellows from 710 to 800 was 
put to the ballot and carried. The said section now runs as 
follows : — 

Chap. I. Section 1. The number of Fellows shall be limited 

to Eight hundred, exclusive of Honorary Members, Foi'eign 

Members, and Associates. The method of Election shall be by 


The President announced that on the 2nd and 16th of March, 

1922, Ballots for Fellows would take place. 

Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S., Sec.L.S., sl>owed a piece of the wood 
of Orites excelm, R. Br. (family Proteacese), one of the Australian 
Silky Oaks, sent by Mr. T. Steel, of vSydney, N.S.W. The tree, 
which is a native of northern New South Wales and Queensland, 
is of unique interest from the deposits of aluminium succinato 
which occurs in cavities of the wood, xlluminium is very rarely 


louiul ill Uoueriiig j)laiits juid only in small trees ; but Ontes 
excelsa absorbs aluiiiina Iroiii tiie soil in large quantities, as shown 
by analysis of the ash. Occasionally the amount taken up is 
excessive, in which case the excess is deposited in cavities as a 
basic uluminiiim succinate. 

]n reply to iSir tSulney llarmer, F.ll.S., Dr. lieiidle stated tluit 
this deposit was characteristic of all specimens of this species. 

Dr. E. Marion Dklf gave an account of research on Mucrocysiis 
by Miss M. M. Micukll and herself. After describing the dis- 
tribution of tlie alga, the authors reviewed recent accounts of it, 
and slio\\ed lantern-slides in explanation. 

The fertile fronds are completely submerged, smootli, dichoto- 
niously brunciied, and usually borne on 8j)ecial shoots. They bear 
sori on both sides of the frond. Exceptional cases were described 
of discontinuous sori occurring in the grooves of fronds with 
wrinkled surface and borne on the long swimming shoots, and 
usually without a swim bhulder at the base. 

The zoospores do not appear to have been previously described. 
Material brought from the shore in the morning, and examined 
in the laboratory in the evening, showed swarming zoospores; the 
next morning swimming actively, and more slowly. 

Cultui"es were made from the material in the following way : — 
About two hours after gathering, the alga was placed in a covered 
glass dish, with a few cover-slips at the bottom, and then sea- 
water was added. The piece was removed the next day, and 
10 days later all the zoospores had come to rest, but showing no 
sign of germination. Five weeks afterwards short filaments of 
two dift'ereiit sizes w'ei'e observed, comparable with the male and 
female j^ametophytes in Laminariaiere reported by Sauvageau and 
Lloyd Williams. Two montlis later young stages of the sporophyte 
were visible on the cover-glasses, a thick-walled empty cell always 
being at the base of the sporopliyte, probably the emjjty oogonial 
wall after the escape of the oospore. No sign of the antheridial 
cells had been noticed. The discovery of the filaments developed 
from the zoospures and the subsequent growth of the sporophytes 
from filaments bring it into line with other members of the same 

The authors consider that the species occurring at the Cape is 
Macrocijstis amjxstifoUa, Bory, from its rhizonie-iike attachments. 

A discussion followed, the [)articipants being Miss A. L. kSniith, 
Sir W. A. Herdman, Dr. E. li. Gates, Mr. A. D. Cotton, and 
Mr. J. Burtt-Davy, Dr. E. M. Delf replying. 

The next paper was by Mr. J. L. Chaworth Musters, 
entitled "The Flora of Jan Mayen Island," with lantern-slides 
(communicated by Dr. W. Eushton Parker, F.L.S.). 

The flora of Jan Mayen may be divided into four main groups : 
the floras of the sea-shore, of the bird-cliffs, of sheltered j)laces 
in the " tundi-a," and the mountain flora. The most luxuriant 


flora, which consists of Taraxacum or Oxi/ria, grows either under 
the bird-cliffs or in places where tuff has been reassorted by water. 
The limit of flowering plants seems to be about 3000 feet. The 
total phanerogamic vegetation consists of about 43 species, all of 
wliich are common to both Norwaj' and East Greenland. The 
origin of the flora presents a very complicated problem. Seeds 
have probably been brouglit there on the feet of wading birds 
w'hicli migrate to and from tlieir breeding-grounds in East 
Greenland. It is highly improbable that Jan Mayen has ever 
been connected with eitlier Iceland or Greenland. Many plants 
have probably reached Jan Mayen durng recent years. 

Mr. Frits Johans^en (visitor) and Mr. A. J. Wilmott added 
further remarks, to which Mr. Musters replied. 

February 2nd, 1922. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodwaed, F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the liJth January, 
1922, were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were orderetl. 

Dr. William Eae Sherriffs, M.A.(Aberd.), was admitted a 

The following were proposed as Fellows: — Eeginald Cory, 
Hugh Vandevaes Lely, B.Sc. (Edin.), and Prof. Surendra Chandra 
Banerji, M.A., B.Sc. (Calc). 

The certificate in favour of Khubchand Isardas Thadani, B.Agr. 
(Bomb.), M.Sc. (Texas), was read for the second time. 

The following were elected Fellows : — Lekshminarayanapurani 
Subramania Subramaniam, and Hugh Eraser Macmillan. 

Mr. Frits Johanssen then gave an account of the Canadian 
Arctic Expedition (1913-18), of wliich he was a member, which 
started from Vancouver in tlie ' Karink ' to ^."onie in Alaska, 
where local requisites as skins, dogs, and native attendants were 
procured, and the expedition divided into two parties, the 
northern and southern. The former under Mr. Stefansson became 
frozen in on board the ' Karluk ' in September, was carried west- 
ward, until she was crushed in the ice and sank, in about 
73° N. Lat. and 160°-165° W. Long. The party took necessaries 
from the ship and camped on an ice-floe. In attempting to reach 
laud in February 1914, five sailors and three of the scientific staff" 
lost their lives; the party in JMarch reached Siberia, finally 
reaching Nome in May. The relief ship relieved the party and 


brought tlie scientific collections to Esquimaiilt in Oclober. 
Stefansson organised a new searcli-party after this, by sledge 
across Uanks Land, and later explored Parry Islands, discov(M'iiig 
coal in Melville Island. The entire party wintero-d on J3arter 
Island, 11)10-17; t'urtiier investigations followed, and the 
expedition reached Nome in August, 1917. 

Tlie results were surveys of coasts hitherto unmapped, much 
geologic material gathered, many fossils, implements used by 
Esquimaux, with specimens of zoology and botany in quantity; 
these records are now in com-se of publication. A series of lantern- 
slides closed the communication. 

The next communication was " Somt? Statistics of Evolution 
and Geographical Distribution in Plants and Animals and their 
Significance," by J. C. Willis, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S., and Gr. Fdny 
Yule, C.B.E., M.A., F.R.S. 

At the Meeting of the Society on 18th November, 1920, there 
were shown four closely parallel curves illustrating the per- 
centages of genera belonging to families in order of size, taking 
tlie same groups of (10) families for the world, and for various 
sections of it, including finally the Avhole of the islands, to which 
there were 15S2 genera confined. These curves are shown in the 
'Annals of Botany,' xxxv. (1921) p. 510, and illustrate clearly 
what may be termed the "hollow curve" of distribution, or 
curve concave on upper side. The appearance of the curve 
obtained bv plotting series of numbers like this is something as if 
one bad taken a strong steel spring and tried to double it into the 
angle of a brick wall. 

This " hollow curve pattern *' of distribution was first noticed 
in 1912, in the flora of Ceylon, when working it up for the first 
paper on "Age and Area." It reappeared in 1916 in the curve 
of distribution of the endemics of New Zealand, which showed a 
verv large proportion of the species in the class which included 
only those of extremely limited area, with a ra|)id tapering off to 
the large areas. It showed still more clearly in the endemics of 
the Hawaiian Islands, where 47 per cent, of the species occurred 
on one island only, and 20 per cent, on two (there are 7 chief 
islands). It came out with complete regularity in every case of 
distribution that was investigated, whether of endemic species or 
of non-endemic. 

At the same time, investigation of areas showed clearK' that, 
besides "Age and Area," the twin principle which may be called 
" Size and Space" was also \alid. 

The hollow curve seems to be an almost universal feature, not 
only of the geographical distribution, but of the evolution, of 
plants and animals. The form of the distribution for sizes of 
genera might be such that the logarithm of the lunnber of genera 
plotted to t)ie logarithm of the number of species would give a 
straight line. This law is found to hold fairly closely up to genera 
of 30-40 species. 


The next step was taken when tlie 1582 endemic genera of 
islands were divided among their respective islands, wlien it was 
found that the sizes of the genera, for every island, varied from vmy 
many monotypes, through a good many ditvpes, to a tail of a few 
larger genera. On the larger islands, such as Maihigascar, this 
phenomenon was even shown by the individual families. 

The general result seems to be to show that evolution and 
geographical distribution have proceeded in a chiefly mechanical 
way, the effects of the various " other " factors that intervene — 
climatic, ecological, geological, etc. — being only to bring about 
deviations this way and that from the dominant plan. Every 
family and every genus, and in every country, behaves in the 
same way. Strong evidence is thus given for De Vries's theory of 
Mutation, and for Guppy's theory of Differentiation. 

Mrs. E. M. Reid then followed with her " Note on the Hollow 
Curve as shown by Pliocene Floras." The material was that 
published from Tegelen, Castle Eden, etc., the author concluding 
that fossil floras take their appropriate place alongside living 
floras, bringing direct evidence from the host to show the 
universality of the law of Hollow Curve Distribution. 

A discussion on these two papers followed, in which the 
President, Dr. D. IT. Scott, Dr. E. J. Salisbury, Prof. K. \i. 
Gates, and Mr, A. J. Willmott took part, Dr. Willis replying. 

February 16th, 1922. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, E.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 2nd February, 
1922, were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Surendra Nath Bal, Ph.C, M.Sc. (Mich., U.S.A.), was proposed 
as a Fellow. 

Certificates in favour of the following were read for the second 
time: — Reginald Cory, Hugh Vandevaes Lely, B.Sc.(Ediu.), and 
Prof. Surendra Chandra Banerji, M.A., B.Sc. (Calc). 

The President announced four vacancies in the list of Foreign 
Members, occasioned by the deaths of Prof. Otto Biitschli, Prof. 
Edmond Perrier, Prof. Georg Klebs, and Prof. Johann Wilhelm 


1 rof K K. Gates then introduced his paper on "The Inheri- 
tance of Flower Size in Plants." He stated that reciprocal crosses 
were made at Mertou in 19lL^ between (Enothera rubricalyx and 
it. bienms, the former having petals a!)out 40 mm. in length and 
the latter about 2(t mm. in length. The si/,e of flowers in F was 
intermediate and relatively uniform. In F^ there xvas a marked 
difference in size of flowers, (1) on different plants, (2) in different 
tlc.wers of the same plant, and (Ji) sometimes even in the different 
petals of a flower. More extensive measurements were made on 
± and V^ plants. The results show that the hvpothesis of several 
Mendehan factors for length of petal is an insuflicient explanation. 
Variation curves show a tendency to segregation in flower-size 
between difterent plants, but also a tendency for the occurrence of 
smaller flowers, some of the smallest petals being only 7 mm. in 
length. The disorderly nature of the variation, and the fact that 
the petals of one flower may be of different lengths, shows that 
this segregation is not confined to cell-formation, and is not 
Mendehan. Probably cytoplasmic differences are involved in this 
type of inheritance and variation. 

The communication was followed by a lantern-demonstration 
and a discussion, in which Lt.-Col. J. H. TuU Walsh and Dr. A 
B. Keudle took part, the author replying. 

Capt, J. Kamsbottom exhibited a couple of the brilliant golden 
beetles, Aspidomorpha sanctce-crucis, from Bombay Harbour. 

Mr. William Dallimoee, of the Eoyal Botanic Gardens Kew 
then introduced the subject of the effect produced by wind at 
Llandudno m causing remarkable dwarfing of trees and shrubs 
growing on the exposed rocks of the Great Orme's Head, illus- 
trating his remarks by actual specimens and lantern-slides. ' 

A discussion followed, in which the President, Mr. Gerald W 
E. Loder, and Mr. Lacaita took part, the author replying. 

Mr. J. L. NoETH, of the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Eegent's Park 
then spoke of the possible successful growth of Ghjdne Soja, 
bieb. & Zucc, as a profitable crop in this countrv He said •— 
The plants I have upon the table are English-grown specimens of 
the boya bean, from a plot at Chiswick in 1921. They are far 
finer than anything I have seen or groMn. Apart from its 
cultural and commercial importance, the plant has certain 
characteristics which are the results of Chinese methods of 
cultivation, and these I should like to point out. One is the 
peculiar flattening of the branches, the result of close sowing— 
a method to which the plant has become so accustomed that even 
when grown wide apart it still retains the habit. Another 
peculiarity is the fact that if it starts at a wrong angle it twists 
itself upon its base to bring it into line with the others ; this is 
well illustrated in some of the plants. 

loJo^^^^ ^^®" experimenting with this variety of Soya since 
191.3, when 1 obtained a few seeds of a so-called German 


acclimatized plant. Each year since I have worked with the 
ear iSt ripelg seeds of the previous year expenmentmg and 
ZtL them in many places, but always with the one idea of 
hastening the crop-as being the only chance of making it grow 
ha his country. In this I have succeeded to some extent, for 
u^,e eas my first plants in 1914 did not ripen until November 
28th, this last year they had reached a corresponding degree of 
ripeness early in September- a difference of two u)onths. 

Mr H R Darlington asked what was the percentage of 
oil The lecturer repUed that the percentage of oil was 18 to -1 ; 
and then proceeded to give the use to which the Bean was put, 
wlch account was supplemented by Mr. H. N. Eidley, who 
"entLued the Soy and ''Bean Cheese " of the East, and remarked 
that the plant flourished best in a dry climate rather than a moist 
one. He also detailed the fermentation ot the bean into com- 
mercial soy. 

March 2nd, 1922. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 16t.h February, 
1922, were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Mr. Rowland Maurice Richards, M.B.E., A.R.C.S., was admitted 
a Fellow. 

Prof.Lucien Cuenot, Nancy; Prof. Gustave Gilson, Brussels; 
Prof Jakob Wilhelm Ebbe Gustav Leche, Stockholm ; and Dr. 
Benjamin Lincoln Robinson, Harvard, were proposed as ioreign 

The certificate in favour of Surendra Nath Bal, Ph.C, 
M.Sc. (Mich., U.S.A.), was read for the second time. 

The following candidates were elected by ballot :— 
Miss Margaret Collins; Robert Gurney ; Miss Flora Amelia 
Gordon; Prof. George Matthai, M. A. (Cantab.) ; Pror^ Edward 
Hindle MA PhD.; Herbert Bennett Williamson; Frederick 
Berry -Lewis Butler; Miss Isabel Soar, Ph.D. (Lond.) ; Frank 
Howard Lancum, F.Z.S., F.E.S. ; and Clive Errol Lord. 

Mr H N Dixon exhibited a specimen of Burmese Amber, 
with a moss included in it, probably a species of ILjpmcUndron, 
C. Muell. 



Mr. R. K. HoLTTUM spoke of tlie Flora of Greenland, illus- 
trating Ins r.MMarks with a scries ot lantern-slides ; an abstract of 
Ills remarks, supplied by the author, is appended :— 

The writer accompanied Professor A. C. Seward duvlncr the 
summer of 19-21 on a visit to Disko Island and the nei-hbourin- 
parts ot the west coast of Greenland. The lantern-slides exhibited 
are from photographs taken on that expedition, and illustrate 
some ot the vegetation types observed. The most widelv-si)read 
vegetation consists of a low heath, the most important species 
being hmpetrum ni;/rum, Cassiope Mraqona, and other ericaceous 
plants. In specially protected localities a scrub of Salix ghmca 
may be {oiiiid, which may reach eight feet in height, and accom- 
panying this a luxuriant vegetation of herbaceous plants of southern 
type. In unlavonrable situations the ground is not covered bv 
the vegetation, which consists of isolated plants of resistant 
herbaceous and woody speeies. The total flora of the whole of 
Greenland consists of 416 species of vascular plants, of which 
18 per cent, are high arctic in type, 22 per cent, widely distri- 
buted, and 00 per cent, of southern type. The problem o*^ the 
means of arrival of the last-named group after the Glacial period 
18 an interesting one. 

Mr. JoHX Walton followed with remarks on the ecology of the 
flora of Spitzbergen, as shown in his abstract, which follows :— 
_ Erom the point of view of numbers of species, the richest flora 
in ^pifzbergen occurs in those places where the nearest approach 
to Continental conditions is found. Blvtt pointed out that arctic 
plants tend to avoid an oceinic climate. The head of Klaas 
BiUen Bay, one of the branches of the fiord, is situated near the 
centre of W'est Spitsbergen, and is included in a small elliptical 
area of about 5000 sq. kilometres, which Nathorst has shown to 
contain 90 per cent, of the species of vascular plants occurring' in 
Spitsbergen. The area around Bruce City, at the head of Waas 
Billen Bay, can be divided roughlv into three vegetational zones ■— 
Eaised Shingle Beach, Alluvial Land between mountain and 
beach, and Scree Slopes. The land is rising relatively fast from 
tliesea, and the development of the flora of Alluvial Land and 
Raised Shingle Bench can be traced from initial stages in an 
intertidal zone. This intertidal zone shows many points of 
resemblance to the salt-marsh formation of lower latitudes. 

Prof. A. C. Seward, F.E.S., who communicated both papers 
opened the discussion by remarking that his main object was the 
collection of fossil plants. lie recommended Greeidand as a 
summer resort, the only difficulty being getting there; and 
referred to Dr. Porsild's work in establishing a scientific sWion 
within the Arctic Circle. 

The President, Mr. E. G. Baker, Dr. J. \l. Leeson, ]\Ir. C E 
Salmon, Mi- J. Bi.rtt-Davy, Mr. T. A. Sprague, Mr. T. A. Dymes,' 
and Prof. I.E. Weiss, F.R.S., joined in the discussion, and the 
authors replied. 


Sir W. A. Hbbdmak,C.B.E., F.E.S, followed with his " Spolia 
Enniana, V.-Summary of Eesults of Investigation ot the Plankton 
of the Irish 8ea during fifteen years." 

Sir Nicolas Yeru.oloff, K.C.B., Mr. W. S Eowntree, and 
Mr. C. C. Lacaita joined in a discnssion, the author replying. 

March 16th, 1922. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 2nd March, 1922, 
were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

The President announced that the Council had fixed the dates 
of 4th Mav and 1st June for ballots. 

It was also announced from the Chair that, as an experiment, 
the Library (onlv) will remain open till 9.0 p.m. after the four 
remaining General Meetings of the present Session. 

Mr AVilliam Narramore, Mr. Frank Howard Lancum, Miss 
Isabel Soar, Ph.D., and Mr. AVilliam Williamson were admitted 

George Valentine Chapman Last was proposed as a Fellow. 

The certificates in favour of the four naturalists proposed as 
Foreign Member, on the 2nd March were read for the second time. 

The following were severally balloted for and elected Fellows :— 
Svdnev Garside, M.Sc.;Norman Douglas Sirapson,B. A.(Cantab.); 
Douglas.* Miller Eeid ; Mrs. Alice Sophia Bacon, B.Sc. (Loud.); 
Mi.s^Edith Philip Smith, B.A.(Oxon.); Miss Ehune Mary Eees, 
BSc(Lond.); Khubchand Isardas Thadani, B.Ag. ( Bomb. , 
M Sc (Texas)- liecrinald Cory; Hugh Vandevaes Lely, B.Sc.(Ldin.); 
and Surendra Chandra Banerji, M.A. & B.Sc. (Calc). 

Tlie Eev F C. E. Jouiidain, M.A., M.B.O.U., then gave a 
lantern demonstration of the bird-bfe of Bear Island and 
Spitzbergen, with a description of the Oxford Expedition to those 

'' iC P^es^deni, Dr. W. Eushton Parker, and Lt.-Col. TuU Walsh 
joined in the discussion following the exhibition. 

Mr B Millard Griffiths's paper " The Heleoplankton of 
three Berkshire pools " was, in the absence of the author, read in 


Mr. C. E. Salmon showed several sheets from his herbarium of 
the undermentioned ])lants and commented upon tliem. 

1. Sityina Jllicdulis Jord. Obs. Fnvg. vii. 1(! (1849), closely allied 
to S. aj/eiala and N. ciliaUt, differing from the former by its sepals 
tapering and two usually mucronate, and also by their being 
appresssed to the ripe capsule ; from the latter by being more 
glandular, sepals less acute, and shorter in proportion to tlie ripe 

2. Cerast'ium suhtetrandnim Murbeck in Bot. Notiser, 1898, 259. 
This occurs in Orkney, sent by Col. H. II. Johnston, E.L.S., and 
reported from AV. Sutherland by Dr. G. C. Druce, F.L.S. From 
C.tei rand rum it differs by being both pentamerous and tetrandrous, 
its floriferous part being higlier up the stem, the lower bracts 
smaller than the stem-leaves, sepal tips drawn out into membranous, 
acute points, and seeds smaller. 

3. Arum italicum Mill. A rare British plant only found in 
Cornwall, Dorset, Hants, Sussex, and Kent ; but also in the 
Channel Islands. The following notes are taken from Sussex 
specimens. They differ from A. mnculatum by the petioles being 
much longer in proportion to tlie blade, spathes longer compared 
with spadix, ovaries more numerous, rudimentary flowers with 
bases not tapering into filaments, and the spadix is differently 
shaped as well as larger. The leaves are not so well marked with 
white veins as in Continental specimens. They show above 
ground iu late autumn or winter, whilst A. maculatura is much 

Further remarks were contributed bv Mr. H. JV. Eidl^v, Mr. 
C. C. Lacaita, Mr. H. W. Pugsley, and Dr. E. J. Salisbury, 
and Mr. Salmon briefly replied. 

April Gth, 1922. 

Mr. Horace W. Moxckton, Treas. & V.-P., 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the IGth INlarch, 1922, 
were read and contirmed. 

The ivport of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of tlie Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Miss Flora Amelia Gordon ; Prof. AValter Garstang, M.A., 
D.Sc. (Oxon.) ; Miss Karhleen Bever Blackburn, IVI.Sc. (Lond.) ; 
Miss Winifred Mary Ailsa Lonias, B.Sc. ; and Mr. Benjamin 
Millard Griffiths, M.Sc.(Birm.), were admitted Fellows. 

Mr. Percy Ilulchinson Lamb was jn'oposed as a Fellow. 


The certificate in favour of George Valentiue Chapman Last, 
M.E.C.S., L.H.C.P., Ph.C, was read for the second time. 

The certificates in favour of Prof. Lucien Cuenot, Prof. Gustave 
Gilson, ProF. Jakob Williehn Ebbe Gustaf Leche, and Dr. Benjamin 
Liucohi Robinson, proposed as Poreign Members on tlie 
2nd March last, were read for the third time. 

The following were proposed as Auditors for the Treasurer's 
Accounts for the current financial year ending on the 30th instant, 
and were elected by show of hands: — For tlie Council: Mr. Stanley 
Edwards, and Mr. G. W. E, Loder, M.A. ; for the Eellows : 
Mr. H. E. Darlington, M.A., and Mr. H. N. Eidley, C.M.G., 
M.A., F.R.S. 

The first connuunication was by Dr. A. B. Eendle, F.R.S. , 
Sec.L.S., who showed a seedling of the Red Horse-chestnut 
(^scidus ruhicunda) in which a new terminal bud had been 
developed to replace the original shoot (plumule) springing from 
the seed. The original main shoot (epicotyl) had been broken 
some distance below the plumule ; but after a few days a new 
growth was seen to have covered up the broken section, and 
gradually to develop into a new terminal bud. The new bud did 
not resemble the plumule, whicli produces at once a |)air of large 
compound leaves of a similar character to the adult foliage, but 
suggested a normal terminal bud the outer leaves of which are 
imperfect, the leaves of the perfect form being protected in the 
interior of the bud. Adventitious buds are very common in plants, 
but the speaker did not know of a similar case of direct replace- 
ment of the plumule as the result of injurv.' 

Mr. T. A. Dymes and Mr. H. N. Dixon contributed further 
I'emarks, Dr. Rendle replying. 

The next communication was a paper by Mr. L. A. Borradaili!;^ 
M.A., communicated by Prof. E. S. Goodrich, F.R.S., Sec.L.S., 
entitled " The Mouth-parts of the Shore Crab, Carcinus nuetias,^' 
illustrated bv a series of lantern-slides. 

Sir Sidney Harmer, K.B.E., F.R.S., Lt.-Col. J. H. Tull Walsh, 
Prof. W. Garstang, and Prof. Goodrich, F.R.S., Sec.L.S., took 
part in tlie discussion which followed, and the author replied. 

The last paper was by Mr. Charles Turner, F.C.S., on " The 
Lite-History of Staurastrum Dickiei, var. parallelum (Nordst.)," 
and was communicated by the General Secretary. (See Abstracts, 

l^- 59-) 

Dr. A. B. Rtmdle and the Chairman contributed lurther remarks 
on the interest of the subject of the paper, which was illustrated 
by numerous lantern-slides. 



May 4tli, 1922. 

i)r. A. Smith Woodwaed, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the Gth April, 1922, 
were read and confirmed. 

The report of the i3onations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the tlianks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Prof. John Lloyd Williams, D.Sc, Miss Elaine Mary Rees, 
B.Sc.(Loiid.), Miss Edith Philip Smith, B.A.(Oxon.), Mr. Percy 
Appleyard, E.C.S., Mr. Douglas Miller Eeid, Mr. Edwin Ashby, 
and Mr. Sydney Garside, M.Sc, were admitted Fellows. 

A certificate in favour of Percy Hutchinson Lamb was read for 
the second time. 

Cecil Victor Boley M:irquand, M. A. (Cantab.), and Charles 
Turner, F.C.S., were proposed as Fellows. 

Prof. Lucien Cuouot, Prof. Gustave Gilson, Prof. Jakob 
Wilhelm Ebbe Gustaf Leche, and Dr. J^enjamin Lincoln Eobinson 
were balloted for and elected Foreign Members. 

Mr. Edwin Ashby exhibited pressed specimens of Orchids from 
South Australia including a number of the " spider-like" members 
of the genus Caladenia, and the green-hooded forms of the genus 
Pierostijlis : many of these have a sensitive labellum which on the 
entrance ok' an insect closes up the opening for a short period ; 
Mr. Ashby suggested that tliis was for the purpose of fertilization. 
A member of the genus Thehfmitra, which only open their bright- 
coloured petals in hot bright sunshiny days, and two species of 
Calei/a were exhibited, both extremely local in that state, and both 
providt^d with a sensitive labellum, which, on being touched, folds 
up in two separate movements. 

A species of Diaris intermediate between D. macidata and 
D. longifolia, although now a fixed form, seems certainly to have 
been derived by hybridization. For many years l^elore it \^as 
described by Dr. Rogers as Diuris palachila, Mr. Ashby had knovMi 
it under his own name of 7i)/brida, thinking it could hardly deserve 
Bpecific rank. 

A very beautiful form known as Caladenia tuteJata, ]{. S. Rogers, 


intermediate between the genera Glossodia and Caladenia, was 
shown and its characters explained. 

Dr. A. B. Uendle,, Sec.L.S., and Prof. F. A\^. Oliver, 
E.R.S., contributed further remarks, and Mr. Aslibv replied. 

The General Hecretary read '' A Relic of Henry Lyre's Library," 
a statement by Mr. llAiiOLn Downes, M.B., F.L.S., who presented 
an association volume from the library of Henry Lytb (152;J- 
1G07) of Lytes Gary, Somerset. 

" The volume whicli I have the honour of offering to the Society 
was discovered by myself in 1916 in a general dealer's shop in 
Taunton. It consists of two works of Aiitoiiie Mizauld, the 
French Pliysifian (1520-1578), ' Alexikerus ' and ' ]Nro\ a et Mira 
Artificia,' bound togetlier (Paris, 1564). 

" The interest for us lies in the fact that the vohime in (juestion 
formed an item in the Library of Henry Lyte, and contains his 
autograph and various notes in his handwriting. At the top of 
the title-page of 'Alexikerus,' in red ink, is the signature ''Heiuy 
Lyte," and across the printer's device (a nnilberry tn e) is "Llenry 
Lyte, 1565." The signature is repeated on th(^ title-page of the 
second work. A few trifling marginal notes are scattered through 
the volume, and many passages are underlined, the notes and 
uiider-scorings, as well as the signatures, being in red ink. At 
the end of the volume are two pages of MS. notes, mostly medical 
definitions or short descriptions of diseases. A list of Mizauld's 
works is printed at the end of the volume, and several of these are 
marked " H," which I assume to stand for " Llabeo," and to 
indicate that Lyte possessed them. All tlie above are in Lyte's neat 
handwriting, as may easily be proved by comparison with specimens 
of his handwriting in the British Museum and elsewhere. 

'• As is well known, llenry Lyte was the translator of Hodoens's 
Herbal, the first edition of tiie translation being dated 1578. 
The French copv of " Dodoens " whi(,'h Lyte used for this trans- 
lation is in tlie British Museum, and contains copious notes in his 
handwriting. Henry Lvte was a member of the ancient family of 
Lyte of Lytes Gary, in Soinersetsliire. Accrording to Pulteney he 
became a student of Oxford in 1546. He afterward^* travelled, 
and at length retired to Iiis estate, where he devoted his time to 
study, publishing several works of a historical character. He 
possessed a botanical garden, of which no trace remains. Contem- 
porary with Turner, the latter was considerably his senior, and 
though they were near neighbours there seems no evidence that 
tliey held any communication, on botanical or other siibjecrs. 
Ejyte was twice married, and died in 1607 at the age of 78, being 
buried at Charlton Mackerel in his native county. 

"The MS. notes in the volume under consideration were trans- 
cribed by me in ' Somerset anil Dorset Notes and Queries,' 1917, 
of which a reprint will be found in the Society's Library." 




Pulteney, Ridiurd. Progress of Botany, 1790. 

r.yte, 8ir 11. C. Maxuell. The Lvfes of Lytes Gary. (Proc. 

Somerset Arch, jiiid Nat. Hist. JSoc, 1892.) 

Geor-re, William. Lytes Gary Manor House, ^Somerset. Bristol, 
11. d. ' 

Arber, Agnes, llerbals : Their Origin and Evolution. Cam- 
bridge, 1912. 

Dounes, Harold. Henry Lyte of Lytes Gary. (Somerset and 
Dorset ^Notes and Queries, 1917.) 

The President moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Downes for 
presenting this interesting volume to th« Society's Library. 

Prof. J. Lloyd Williams, JD.Sc, then gave an account of the 
i.ite-hi8tory of /Mnnnaria and Chorda, illustrated with about 40 

He remarked that un to a few years ago, Botany Students were 
taught that the Laminariacea.-, though thev exhibit the highest 
advance in their external morphology and internal structure, 
pos.sessed no method of sexual reproduction, but propagated them- 
selves by means of asexual zoospores; and consequently they had 
to be classed, not with the higher, oogamous members of the 
Phffiophycea}, but with the lower Ph^ozoosporea;. The recent 
discovery of the development from germinating zoospores of two 
kinds of gametophytes, producing respectively eg-s and anthero- 
zoids, compels us to revise our ideas respecting the group and its 
systematic position. 

The Author, after describing in the structure of the 
zoospore, its behaviour in germination, and the cvtoloo-v of the 
processes, stated that cultures of Lamiuaria tliree ueeks'old, and 
ot Uionla,Un'ee or four months old, almost invariably showed the 
presence of two kinds of niulticellul.-.r germlings, on^ kind large- 
celled, the other consisting of cells many times smaller. Sanva<reau, 
by observing the development in his culture of abnormal sporangia 
ot Saccorhtza, was able to prove that both kinds of germhngs were 
produced from zoospores in the same sporangium. All attempts 
at carrying the discovery further by ob>ervnig the actual liberation 
of the sexual cells failed until two years ago, when the Author 
witnessed the discharge of antherozoids and the process of fertili- 
zation. Lantern-shdes were exhibited showing the Uxo gametic 
nuclei within the eggs a little before fusion, and by comparison 
with the appearance of the sporophyte rudiment immediately after 
the farst division of its fusion nucleus it was shown that the one 
condition can never be mistaken for the other. 

'i'he process of dehiscence of the oog(mium and the liberation of 
the egg were explained in detail, and the difference between the 
behaviour of the inner wall in Laminaria and Chorda explained. 

1 he Author had previously shown that Drew's supposed dis- 
covery of the sexual nature of the " Zoospores" was incorrect but 


as soniH botanists .still believe iu it, additional evidence was adduced 
showing that the organisms desenbed bv him could not possibly 
have been the zoospores of Lammaria but must have been colour-" 
less monads. Tiie Laminariacea) thus show distinct alternation of 
generations: the plant is the sporo])hyte; reduction of chromosomes 
takes place in the sporangium ; there are two kinds of gameto- 
pliytes — a male and a female, and the difference in size between 
the generations is exceedingly great. The sporophyte may l)e 
gigantic, as compared with other algse, whereas the gametophvte 
is microscopically small. 

In the discnssion which followed. Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S., 
Prof. n. li. Gates, Dr. Marion Delf, Dr. Lily Batten (visitor), and 
the President took part, the author replying. 

May 24th, 1922. 

Anniversary Meeting. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodwakd, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 4th May, 1922, 
were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Mrs. Alice Sophia Bacon, B.Sc. (Loud.), was admitted a 

Certiiicates were read for the second time in favour of Cecil 
Victor Boley Marquand, M.A. (Cantab.), and Charles Turner, 

Major Charles Hunter, M.Sc. (Dnrh.), and William Nowell, 
D.l.C, were proposed as Fellows, 

The Treasnrer made his Annual Eeport on the Accounts of the 
Society, and the Statement (see pp. 24-26), duly audited, was 
received and adopted. 

The General Secretary reported that since the last Anniversary 
the following had died or their deaths been ascertained, namely : — 

12 Fellows. 
Prof. William Beecrof t Bottomley. Dr. Walter George Kidewood. 
Prof. George Simonds Boulger. William D. Eobinson-Douglas. 
The Rt.Hon. Henry John Moreton, Rev. Canon Frederick Charles 

Earl of Ducie, P.C, G.C.V.O. Smith. 
John Firminger Duthie. John Thomas Norman Thomas. 

Dr. John Jlarley. Major Charles Vipan, D.S.O. 

Sir John Kirk, G.C.M.G., K.C.B. Eev.EdwardAdrianWoodrulfe- 



3 Foreign Members. 

•Prof. Goor<; Albreclit Klebs. I Prof. Johanii AVilliclin Speiigel. 

Prof.Jean Oc'lavt^ Edmoinl Perrier. I 

That tlie following 1 1 Fellows had withdrawn : — 

Sir Alfred Gibbs Bourne, K.C.I.E.' John Beavis Groom. 

Ur. Horace Tabberer Brow n. Edwin Ernest Lowe. 

Capt. Malcolm Burr. Rev. !Sir James Marchant. 

AVilliani ^Jiller Christy. j Charles John Cowper Mee- 

Francis Jose|)h Clark. i Power. 

Arthur John Fry Gibbons. Miss Edith Grey Wheelwright. 

During the same period 4S Fellows have been elected, of whom 
39 have qualified up to the present. Also 4 Foreign Members 
and 1 Associate have been elected. 

The Librarian's report was read, showing that donations from 
private individuals and editors amounted to !)2 volumes and 
594 pamphlets and ])arts, by exchange 179 volumes and 711 de- 
tached parts, by ])nrchase ()9 volumes and ;^91 parts ; in all, the 
accessions amounted to 340 volumes and 159l> pamj)ltlets and 
separate parts. Books bound amounted to 411: 50 in half- 
buckram, 149 in cloth, and 10 rebacked. 

T.'ie General Secretary having read the Bye-laws governing the 
Elections, the President opened the business of the day, and the 
I'ellows present proceeded to vote for the Council. 

The Ballot for the Council having been closed, the President 
appointed Commander AValker, Mr. W. S. Eowntree, and Mr. A. 
AV. Sheppard, Scrutineers ; and these, having examined the ballot- 
papers and cast up the votes, rej)orted to the President, wiio 
declared the result as follows : — 

Prof. Margaret Benson, D.Sc. ; *Dr. George P. Bidder, M.A. ; 
E. T. Browne, M.A. ; *Dr. Wm. Thos. Calmax, F.E.S. : *Prof. 
F'elix E. Fritcii, D.Sc. ; Prof. E. S. Goodrich, F.E.S. ; Prof. 
Dame Helen GwyNNE-YAUGHAN, D.B.E. : Sir Sidney F. Harmer, 
K.B.E., F.E.S. ; *Dr. Arthur W:m. Hill, F.E.S. ; Dr. B. Daydon 
Jackson; Gerald W. E. Loder, M.A. ; Horack W. Monckton, 
F.G.S.; * Frank A. Potts, M.A. ; Capt. John Ramsbottom, 
M.A,; Dr. A. B. Eendle, F.E.S. ; The Et. Hon. Lionel AValter, 
Baron Rothschild, F.E.S. ; Dr. E. J. Salisbury ; Charles 
Edward Salmon, Esq.; Thomas Archibald Sprague, B.Sc. ; 
and Dr. A. Smith AVoodward, F.E.S. 

(New Councillors are shown by an asterisk. The retiring Coun- 
cillors were: Prof. A^. H. Blackman, F.R.S. : Henry Bury, 
M.A. ; Stanley Edwards, F.Z.S.; C. C. Lacaita, M.A.; and 
R. L I'ococK, F.R.S.) 


The Ballot for the OfBcers having been closed in like 
manner, the President appointed tlie same Scrutineers, who 
having examined the ballot-papers and cast up the votes, 
reported the same to the President, who declared the x'esult as 
follows : — 

President. Dr. Arthur Smith Woobward, F.E.S. 
Treasurer. Horace W. Monckton, F.G-.S. 
Secretaries. Dr. B. Daydon Jackson. 

Prof. E. S. Goodrich, F.E.S. 

Dr. A. B. Eendle, F.E.S. 

The President then delivered an Address on " Observations on 
Crossopterygian and Arthi'odiran Fishes," illustrating them by 
lantern-slides, in continuation of previous addresses (see p. 27). 



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Among rhe scientific conteinporaries of Liniiseus there were some 
who failed to realise the influence which his ' Systenui Naturae ' 
was destined to have on the future progress oF hiology. t)f these 
perhaps the most famous was tlie Dutch anatomist, Peler Camper, 
the bicentenary of whose hirth falls within tlie present month. 
He not only published criticisms of part of Liiiiiseus' systematic 
work, but also had so little appreciation of the important advance 
made by his new scheme of classification and nomenclature that 
he would scarcely admit it to be science. When he was invited 
to become a Eoreigu Member of this Society in 1788, he even 
refused to do so on the ground that he could not be associated 
with any institution which was named after Liniueus. Campers 
original letter, which is still in the archives of tlie Society, is 
written in terms so emphatic that there can be no mistake as to 
his meaning. The lack of mutual appieciation between compara- 
tive anatomists and systematists, which has sometimes been 
manifest in later years, evident^' dates back to the beginning of 
the new era inaugurated by Linnaeus himself, and e\en at that 
time tended to prevent co-operation. 

There is no subject in which the combined resources of the 
comparative anatomist (now morphologist) and the systematist 
are more needed tlian the interpretation of the links which lived 
in the Devonian period between the fishes and the early 
amphibians, which were then appearing. They are very different 
from the forms which might iuive been anticipated, had we been 
able to deduce them solely from a knowledge of the existing fauna. 
They therefore afford an interesting illustration of the importance 
of the study of fossils as an aid to understanding the life of the 
present day. 

It has long been recognised that, among existing animals, the 
Dipnoan fishes, Lepidosiren, Frotoptcnis, and Ceratodus, are most 
nearly intermediate between fishes and amphibians ; but we now 
learn from fossils that the Dipnoi have remained essentially 
unchanged since their earliest known occurrence in the Middle 
Devonian *. They have in the interval merely abandoned the 
fusiform shape which is adapted for free-swimming lif'% and have 
become mores or less eel-shaped in ada])tation to a wriggling and 
grovelling existence at the bottou) of the rivers to which the last 
survivors retreated by the end of the Mesozoic era. They are 
therefore excluded by the nature of their dentition, their head- 
bones and other characters, from con.iideration as the possible 
ancestors of the Stegocephala (or " Ijabyrinthodonts "), which 
were the first amphibians. They may have arisen at the same time 
from a common stock — they probably did so, — but no links have 
been discovered between them and any true air-breathers. 

* L. Dollo, Bull. Soc. Beige Geol. vol. ix. (189".), pp. 79-128, pis. y.-x. 



Tlie real links in question, so far :i8 we know tliein, are ainono- 
the extinct paiUlle-finnecl lislies (fig. 1) wliieli Pander and Huxley 
re«;:ir(Ied as l)elon<,Mng to tlio same group as the existing J'oh/jitems 
and CaluitioichtJii/s. 1'lie lishes ot this group (Crossopterygii *) 
liave indeed changed greatly in progress oF time, and the further 
hack they are traced the more nearly do tliey approach the early 
amphihians, which appeared very little later than tiiemselves. If 
the existing Polifjitents and Calamoichthys alone were known, the 
relationship would he scarcely evident; for they are tvpically 
" mature " or even " senile " forms of the group, with an elongated 
body, modilied cheek-plates, completed vertebrie, and highly 
specialised tins. The primitive Devonian genera, however, exliibit 
resemblances which are unmistakable and have long been 

i'jg. 1. 

An Upper Devoniau Crossopterygian, Holopti/chius floiiivr/i, restored by 
Pr. B. H. Traqiiair, about, one-eighth nat. size. 

noticed t. The enlarged conical tusks on the vomerine bones, and 
in fact the whole appearance and arrangement of the teeth, 
resemble those of tlie typical Stegocephala. Tlie peculiar 
structure of the teeth, with a more or less complex folding of the 
walls of dentine, is also nearly the same in the two groups. The 
complexity of the mandible in the early Crossopterygian fishes is 
much like that in the Stegocephala, and the symmetrically 
arranged dermal ])lates of the skull and cheelvs correspond very 
closely. Some oi' the Crossopterygians, such as OsteoJepis J and 
Diplopterus. exhibit a pineal foramen, exactly as in all the 
Stegocephala. Some of them, such as certain Ehizodonts and 
Coolacanths, also agree w'ith the Stegocephala in having sclerotic 
plates round the eye. Finally, it is to be noted that the earliest 
Stegocei)hala have the pterygoid bones extended and nearly as 
large as those of the Crossopterygii §, the reduced pterygoids with 

* T. H. Huxley, Figs. & Descript. Brit. Organic Reniains. dec. x. (Mein. 
Geol. Siirv. 1861), p. 24. 

t A. S. Woodward, 'Outlines of Vertebrate Palffiontologv ' (1898), p. 1*23, 
fig. 81. 

X E. S. Goodrich, .Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. vol. ^cxxiv. (1919). pp. 181-188. 

§ D. Einbleton & T. Attl)ey, Nat. Hist. Trans. Northunib. & Durham, toI.t. 
(1877), p. -07, ]il. ii. (Loxomiua nllmaiivi), and j). .319, ))1. vii. {Anthmcosaurus 
ri'ssc/li); D. M. S. Watson, Mem. & Proc. Manchester Lit. &. Tlul. Soc. 
Tol. r>7 (1912), no. 1. 


large iiiterptervgoid vacuities only appearing at llie beginning of 
the Permian period. 

As in so many cases of linlis among extinct animals, however, 
the known series is far from being complete. The Crossopterygii 
hitherto found have the upper jaw suspended to the cr.-inium, 
while even the earliest Amphibia exhibit it directly fused witli the 
cranium. As the Dipnoi among fishes show the same fusion of 
the upper jaw, they were for some years placed nearest to the 
Amphibia ; but recent studies suggest that the fused (or auto- 
stylic) condition has arisen more than once as a mechanical 
adaptation to the working of powerful teeth, and it may be pre- 
dicted that definite links between Crossopterygian and Amph.ibian 
jaws will sooner or later be discovered. 

More ditlicult to understand are the differences which have 
lately been recognised in the basicranial axis. In the earliest 
linown Amphibia, the Stegocephala, just as in those now existing, 
the basicranial axis, with its large parasphenoid bone, extends 
backwards as far as the occiput. In the Devonian and later 
Palaeozoic Crossopterygii, and in the Coelacanth family which sur- 
vived until the Cretaceous period, this axis, underlain by the 
parasphenoid, extends backwards only so far as a point beneath 
the hinder nuii-gin of the frontal bones where there Js always a 
transverse line of weakness in the cranial roof. At this point it 
ends abruptly, and its termination, round in transverse section, is 
impressed behind with a conical hollow for the notochord, as if it 
Were the basioccipital itself. There is no doubt, indeed, that the 
fully developed notochord, surrounded only by non-os>if1ed 
cartilage, extended as far forwards as tliis point, which appears to 
have been close to the pituitary region. The condition of the 
basal part of the skull in the adult early Crossopterygii thus 
corresponds closely with the temporary embryonic condition of 
the sftme part in a mod^-rn fish-skull. The arrangement has been 
clearly seen in several specimens of the Upper Devonian Holo- 
ptycliias and the Carboniferous Megalichthys, but it is especially 
well-known in EuMlienopteron (fig. 2) from the Upper Devonian 
of Canada, in which the ossified otic-ocdpital region has also 
been observed*. It is equally clear in the Devonian and the 
Cretaceous genera of the family Coelacanthidce f. 

Between some of the Crossopterygii and some of the Stegoce- 
phala there is not much difference in the vertebral axis. The 
reduction and concentration of the median fins towards the end 
of the tail in the early Crossopterygii (fig. 1) may be regarded as 
marking the beginning of the disappearance of these structures. 
The links between the paired fins of the Crossopterygii and the 
four- or live-toed limbs of the 8tegocephala, hox^ever, nve still 
wanting. It can only be stated thai the cartilages in some of the 
short-lobed fins, such as those of Eusthenopteron, approach more 

* W. L. Bryant, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sei. vol. xiii. (1919), pp. 6-19, 
pis. ii.-x. 

+ E. A. Stensio, Palaoiit. Zeitsclir. vol. ir. (1922), pp. 167-210, pis. iii.-v. ; 
D. M. S. Watson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. [9] vol. viii. (1921), pp. 320-337. 


closely those of an aniphibianliinb than the fin-structures of any 
otheT known fishes. Interesting sugi^iestions as to their possible 
homolo;;ies have been made*, and we may eventually discover the 
actual links among the Lower Carboniferous Stegocephala, of 
wliich only unsatisfactory fragments of the limbs have hitherto 
been seen. 

It is reasonable to suppose that at tlie time when the Ampliibia 
originated, there were among the fishes other abortive groups 
besides the ordinary Dipnoi wliich approached the higher grade. 
Among these 1 have long placed the curious armoured Devonian 
fishes which are now generally known as Arthrodira f. I have, 

Fiff. 2. 

Crushed remains of the paljite of Kusthenopteron foordi, from the Upper 
Devonian of Scaiimenac Bay. Canada, one-half nat. size. The shape of 
the cranial roof, preserved on the opposite side of the slab, is shown in 
dotted outline, be. basieranial axis with hollowed hinder end ; ccpt. eeto- 
pterygoid ; enpt. entopterygoid ; rapt, metaptervgoid ; pal. ])alatine ; 
qu. quadrate ; vu. vomer. (Brit. Mas. no. P. fi807.) 

indeed, hitherto followed Xewberry in regarding them as aberrant 
Dipnoi, but new fossils have convinced me that they belong to a 
distinct group and have not nn autostylic skull. 

The general appearance of the skeleton in the Arthrodira is 
best known from the specimens of a small species of Coccosfens 
(Hg. 4 A) found in the Old Red Sandstone of Northern Scotland. 
The head is completely encased in bony plates, and the jaws 

* W. K. Gregory, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. vol. xxvi. (li)15), pp. 353-3(i9, 
pi. iv. 

t A. S. Woodward, Catal. Foss. Fishes Brit. Mus. pt. ii. (1891), pp. 276-316, 
pis. vii., viii. ; L. Hussakof, Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. ix. (1906), 
pp. 150-154, pis. lii., xiii. 



are powerful cutting structures. Tlie firmour of the head is 
hinged at each side on the similar bony armour which encircles 
the anterior part of the trunk. The notochord luust have been 
persistent, but the closely-set neural and hieiniil arches are 
superficially calcified. The paired fins seem to have been 
present, though they are rudimentary. The median fins, of 
which only one small dorsal and remains of the caudal have been 
seen, are mere membranes without hard fin-rays. The supports 
of the dorsal flu are in double series, and directly supported by an 
equivalent number of neural arches beneath them, as in the 
Dipnoi and the earliest sharks. 

The condition of the dorsal fin suggests that the Arthrodira 
are very primitive fishes, and it is interesting to note that they 
exhibit some other features which confirm this impression. It 
sufiices to refer to the importance of the pineal organ of the 

Kg. 3. 

Pineal plate of TUanichthys, from the Upper Devonian of Ohio, U.S.A., inner 
view, one-half nat. size. The paired pineal pits or openings are seen in 
the middle area of thickened bone. (Brit. Mus. no. P. ^304.) 

brain. In all head-shields in which the impression of this organ 
has been observed, there is a curious thickening of the surrounding 
bone, sometimes indeed an excessive thickening. The pit thus 
formed seems to end blindly, not opening to the exterior by a 
pineal foramen. Asa rule it is single and must have lodged an 
ortlinary simple pineal organ ; but in Titaniehthi/s (fig. 3), as now 
known from three or four specimens, the pit is distinctly paired 
for the accommodation of a symmetrically paired pineal organ. 
Prof. Dendy and others have already inferred from the facts of 
embryology that the pineal must have been originally a paired 
structure. Tilaniclithys is sufficiently near the beginning of the 
chordate series actually to show it. 

The skull in the Arthi'odira is very difficult to interpret, 
because most of the cartilages seem to have remained unossified. 



Fig. 4. 

Osteology of Arthrodira. A. Restoration of Coccosteus decipicns. side view 
from the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Scotland, nearlv one-quarter nat' 
size^ B. Dentary bone of same. C. I). Ilead-sliield of Dinichfhys^ inter- 
viedius, upper and lower view, from the Upper Devonian of Oliio, U.S A 
about one-quarter nat. size. E. F. Jaws of same, outer and inner view.s 
same reduction. G. Dentary bone of Diploi/vaihus mirahili^, inner view 
from the L pper Devonian of Ohio, USA., about one-quarter nat. size.' 
a. articulation for body-shield; br. roof of branchial chamber; d. den- 
tary; ccf. latenil ethmoid; e.v exoccipital; mx. maxilla; orb. position of 
orbit ; p. pmeal plate ; p,n.v. premaxilla ; so. suborbital cheek-plate ; 
x. downward process from wall of cranium. 


¥'me large specimens of Dinichtlnjs (figs. 4 C, 4 D) and its allies, 
iiowever, are well pre.serv'ecl in the Upper Devonian flagstones of 
Ohio, U.8.A., antl these are merely tiattein^d by crushing. I 
have already pointed out that in Homostens the bony cranial shield 
extends backwards beyond the brain *, and there can be no doubi- 
thut in all Arthrodira it covers fhe branchial chambers (fig. 4 D, 
hr.) behind the occiput. The so-called median and lateral 
occipital elements, therefore, are not strictly cranial bones, but 
really posterior to the cranial roof. The posterior end of the 
brain-case is marked by a pair of ossified cartilages {ex.) which 
seem to correspond with those named exoccipitals in the existing 
Dipnoi. The upper part oF the lateral walls of the brain-case is 
also ossified, firmly united with the cranial roof, and extends 
backwards at each posterior angle to form part of the anterior 
wall of the branchial chamber. The wide antorbital portion of 
this ossification (ec<.), transversely grooved to lodge the small 
anterior jaw-bone, may be regarded as the lateral ethmoid (or 
ectethmoid). Immediately behind the orbits the ossification gives 
rise to a pair of stout descending processes (.i'.), which are of un- 
determined nature. There is no trace of any ossification in the 
floor of the cranium, and no parasphenoid or other sheathing bone 
has hitherto been observed. The nasal and otic capsules also have 
not been seen, and there is no perforation in the cranial roof for 
an aqueductus vestibuli. 

The bones of the cheek and jaw are well shown in their natural 
relative positions in a specimen of Diiichthys in the British 
^Museum (no. P. 9340). The suspensorium, however, is as usual 
not completely ossified, and there is onlv one isolated bone in each 
ramus of the mandible (fig. 5,c?.). The single cheek-plate {so.) is 
articulated with the cranial shield by a Vfry slight overlap, and 
covers the whole of the postorbital region of the cheek ; it also 
extends beneath the orbit as a narrow bar, from which an almost 
semicircular flange extends downv\ards in contact with the outer 
face of the supposed maxilla (fig 4 E). The cheek-plate is marked 
by a groove for the circumorbital sensory canal, from whirh a 
branch extends backwards close to and nearly parallel with the 
lower border. The bone which occupies the position of a maxilla 
Cmx.), and may perhaps be so identified, is a very stout blade, 
longer than deep, with a sharp cutting edge at the oral border. 
It is firmly adpressed to the flange of the cheek-plate already 
mentioned, and at its upper border near the anterior end it bears 
a small but stout inwardly directed process (fig. 5, })r.). An 
anterior bone {pmx.) which seems to occupy the position of a pre- 
maxilla (and in some species is tiiberculated on the outer face), is 
produced backwards at its upper end in a process which overlaps 
the process of the supposed maxilla, and is interposed between 
this and the lateral ethmoid of the skull, into a groove of which 
(fig. 5, ect.) the whole ujiper edge oF the bone fits. Tliis supposed 
premaxilla slightly overlaps the inner face of the anterior end of 

* A. S. Woodward, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, pp. 198-201. 


the supposed maxilla, and its oral border is produced to a point 
whicli works a<;aiiist the outer face of the beak of the opposing 
bone of the mandible (lig. 4 E). Tlie mandibular bone is evidently 
only one element of an otherwise persistently cartilaginous jaw*, 
its hinder half must liave been sheathed at least on the outer face, 
but its anterior half would be exposed on the outer face of the 
jaw. Its oral border, opposed 1o the sui)posed maxilla, is a sharj), 
straight cutting edge, of which the outer surface would work 
against the inner surface of the upper bone. This cutting edge 
terminates forwards at a notch separating it from a beak-like 

Crushed edge of head-shield and jaws of riglit side, inner view, of Dinichthij/; 
intermedins, from the Upper J)evonian of Ohio, U.S.A. c. crushing edge 
of pterygoid arcade ; d. dentary ; ecf. artieidation for preniaxiUa on lateral 
ethmoid ; m-v. maxilla ; pmx. premaxilla; pr. articular proces.'^es of maxilla 
and preniaxilla ; y)<. pterygoid arcade ; so. suborbital cheek-plate ; .r. down- 
ward process from wall of cranium. (Brit. Mus. no. P. 9340.) 

anterior end, of which the postero-external face would work 
against the antero-internal face of the opposing upper bone. 
There is no facette for a symi)hysial union of the mandibular bone 
with its fellow of the opposite side; and there seems to be no 
doubt that a cartilaginous sympliysial region was interposed 
between the two, because the opposing sufiposed premaxilla?, which 
fix their position, are well separated in tiie middle line by the 
rostral plate covering the mesethmoid. It has been suggested that 

* In an ailiedgenu8,Z)iMO»i^/os^o»jcr,thecartiIageof the mandible issufticiently 
calcified to be preserved (C. R. Eastman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, 
vol. 1. iyO(), pp. 25, 26, pis. iv., v.). 


there may liave been unusual mobility of the jaws here ; but the 
specimen now described shows that this was not the case. The 
cut surfaces of the jaw-bones are marked with a regular series of 
vertical strice, proviug that the motion was directly up and down. 

As shown by the same specimen in the British Museum, and to 
some extent by a second specimen (no. P. 9490), there lies within 
the upper jaw already described another arcade (i\g. o, pt.), which 
is evideutly pterygoid though its relationships are not ([uite clear. 
It is a comparatively slender lamina of bone, which expands at 
its lower border into a broad hardened punctate surface (c), more 
or less concave. No bone has been observed which could be 
opposed to this apparently crushing apparatus. 

Jaw-bones which may be regarded as belonging to young indi- 
viduals of Ditiichthi/s, such as a mandibular bone described as 
Coccosteus caji(tho(jai by Claypole *, bear conical denticulations along 
the oral border, and it is only after considerable abrasion by use 
that the border becomes a simple cutting edge. The toothed 
condition may therefore be regarded as primitive, and some genera, 
such as Coccosteus (fig. 4E) and Blplognathns (fig. 4G)t, retain it 
throughout life. In these the teeth are firmly fused in a single 
row to the oral margin of the bone, and it is interesting to note 
that they also occur along the anterior edge of tlie mandibular 
element. The latter fact seems to confirm the conclusion that the 
pair of mandibular bones did not meet at the symphysis, but were 
well separated by parts which have perished in the fossils. It 
should be added that in some genera, such as Mijlostoma, tlie edges 
of the jaws are not modified for cutting, but bear crushing plates 
which are said to consist of dentine %• 

The WQw observations now recorded show that tlie Arthrodira 
are not so closely related to the ancestors of the Amphibia as I 
formerly imagined. It is, indeed, clear that they are not Dipnoi, 
and it is difficult to recognize much connection between them and 
the Crossopterygii. They are not Ostracoderms (as sometimes 
supposed), for they possess ordinary jaws and parts of paired fins, 
and their anterior median dorsal armour-plate is differently related 
to the underlying soft parts §. The usual reduction of the tooth- 
bearing edges of the jaws to cutting blades without teeth, and the 
strong development of the dermal armour, indeed, iiulicate that 
the Arthrodira are highly specialized members of the group to 
which they belong, and we cannot determine their precise 
relationships until we find and recognize their more normal 

Students of fossils are thus continually baffled by the imper- 
fection of the geological record with which they have to deal. 
AVe have learned approximately how fishes passed into amphibians 

*• E. VV. Claypole, American Geologist, vol. xi. (1893), p. 167. 

i" J. S. Newberry, Palicoz. Fishes N. America (Men. U.S. Geol. Surv. no. xvi. 
1889), p. 159, pis. xi., xii. 

+ B. Dean, Mem. New York Acad. Sci. vol. ii. (1901). pp. 101-109, 
pis. vii., viii. ; 0. E. Eastman, Bull. llua. Comp. Zool. Harvard, vol. lii. (1909), 
pp. 2(U-2i;9. 

§ A. S. Woodward, Proc. Linn. See. 132ud Sess. (1920), p. 3-1. 

d 2 


not later tlian the Devonian period, but we still lack a nmltitiule 
oF links for which we must wait i)atiently until mere iiceident 
reveals them. AV^e vaguely see that the earliest Dipnoi were more 
closely related to the earliest Crossopterygii than are the later 
Dipnoi to the later Crossopterygii. They were therefore nearer 
a common ancestor. To find this common ancestor, to recover 
more links, and to explain the problematical Arthrodira, we need 
fossils of still earlier date than those we already possess, 

Lt.-Col. J. T. TuLL Walsh then moved :— "That the President 
be thanked for his excellent y\ddress, and that he be requested to 
allow it to be ])rinted and circulated nmongst the Fellows," which 
resolution, having been seconded by Sir Nicolas YERMOLOFi', was 
l)ut and carried w itb acclamation. 

The President having acknowledged the Vote of Thanks, pro- 
ceeded lo address Prof. Edward Bagnall Poultok, K.ll.S., and 
handing to him the Linnean Gold Medal. He said : — 

Professor Poulton, — 

The Council of the Linnean Society has awarded to you the 
Linnean Medal as a token of its appreciation of your long and 
important services to the advancement of Zoological science. 
You began by traversing a very wide field, from bone-caves and 
Pleistocene geology to the structure of the tongues of Marsu|)ials, 
and you accomplished much histological work which culminated 
in your interesting discovery of true teeth in the embryo Oniitlio- 
rhifncJiiis. Your inclination, however, was always towards ento- 
mology, and you have for many years been regarded as the chief 
exponent of the phenomena of protective resemblance and mimicry 
in insects. AA'ith persistent industry you have brought together 
an immense array of facts from all parts of the globe in support 
of the view that these appearances are adaptive in their nature, 
and furnish strong evidence of the potency of natural selection. 
You have stimulated naturalists and collectors everywhere to 
observe and record such facts, and to send home illustrative 
specimens which you have added to the Hope Collection at Oxford. 
During your tenure of tlie Keepership of this collection, indeed, 
you have entirely changed its character. From being a vast series 
of specimens interesting mainly to systematists of the old school, 
you have made it into a great museum illustrating variation, 
geograpliical distribution, mimicry, and other phenomena im- 
])ortaiit for the theory of evolution. With the co-operation o£ 
]Mr. Arthur Sidgwick you have devised an accurate and com- 
prehensive nomenclature to include all cases of protective and 
aggressive resemblance, tlnjs clearly marking the difference 
between the mimicry discovered by Bates, and the cases which 
fall under the head of " syuaposcuiatic association" as explained 
by ]M idler. You have also done most valuable experimental work 
oh " variable protective resemblance," especially demonstrating 


tlie dependence of the coloration of certain larvae and pupa; on 
the character of their surroundings, and disproving the suggestion 
that the observed effects are due to any direct influence that 
might be called " |)hotograi)liic." Your experiments have enabled 
you ill many cases to determine within narrow limits the period 
during wliich the nervous system becomes or remains sensitive to 
the effective stimulus, nnd during which the ultimate colour- 
result becomes fixed. They ])ave also demonstrated the direct 
transference of tlie green pigment of plants to tlie tissues of the 
caterpillars feeding on them. 

These and other researches have led you to be a consistent up- 
holder of the Darwinian position with regard to natural selection 
as the dominant factor in evolution. In your complete rejection 
of Lamarckism and such speculations as Darwin's pangenesis, you 
may even be described as more Darwinian than Darwin liimself. 

Wnile occupied with your owu researches and advancing science 
bv your writings, you have always been a most geiiei'ous and 
appreciative helper of other workers in your subject. You have 
been especially successful in stimulating young collectors of 
insects to extend their intei'est to the broader problems of bio- 
nomics and make real scientific progress. In wider sph.eres you 
have also taken a most active part in work for the promotion of 
biological science, and the Liunean Society remembers with 
gratitude your services both on the Council and as President. 
I am sure the whole Society shares in the pleasure and satisfaction 
witli which the Council gives you this mai'k of its esteem. 

The recipient feelingly acknowledged his gratification at the 

The General Secretary then placed upon the table the obituaries 
of deceased Pellows and Foreign Members, and the proceedings 

OBITUARY notices: 

Odoakdo Beccari (1843-1920). — OdoardoBeccari, the third cliild 
of Giuseppe di Luigi Beccari and the first of his mother Autoniett.-i, 
was born in Florence, 16th November, 1S43. Losing his mother at 
six years of age, he was confided to the care of a maternal uncle. 
In due course he entered the college now known as the Nazionale 
di liuca in the spring of 1853, where he found the Abate Ignazio 
Mezzetti as Vice-Rector and Prefect of Studies, a devoted student 
of natural science, especially botany, and, noting the observant 
spirit in the hoy, he specially taught him the beginnings of the 
science, and imbued him with a lasting love of plants; the pupil 
]iever forgot his first instructor, and long afterwards he dedicated 
a geuus of Anonacetc to his memory as Mezzettia. 


III 18G1 lieccari, liaviiij"; completed his course at Lucca, entered 
tlio faculty of Natural ^Science at the Universitv at Pisa. His 
work in botany attracted the attention of the celebrated Giuseppe 
Mene<i[liini and Pietro Savi ; but the atmosphere was not 
sutliciently tonic, and lie passed to IJologna in 18<'4, where 
A. JJcrtoloiii was Professor; here he presented his lliesis, " Illus- 
trazione dell' Amoldia cj/aihoiles, Massal." 

.Soon after this he met with Giacomo Doria, just returned 
from a scientific journey in Mesopotami:i, and tlu'two j'oung men 
became intimate. By the advice of one of our Fellows, John Ball, 
they determined to undertake the exploration of the then little- 
known Northern Borneo, especially Sarawak. Whilst his companion 
was making the needfid ])reparatious, Beccari came to London, 
and visited the British Museum and Kew to get an acquaint- 
ance with the Bornean and Indian floras. This was in 1865, when 
he made the acquaintance of the two Hookers ; in 1908, when he 
visited Sir Josei^h Hooker for the last time, the veteran said: 
"I knew he would become a famous botanist, but he has surpassed 
my expectations ; he is the greatest biologist and systematist of 
the i)resent moment ; he has the intuition of what a species is." 

To return to his first visit, Beccari was introduced to Darwin, 
and hy Miss Burdett-Coutts presented to Sir James Brooke, 
Raja of Sarawak, who ])romised him help in his territory. 

lie sailed from Southampton to Borneo on the 4th April, 1865, 
meeting a l)roth^r and Doria, as arranged, at Suez; passing Aden 
they landed in Ceylon and visited Thwaites at Peradeniya, 
rearhing Kuching, the capital of Sarawak, in June. 

G. B. Beccari left for Japan in three months' time, and the two 
remained to prosecute their respective ends ; by the beginning of 
March, Doria's health gave way, and Beccari accompanied his 
friend to Singapore to return home. For three years, 1865-68, 
Beccari remained in Borneo ; his vohnne ' Nelle foreste di Borneo,' 
issued in 1902, gives a vivid picture of his life during this period. 
He returned to Italy in March 1868, and began in Florence to 
work out his collection, there founding the ' Nuovo Giornale 
Botanico Italiano,' which he directed during 1869-71 ; neverthe- 
less he took advantage of a special expedition to Ethiopia in 1870 
to go thither and return with a rich cargo of jilants ; he wrote an 
account of this journey, but for some unexplained reason it was 
not published. 

Meanwhile he had been preparing himself for another 
expedition, attracted by the charm of the forest, and possessed of 
the methods for the best employment of the si-heme, he further 
studied geodesy, astronomy, and raeteoi'ology. All being ready, 
at the end of 1871, with Luigi Maria d'Alberfcis, he started from 
Genoa for JVew Guinea, at that time quite unexplored ; pausing a 
fortnight at Bombav, he continued to Singapore, finally reaching 
Batavia. After a short stay here, to acquire further information 
concerning Malaya, the traveller journeyed to Macassar in Celebes, 
Amboina, where a small schooner was chartered, and after many 


difficulties Kapaor was reached. But this place was unhealthy, 
fevers raged, and quitting the spot on a wretched craft, they 
reached Dorei, and achieved the exploration of Mount Arfak as the 
crown of their endeavours. Besides geological specimens, many 
birds, mammals, beetles, and reptiles, he had 700 numbers in 
ample sup[)ly, together with spirit specimens. 

Tlie health of D'Albertis had now become so bad that it was 
impossible for him to stay in the tropics, so the two travellers, 
after great difficulty, came upon the Italian corvette, ' Vettor 
Pisani,' and upon this vessel D'Albertis embarked. In 1873, 
Beccari visited the islands of Aru and Kai, virgin soil for the 
botanist. Here under native huts thatched with leaves be set 
up his headquarters ; his worst enemies were five species of ant, 
which threatened to destroy his specimens. 

Beccari then returned to Macassar, and after resting and 
recruiting his health, again set out for the Molucca Islands ; at 
another time, on board the Dutch ship ' Sumatra,' for a trip in 

Before returning home, he much wished to try Ids luck again in 
New Guinea, but, as he wrote home, his finances were exhausted. 
From this difficulty his friend Giacomo Doria relieved him by 
inciting the citizens of Genoa to send the sum of 15,000 lire as a 

Relieved and encouraged by this, Beccari journeyed by Batavia 
to Ternate, and Andai, to chmb Mount Arfak. After a successful 
quest, he embarked in March 1876 for Java, in due course reaching 
Florence, where he was received with great enthusiasm. In the 
autumn of tlie following year he again started for Malaya, this 
time with Enrico D'Albertis, a cousin of his former companion, 
landing at Bombay and traversing India to Calcutta, thence to 
.Singapore, onwards to Sydney, Melbourne, and Hobart; New 
Zealand ; followed by a return to Singapore, and then to Sumatra, 
where he found the AmorjiliophalJus Titanum and also the tiny 
Aroid Microcasia py(jm(m. 

In 1878 he left Batavia for his last journey -.-Padaug, where he 
investigated the products ; Singalang, where he stayed some time 
diligently collecting, till finally he directed his course homeward, 
and Florence was reached in the last days of 1878, closing his 
career as an explorer but beginning another as illustrator. 

'Malesia' grew under his pen during 1877 to 1886, 3 volumes 
in quarto. Greatly to his mortification, when the third volume 
was half printed, the Istituto di Studi Su])eriori, which had 
financed the publication so far, ceased to provide the funds, but 
this becoming known in England, a contribution from the 
Bentham Fund enabled Beccari to complete his splendid work. 

The magnificent folio ' Asiatic Palms ' practically closed the 
authorship of Beccari : the second part appeared posthumously 
in 1U21 as 231 pages and 6 ])lates in quarto, and 120 plates 
in collotype in folio; but the full extent of the work can 
only be assessed by reference to the ten pages of Bibliography, 


drawn up by lii.s pupil, Pr()f. U. Martinelli, in AVt^bbia, v. (1921), 
61 pp., with 2 maps, from whose vivid narrative the toregoinj; 
pages have been ;'onilensed. 

An operation was performed on the 25tli October, 1920, when 
Beci-ari hail reached bis 77th year; death ensued in bis sleep 
without shock or pain. He was biu'ied in the cemetery of tlie 
' -Misericurdia' at Soffiana, near Florence. 

Beccari was elected a Foreign Meuiber of the Liunean Society, 
3rd May, 1883. [B. D. J.] 

William Beecroft Bottomley, the only son of J. Bottomley, 
of Fern Cliffe, Morecanibe, was born at Apperley Bridge, Leeds, 
in 1863; educated at the B/oyal Grammar School, Lancaster, and 
King's College, Cambridge, whence he graduated in 1891, pro- 
ceeding M.A. in 1900. At the age of 23 be was science tutor 
and lecturer in Biology at St. Mary's Hospital School, retaining 
that position till 1891, when he succeeded to the professorial 
chair of Biology at the Eoyal Veterinarv College; two years later, 
on the retirement of Prof. Richard Beutley from the chair of 
Botany at King's College, Strand, Bottomley succeeded, an oflfice 
he held from 18'J3 to 1921, when ill-health obliged him to retire. 

Prof. Bottondey was much interested in such movements as the 
South Eastern Co-operative Agricultural Society, but he was 
perhaps best known by his experimental research on " bacterised 
peat" as a plant-stimulant and fertilizer, thereby securing nitrogen- 
fixing organisms for the benefit of the crops. One result was 
that as animals are in need of vitamines or accessory factors for 
their nutrition, so plants need the help of similar factors, which 
iie termed " auximones," to thrive. Considerable success followed 
his efforts, and it is said that during the war, attempts were made 
to obtain cultures for an enemy nation, but without success. 

He was elected Fellow of our Society, 3rd November, 1892; 
besides his Cambridge degree, he was Ph.D., and a Fellow of the 
Chemical Society since 1886. He died at Huddersfielil on the 
24th March, 1922. [B. D. J.] 

GrEOEGE SiMOXDS BoULGER, who died suddenly at his house in Rich- 
mond on the 4th May, 1922, was the son of Dr. Edward Boulger, 
and was born on the 5th March, 1853, at Bletehingley, Surrey, 
and was educated at Wellington and Epsom Colleges, and for a 
short time at the Middle Temple; at the age of 23, in 1876, he 
was appointed Professor of ^.'atural History at the Royal Agri- 
cultural College, Cirencester, where he became Honorary Professor 
in 1906; since 1884 he was Lecturer on Botany and Geology at 
the City of London College, and at the Imperial Institute since 
1917. Much of his time was spent in coaching students and 
officers for examinations, and although the books noted below 
show great perseverance, be once admitted to the present writer, 
that he only wrote slowly : anyhow, his work was solid and good. 
From 1884 to 1890 he edited the ' Proceedings' of the Geologists' 


Association, and for tliirteen ypars also 'Nature Notes,' now- 
known as the ' ydborne Magazine'; he was further a Vice- 
President of the Selborne Society. 

Of the volumes from his pen may be mentioned 'Familiar 
Trees,' 2 series, 1885-86; ' The Uses of Plants,' 1889; 'Ele- 
mentary Geology,' 190(); 'Wood,' 1902; 'Botany' [1912]; 
'Plant Geography," 1913; and associated with other writers Me 
have: — with Mr. James Britten, 'A Biographical Index of liritisli 
and Irish Botanists,' 18U3, Mith supplements in 1899, 1905, and 
1908 (a I'evised edition is only awaiting better times for printing 
to be brought out) ; with Mrs. Henry Perrin as artist, ' British 
Plowering Plants,' 4 vols., 4to, 1914; with Mrs. Jean A. Owen 
Visger, writing as J. A. Owen, 'The Country Month by Month,' 
1904-5, iifth edition 1914; he also re-edited the Eev. C. A. 
Johns's ' Plowers of the Pield,' 33rd edition, "entirely revised," 
1911, and the same author's 'The Forest Trees of Britain,' 10th 
edition, "revised," 1912. In addition were many shorter ])apers 
published in the vokimes of societies with which the author was 

He was elected Fellow of the Linnean Society on the 1st 
February, 1877 ; he was also a Fellow of the Geological Society 
from 1875. [B. D. J.] 

Otto Butschli was born in Frankfurt, the son of a Swiss who 
had settk-d in that town, and niarried a lady who had lived all her 
life there, Emilie Kulimann. Our late Foreign Member was born 
on the 3rd May, 1848. After early school-days he turned his 
attention to mineralogic chemistry and palaeontology, and at 
17 years of age became assistant to Zittel ; then spent twelve 
months at Heidelberg and graduated with mineralogj^ as his 
principal subject. It was now that interest for living nature 
awoke in him, and then it took possession of him. Except during 
one semester under Leuckart in Leipzig, he was self-taught. In 
1869 to 1876 he lived with slight breaks in Frankfurt, served in 
the Franco-German War of 1870 as Landwehr officer, and then 
became for two year's assistant to Mcibius in Kiel. By this time 
lie had published many papers on Protozoa, the development 
and morphology of invertebrates. In 1878, whilst still under 
30 years of age, he became Professor of Zoology and Palaeont- 
ology in Heidelberg, where he remained to the end, in spite of 
many flattering invitations elsewhere. Butschli had the teaching 
talent, though towards the last he began to feel his duties some- 
what of a burden ; but the desired freedom to devote himself 
entirely to his ' (Comparative Anatomy' was not attained till the 
close of the great ^^ar, during which period he had lost strength, 
and unable to withstand a severe illness which came on. 

Studies on the cell-division and conjugation of the Infusoria was 
Biitschli's first important work, which appeared in 1876 in the 
Senckenberg Abliandlnngen. This, together with Strasburger's 
work on the doctrine of tlie cell, established these observations on 


tini. gruuiul ; ti.e phenomena of indirect cell-division was shown 
and exphuned, and karyokinesis set forth as occurring both in 
phmts and inlusuria, 

JiUtschli prosecuted Ids researches during the following years 
witl, the greatest energy, until in IbSO he undertook a thorough 
working out in Bronn's ' Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs ' 
.Nnie strenuous years were given to these bulky three volumes, 
the subject benig critically handled. The considerable pro'-ress 
ot protozoa research during the last thirty years is inconceivable 
without Jiiitschli's labours. 

From this he turned to Bacteria and Cyanophyce* and the 
question ot the constitution of Protoplasm connected with the 
phenomena ot hie. In his ' Untersuchungen uber mikroscopische 
fc^chaume und das Protoplasma,' 1892, he set up his foam theory, 
with Its associated ideas, lie continued his investigation during 
succeeding years, and also in chemistry and crystallography, 
whilst still labouring as Professor of Zoology. He did not live to 
complete his 'Comparative Anatomy' though' the bulk was written. 
He died on the l^nd February, Um : his Foreign Membership 
of the Linnean Society dated from 7th May, 1908. 

The writer is indebted to the notice of Blitschli, with a portrait, 
priiated in the olst Bericht der Senckenbergischen Xaturforsch- 
enden Gesellschaft, in 1920. [B, j) j n 

Fbaxcis Maule Campbell (1843-1920).— From additional 
information received since the notice of our late Fellow was 
printed in the 'Proceedings,' 1920-21, p. 45, the following 
amended statement is issued : — 

In 19U2, 31r. Campbell married the widow of 31r. Edward 
ieeles, of Bath, who died in 1919; his second marriage took 
place at St. Mary Abbot's, Kensington, on the 20th October, 
1920, to Mrs. Hunkerley, widow of the late Prof. Dunkerlev, of 
Manchester University, her maiden name being Jebb. 

The illuetrious French zoologist, Yves Delage, Professor of 
-^ at the Sorbonne and Membre des Academies des Sciences 
et ce Medecine, died on October Sth, 1921, at 66 years of a^e 
Coming to Pans as a young medical student, Delage was soon 
attracted to the study of zoology by his famous predecessor, 
I^acaze-Huthiers. Most of his researches were carried out at 
the marine laboratory of Koscoff, of which he later became 
Hn-ector. A most versatile and industrious worker, his researches 
cover a wide field. Among his earlv works mav be mentioned an 
important memoir on the vascular system of Crustacea and another 
on the nervous system of the Planaria acffila. But it is for his 
work on the life-history of the remarkable parasitic Crustacean 
^accuhmi and on the Embryology of Sponges that he is best 
known. Delage first described the strange inversion of the germ- 
layers and the origin of the collar cells in the higher sponges. In 
later yeare he studied with his usual enthusiasm and orfginality 


problems of experimental parthenogenesis, until ihe lailure of his 
eyesight compelled him to give up practical observations and 
devote liimself to writing. Already in 1895 he wrote a monu- 
mental volume on ' Les Theories de I'heredito et les grands pro- 
blemes de Hiologie gcnerale,' and next year in collaboration with 
Herouard began to publisli the Aaliiable aud beautifully illustrated 
'Zoologie Concrete." Next he started the ' Annce Biologique,' a 
very useful summary of current work on general zoology. Smaller 
books on 'Les Theories de I'Evolution.' 1909, and on 'La 
Parthenogenese,' 1913, were published in collaboration with 
31. Goldsmith. Lastly, shortly before his death, appeared a 
treatise on Dreams. He was elected a Toreign Member on the 
6th May, 1909. • [E. S. G.] 

Henry John Moreton, 3rd Earl of Ducie, born 25th June, 1827, 
was descended from Sir John Diicie, Lord Mayor of London and 
Eanker to Charles 1. Educated at Eton, he was one of the last 
survivors of the last "Montem " in 1844. He succeeded his father 
in 1853, and for a period of 70 years played the i)art of a great 
English landowner and an assiduous patron of science and art. 

A o-eolooist and botanist of some eminence, in virtue of which 
he was elected a Eellow of the Eoyal Society in lb55. He was 
liord Lieutenant of Gloucestershire for 54 years, and at the time 
of his death he was "Eather " of the House of Lords, of the Privy 
Council, of tlie Eoyal Society, of the Geological Society, and of 
many other Societies and Institutions. 

Lord Ducie was a Eellow of the Linnean Society for upwards 
of 32 years, and although he took no prominent part in its pro- 
ceedings he devoted his long life to the scientific study of plants, 
and especially to the study of trees, both couiferovis and broad- 
leaved. He was also an ardent yachtsman and traveller, and at 
Tortworth in Gloucestershire, from his earliest years onwards, he 
amassed a large collection of trees from the temperate regions of 
the world. Of these he kept a painstaking record, and though he 
could never be induced to publish a catalogue, it may safely be 
said that the collection is surpassed by very few in the country. 
A leading authority on arboriculture, he was one of the first to 
recoo-nise the value of the Douglas Eir (Pseudofsuga DongJasn), 
and one of the earliest and most famous plantations of this great 
timber tree may be seen at Tortworth. Some of the oldest speci- 
mens, too, of the Japanese Larch {Lnriv lejAolepis) were planted 
by him; of the Chilean Beach {NoOiofagus obliqva), which was 
introduced to this country by his old friend, Henry Elwes,, 
and of the Oregon Chestnut {Casta nopsis chrysoplujlla) he possessed 
perhaps the largest and oldest specimens in the country, not to 
mention numerous other trees, Oaks and Hickories in particular, 
with which he delighted to experiment with a view to eoonomic 
or ornamental utility. 

Lord Ducie shared with the late Monsieur Allard, of Augers, the 
rare satisfaction of being spared to see his plantations of broad- 

44 phoceedings of the 

leaved trees and cuuifei's <;ro\v to maturity in liis litVtiiiie, and he 
useil witli priile lo sliow to liis friends specimens oF such a size 
that it was almost impossihle to believe tliat they had been j)lanted 
hy a living man. 

A man of cuUivated tastes, genial, liberal, and warm-hearted in 
disposition, thorough in everything he undertook, he maintained 
his faculties and interest in affairs to witliin a sliort time of his 
death. Jle died on October 2Sth, 1921, in his ninety-lifth year, 
and was buried in 'J'ortworth Churchyard in close proximity to 
one of the most celebrated trees in England, an immense Spanish 
Chestnut, supposed to date from the reign of King John. 

His only son having predeceased him witliout issue, he was 
succeeded by his brother, who, after an unbrokeji absence in 
Queensland of no less tluni ()6 years, has recently returned to 
this country and taken up his residence at Tortwortli. 

[G. W.E LouER.J 

Joux FiRMiNGER DuxiiiE ^vas the son of the Hew A. II. Duthie, 
rector of Sittingbourne and afterwards of Deal ; he was born ©n 
rhe 12th May, 1845, and educated at iMarlborough College and at 
Jesus College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1867, with 
a Third Class in the Katural Science Tiipos. After a short tutor- 
ship in Somerset, he discovered Poh/gaJa aiistriaca in Kent", and 
then travelled in Italy and certain of the islands in the Mediter- 
ranean, collecting as he went, but his early gatherings u ere burned 
in a \"epository where they were deposited. 

On the 15tli April, ISTo, he became a Fellow of this Society, 
and in the same year was appointed Professor of Natural History 
at the Ivoyal Agricultiu'al College, Cirencester; but the following 
year he was made Superintendent of the Botanic Garden at 
Saharanpur, vacant on the retirement of Dr. Jameson, and liere 
he remained for twenty-seven years, retiring in 1903. 

He drew up the account of Myrtaceje ii> the second volume of the 
'Flora of British India' (except five pages by Mr. C. B. Clarke on 
the tribe of Barringtonia^), which came out in 1870; next, in 1881, 
he brought out his ' List of Xorth-AVest Indian Plants,' and two 
years afterwards ' A List of the Grasses of Xorth-AVestern Lidia, 
indigenous and cultivated,' in the Eeport of the Department of 
Agriculture of the N.AV. Provinces. Beports on the Government 
Gardens of 'Saharunpur and Mussoorie' for 1885 and 1886 fol- 
lowed. In 1885 was printed his account of Grasses growing on 
the Hissar Bir land, Punjab; and then came the folio 'Illus- 
trations of the indigenous Fodder Grasses of the Plains of North- 
Western India,' Boorkee, 1886; the same year witnessed his 
account of a botanical tour in Bajjnitona, witij yet another volume, 
'The Fodder Glasses of Xorthern India,' in 1888; in 1896, 'A 
Botanical Tour in Kashmir.' He was also associated with Mr. (now 
Sir) Joseph Bampfylde Fuller, ' Field and Garden Crops of the 
North- Western Provinces and Oude,' in three parts, lioorkee, 
1882-93, in quarto. 


Besides his official work at Saluirunpur, Duthie lectured on 
systematic botany every year to the students at Dehra Dun, and 
usually accompanied tliem through the forests for demonstration. 

On his quitting India in 1903, Duthie was appointed Assistant 
for India in the Herbarium at Ivew, but illness in 1907 forced 
him to resign. Whilst there he revised, at the request of Sir 
Kichard Scrachey, the great collection known as the "Strachey and 
AYinterbottom " plants, of which an unpublished but printed list 
was extant. A ' Catalogue of Plants found in Kumaun and Garhwul 
and the adjoining parts of Tibet,' forming ]^p. 6l3-lli2 of volume ii. 
of a projected work, dating from about 1854, was revised by Duthie, 
and came out as pp. 403-670 of E. T. Atkinson's 'Economic 
Products of the N.W. Provinces,' Allahabad, 1876; another and 
independent issue appeared " Kevised and supj)lemented by J. F. 
Duthie,"' London, 1906. The latest work on which lie v\ as 
engaged was his ' Elora of the Upper Gangetic Plain,' of which 
two volumes and two parts of the thn-d to Juucaceae have appealed 
at Calcutta, 1903-15. 

In 1879 he married Miss Coape-Smith, daughter of Colonel 
Coape-Smith, an officer stationed at Saharunpur. In his literary 
labours he was careful, and spent much time in determining knotty 
points, but in consequence was not rapid in his work. He died 
at Worthing on the 23rd February, 1922. [B. D. J.] 

A Fellow of long standing has passed away recently in the person 
of Dr. Jonx Harley, who died at his house, ' Beedings,' Pul- 
borough, Sussex. He was born in Shropshire in 1833, where he 
studied the geology of the country round Luillow, specially paying 
attention to the microscopical structure of the skeleton fragments 
in the Ludlow bone-bed, publishing a paper on the subject in the 
Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society in 1861. 

During his medical studies about that period he turned his 
attention to vegetable parasites, with a view to gaining an insight 
into the cause of cancer and similar diseases in the human subject. 
In March 1863 a paper of his on the Mistletoe was read be lore 
the Liunean Society, followed by his election three months later. 
The author described the parasitic growth and its effect upon its 
host, and the action of the " sinkers " or suckers, which grow 
downward into the wood of the host, closing with the results 
observed on 31 woody trees infested uith mistletoe. 

He retired from his position as physician at King's College 
Hospital, London, in 1902, and removed to the hous-^ he had built, 
which he lived in during the remainder of his life. His geo- 
logical collection was bequeathed to the Ludlow Museum. 

[B. D. J.] 

There are but few amongst the present generation who can re- 
member seeing the late Sir Joiiis" Kirk, G.O.M.G., K.C.B., LL.D., 
M.D., D.C.L., Sc.D., F.R.S., in our rooms, for since the Society 
has occupied these apartments, he probably on only one occasion 


entered the Meeting room, tliough from 1881-83 he was a Member 
tiF the Council. The last occasion on which the present writer met 
him was during the sittinu;s of a J^eparhnental Treasury Com- 
mittee in 1900-01, when Sir John Kirk was j)iinctnal and constant 
in his attendance. 

He was born at Barry, near Arbroath, on the 19th December, 
\b'>i2, the second son of the liev. John Kirk, of Arbilot. Attracted 
to botany, but choosing medicine as his profession, he entered 
Edinburgh University before completing his 15th year, and in 
1854 he graduated as M.D. and L.K.C.S. The Crimean War 
broke out at that time, and Kirk oi'ganised a party of twenty 
Scottish medical students to proceed to the seat of war ; he was 
appointed assistant physician at lienkioi, where he found time to 
collect a few plants and open up correspondence with Sir William 
Hooker at Kew. 

.Returning home in 1857 he was meditating seeking an appoint- 
ment in Canada, when the opening occurred of his going with 
Liviiigtone on his Zambesi mission. They left England in March 
1858, and soon after starting, Kirk acted as second in command 
during the five eventful years which followed. Coming back to 
the lower Zambesi, he employed all his skill in trying to save the 
life of Mrs. Livingstone, and then falling ill himself, he was 
ordered home, which he reached in 1863. 

Me accepted in January 18G6 the post of surgeon to the political 
agency at Zanzibar; the next year he became Yice-Consnl, a twelve- 
month later Assistant Political Agent, and in April 1873, Agent 
and Consul. 

He married Helen Cooke in 1867 at Zanzibar, and three of his 
four children were born there. He energetically supported Sir 
Bartle Erere in his efforts to suppress the slave trade, wiiich 
succeeded in 1873, after Erere had left. Kirk was raised to 
Consul-General and had honours bestowed upon him — C.M.G. in 
1879, K.C.M.G. in 1881, and G. C.M.G. in 1880. 

Lord Beaconsfield declined the offer to lease the mainland terri- 
tories of the Sultan of Zanzibar, so the way was left open for 
other nations. In 1884, Gerhard Rohlfs was sent to Zanzibar as 
Consul-General in a ship of war, whilst Carl Peters and two com- 
panions in disguise stole across to the n)ainlaud treaty-making. 
But they were forestalled by Mr. H. H. Johnston under Kirk's 
direction. He left Zanzibar in 1886, and he Hved to see the 
mistakes of 1SS4-86 rectified and German East Africa come under 
British administration. Pensioned in 1887, he was still xised hy 
the Foreign Office on several missione, and his last trip to Africa 
»vas to visit the L^ganda Railway. 

He settled at Sevenoaks soon after he returned, but still was 
actively em])loyed, and it was not till 1911, when he was nearly 80, 
that lie quitted his last oflice, Foreign Secretary of the Koyal Geo- 
graphical Society. Increasing dimness of sight at last ])revented 
his reading, and he passed quietly away on the 15th January; 
1922, in his 90th year. 


About eight short communications from Sir John Kirk ai'e in 
our Journal, mostly contributed from Kew where his plants had 
been examined, and one exliibition of rubber from Landolplda was 
shown in our rooms on the loth June, 1882; but his chief 
botanical work was done in conjunction with Kew : he seems to 
have sent specimens from 1857 to 1896, ranging from Tropical 
Africa, Seychelles, Comoro Islands, and Somaliland. A full account 
is given in the ' Ivew Bulletin ' of this side of Kirk's activity 
(1922, no. 2, pp. 49-63), He was elected a Fellow of the Linnean 
Society on the oth May, 1864, and at the time of his death was 
only exceeded by four seniors; he was elected F.R.S. in 1887. 

Papers by Sir John Kirk, //* the Societifs publications. 

Journal, Botany: — 

1. Dimorpliism in tlie Howers of Monochoria vaginnlis, viii. (1864) 


2. On Musa . Living stoni ana, a new Banana from Tropical Africa, ix. 

(1865) 128. 

3. On a new Dve-wood of the genus Cndranea, from Tropical Africa, 

ih. (1866) "229-230. 

4. On the Palms of East Tropical Africa, ib. 230-23o. 

5. On the Copal of Zanzibar. Extract from a letter from John Kirk, 

M.D., F.L.S., dated Zanzibar, March ^Oth, 1868, xi. (1869) 1-4. 

6. On Copal. Extract from a letter to Dr. Hooker, dated Zanzibar, 

November 13th, 1869, ih. (1871) 479-481. 

7. Identification of the Modern Copal Tree, Tracln/lobium Horneman- 

nianum, with that which yielded the Copal or Aninii now found 
in tlie earth on the East Coa?-t of Africa, often where no Copal- 
yielding trees now exist, xv. (1876) 234-235. 

8. Note on specimens of Hibiscus allied to II. Iiosa-si)ii'nsis, L., col- 

lected in E. Tropical Africa, ib. (1876) 478-479. — Remarks by 
Prof. Oliver, ib. 479-480. 

Proceedings, 1880-82 [loth June, 1882], p. :35:— 

9. Exhibition of specimens of the fruit, leaves, and I'ubber of Landolphia 

Jlorida, from the Island of Pemba, north of Zanzibar; also balls 
and rubber beaters made and used by the natives of East Central 

Transactions: — 

10. On a new genus of Liliacea^ from East Tropical Africa (WaJleria), 
xxiv. (1864) 497-499, t. 52. 

[B. D. J.] 

GEOna Albert Klebs was born on the 23rd October, 1857, at 
Neidenburg in East Prussia, the third child of his fatiier. He 
went to school first at Wehlau, where his parents were then living, 
leaving school there in August 1874, and proceeding to the 
Albertina, in Konigsberg, to matriculate for the study of chemistry; 
but shortly after he found himself drawn to Natural History, in 
which he earnestly worked, and after several small contributions 
he drew ut) an account of the Hesmids of East Prussia, which 


attracted the notice of De B;iry, wiio offered liim iin assistant's 
place in tlie Strasburg Institute, and in acceptini^ it, lie entered 
upon a new career. Iti January 1SU7 lie put forward a new 
thesis on the East Prussian Desuiids for liis doctorate. 

At this lime De JJary had a crowd of disciples round him, .xucli 
as Errera, Arthur AJeyer, Stahl, Mattirolo, Pirotta, and with these 
Klohs came into the friendliest relations. A year of military duty 
closed the iStrashurg life for him. 

Desirous of learnnig in other fields of research, Klebs turned to 
AViirzburg on being released from military duties, where Sachs 
was lecturing; here a year was spent, after which he migrated to 
Pfetfer's laboratory. 

Klebs was just -o when in October 1882 he betook himself to 
Tiibingen. Here he set to work on ' Microarganisnien ' and 
' 13au niid Physiologic der Pflaiizenzellen.' Special interest was 
repeatedly displayed by him in the structure of IIifdro<iicti/on, and 
maniiscrijjt left by him shows tliat even late in life he resumed 
investigation on it. Another topic he took up was the germina- 
tion of seeds. 

In 1887, after Pfeffer had been called to Leipzig and Vochting 
came from Basel to succeed him, Klebs went to Basel, where he 
was very successful, and there married a young wife, Luise Sigarart. 
His labours on the mechanism of the development of the lower 
organisms, and the systematic disposition of Algae bore abundant 

In 1892-1)3 he was Rector of the University of Basel, and his 
address was on the relation of sex in Nature. 

During the last decade of the nineteenth century, Klebs was 
enabled to erect a new botanic institute in Basel, but had hardly 
0|)ened it, wlien lie was called to Ilalle in succession to Krauss, 
Here also he had to busy himself with new buildings — a new 
laboratory and class-room and glasshouses were speedily completed. 
Sempervivum and ISedam were studied for variation, which led on 
to Ivlebs's first memoir on physiological cheniistiy. 

In 1907, in consequence of the deatli of Pfeffer, he received a 
call to Heidelberg, which he gladly accepted, and there spent a 
series of successful years. Whilst here he was able, in 1910-11, 
to travel through Siberia, Japan, Java, and India, and with several 
comi)anions to visit Armenia, the Caucasus, and Southern Ilussia 
in 1912; also, in 1913, a trip to Egypt with his wife. 

Latterly he devoted liis attention to the question of tlie amount 
of mineral matters taken out of plants, occasioned by rhythmic 
niovemcTit, light, and other circumstances. His nature was that 
of an investigator, and travelling gave the chance for so much 
that was new that he eagerly seized this, but the great war laid 
a heavv burden on iiim, and he turned to his researches. 

On the loth October, 1918, Klebs died of influenza after a 
short attack, and on the 18th he wns cremated. He had been 
chosen to assume the position of Eeetor a few months later; 
many Universities had bestowed their honours upon him, our own 
Society electing him a Foreign Member on the 4th May, 1911. 


A bibliography ot" his publications will be foiiud in the Bericlite 
del- deiitsehen botaiiisclieii Gesellschaft, xxxvi. (1918), pp. (110)- 
(IIH). [B. D. J.] 

The well-known Director of the Paris Museum d'Histoire 
Xaturelle, Professor Jean Octaae Edmond Perkier, Meuibre de 
l"Academie des Sciences et de rAcadeinie de Medecine, was born 
at Tulle. in 1844. His death on July 31st, 19i^l, deprived the 
French zoological world of a man of great administrative ability 
and social distinction, who took an active part in the promotion 
and organisation of scientific work. For many years he directed 
a marine laboratory in the little island of Tatihou, near Cherbourg. 
His own researches dealt, chiefly with the Invertebrata. In 1874 
appeared his remarkable memoir on the structure of E;irth worms, 
and later manv works on the anatomy and classification of 
Echinoderms. Among his many publicitions, always distinguished 
for lucidity and elegance of style, may be mentioned the volumes 
on 'Les Colonies Aniiuales,' ' La pliilosophie zoologique avant 
Darwin,' 1884, 'Lamarck et le ti-ansformisme,' 1803, 'La terre 
avant I'Histoire,' 1920. 

' La Tachygenese ou acceleration embryologique,' written in 
collaboration uith Ch. Gravier, is an important contribution to 
comparative embryology. Since 1892, Perrier published at 
intervals several volumes of a comprehensive ' Traite de Zoologie,' 
of which he left in MS. tiie final part. 

He was elected a Foreign Member of the Liunean Society on 
the 4th May, 1916. [E. S. G.] 

EiDEWooD, Dr. Walter George; see p. 70. 

A hard-working, enthusiastic naturalist is lost to the Society by 
the death of the liev. Edward Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock, which 
took place at Grayingham Rectory on the 3rd February, 1922. 

He was the eldest son of the well-known antiquary, Ed^Nard 
Peacock, F.S.A., of Bottesford Manor, where he was born on the 
2;h'd July, 1858; educated first at Edinburgli, he cime up 
to St. John's College, Cambridge, and then at Bishop Hatfield's 
Hall, Durham, where in 1880 he took the degree of L.TIi. After 
tilling several cia-acies, he became Vicar of Cadiiey in 1890, 
remaining there till 1920, when he received the appointment as 
Kector of St. Radeguiids, Gr;iyingham. 

He was always an indefatigable note-taker and recorder, 
especially as regards his native county. He was one of the 
founders of the Lincolnshire INafuralists' Union in 1893, and fox" 
ten years wa'^ its organising Secretary, and President in 1905-6;, 
during its whole existence he was the mainspring of its activities. 
In 1909 he issued a 'Ciieck-List of Lincolnshire Plants.' Phanero- 
gamic botany was his ardent study, and for years he had been 
engaged on a flora of his own county on ecologic lines ; that MS. 
has been left to Cambridge. He was elected a Fellow of the 
Linnean Society on the 5th December, 1895; he is survived by a 
widow and three sons. [B. D. J.] 

LINN. SOC. proceedings. SESSION 1921 -22. e 


June 1st, 1922. 

Dr. A. Smith AVoodward, F.E.S., President, 
in the Cliair. 

The Minutes of the Anniversary Meeting of the 24th May, 
1922, were read and confirmed. 

The report of the Donations received since the hist Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

The President announced that he had appointed the following 
to be Vice-Presidents for the ensuing year: — Mr. E. T. Browne, 
Dame Helen Gwynne-Yaughan, Mr. Horace W. Monckton, 
and Lord Rothschild. 

Certificates were read for the second time in favour of Major 
Charles Hunter, M.Sc. (Durh.), and AVilliam Nowell, D.I.C. 

William Frederick Neville Greenwood, F.E.S., was proposed as 
a Fellow. 

The following were severally elected by ballot as Fellows : — 
Surendra Xath Bal, Ph.C. : George Valentine Chapman Last, 
M.E.C.S.,L.K.C.P.,Ph.C.; Percy Hutchinson Lamb: Cecil Victor 
Boley Marquand, M.A. (Cantab.) ; and Charles Turner, F.C.S. 

Prof. A. C. Seward, F.E.S., then delivered the third Hooker 
Lecture, entitled " A Study in Contrasts : The Past and Present 
Distribution of certain Ferns," illustrated by lantern-slides. 

The President added some remarks to those of the lecturer, to 
whom a liearty vote of thanks was given. 

June 15th, 1922. 

Dr. A. Smith AVoodward. F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 1st June, 1922, 
were read and confirmed. 

Tiie report of the Donations received since the last Meeting 
was laid before the Fellows, and the thanks of the Society to the 
several Donors were ordered. 

Mr. Charles Turner, F.C.S. , was admitted a Fellow. 

The certificate in favour of AVilliam Frederick Neville Greenwood, 
F.HS., was read for tlie second time. 

William Henry Wilkius was proposed as a Fellow. 


The President aunounced that Prof. H. O. Juel, of Uppsala 
was present as a visitor. 

Dr. A. B. Eexdle, F.K.S, Sec.L.S., showed two seedlings of 
Horse Chestnut from wliicli the tennnial bud had been removed 
by cutting through the epicotyledonary stem. In each ease a 
number of minute buds appeared on the cut surface after the 
healing of the wound ; the buds were arranged round the edge of 
the section corresponding with the position of the cambium-layer 
in the stem. A new shoot was also produced in the axil of each 
of the cotyledons. These new shoots resembled the shoot which 
is normally developed from the plumule, except that the first pair 
of foliage leaves was produced at the second node, while a pair of 
small scales was fortned at the first node just above the level of 
the soil. The speaker referred to the seedling shown by him at a 
recent meeting of the Society in which the plumule had been 
rej)laced by one new symmetrically developed terminal bud. 

Dr. A. W. Hill, E.E..S., commented upon the exhibition and 
compared it with his experience with the corm of Ctjdamen. 

The second paper was by Sir Akthur Shipley, G.B.E., E.E.S., 
on " Faria infernulis" in \\hich the conclusion is reached that 
Linnaeus was probably stung by a virulent insect whicii may very 
well have conveyed to his system some pathogenic germs unknown 
at the time of the great naturalist. (See Abstract, p. 6t,.) 

Mr. E. AsuBY exhibited a large series of Australian Cliitons, 
and said that the leaf-sheaths of Posidonia and Cijmodocea were 
the habitat of certain rare species. 

Lt.-Col. J. H. Tull Walsh, Dr. G. P. Bidder, and Prol. E. S. 
Goodrich, E.R.S., Sec.L.S., contributed additional remarks. 

Mr. T. A. Spuague exhibited plants and illustrations concerning 
his identitication of Sison Ammi, Linu., of which the type-specimen 
was on view. He stated that Sison Ammi is an Umbelliferous 
plant published by Linnajus in the first edition of the ' Species 
Plaiitarum ' in 1753. It has hitherto been a puzzle to botanists. 

The eld 
as Apiu 

der Jacquin in 1773 identified it with a species now known 
^ iiiiji leptopliijllam ; and C'aruel in 1889 identitied it with 
Pfi/chotis amnioidcs. But examination of the type-specimens in 
the Linnean Herbarium and the British Museum shows that it is 
Carum copticuin, a well-known medicinal plant which yields the 
Ajowan seeds atid Ajowan oil of commerce, from which thymol is 
obtained. Linnaeus gave it the trivial name A7n)ni because he 
believed it to be the source of the "seeds of the true Ammi" of 
pharmacy: " Anunios veri semina." 

The history of the drug Annul goes back nearly 2000 years. 
Dioscorides, \\ ho lived in the first century of the Christian era, 
described it as having a minute seed with the fiavour of marjoram. 
The illustration in the ' Codex Vindobonensis,' which dates from 
the sixth centurv, represents Ammi Visiucja. The Ammi 



depicted by FiiL'li.sius in the sixteeiilh ceuUiry was A mmi majtis ; 
and the plant fissured l)y iMattliioliis about. Llie same time was 
Plifcholis aniiiioiiles. JJut when \vh turn to the beautiful plates of 
Uiiibeliit'ei'ie published by Kivinius at the end of the seventeenth 
century we find that tlie oilicial Am mi of that date was Garum 
coj>ticum. This is continued by the specimen of Amuii in tlie 
herbarium of l''ern) (at the British ]\Juseuni), a A'^enetian apothe- 
cary who died in 1()74. The geographical source of the drug also 
suggests tliat the true Amnii was C'arian copticum. The best 
quality of Ammi was imported from Alexandria, but was actually 
grown ill Arabia, where Carum copticum is still cultivated. 

One point remains to bo cleared up: the native country of 
Canon cojiticuin. It is or has been cultivated in Egypt. Abyssinia, 
Arft-bia, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, 
India, and the JNJaiay Archipelago; but is nowhere certainly 
known in a wild state. 

A discussion followed, in which Mr. E. G. Baker and Lt.-Col. 
Tull Walsli engaged, the latter remarking that in India Ajowan 
seeds were chewed for their carminati\e properties. 

Next followed two papers by Dr. Walteb E. Colling ic, " On 
the Isopod Eluma ccvlatum {^Wers) ^=purpura!icens, 
Bndde-Lund," and "On two Terrestrial Isopods from Mada- 

Dr. W. T. Caiman, F.Ii.S., remarked that one of the species 
named was in the British Museum, but described for the first 
time b}^ the Author. 

Mrs. Arbee, D.Sc, communicated a paper by the late Dr. E. A. 
Newell Arber, entitled " Critical Stu(]ies of Coal-Measure Plant- 
impressions." It dealt with the following subjects: — I. A Revision 
of the British Upper Carboniferous species of the genus Lepido- 
strolms, Broiign., preserved as incrustations. II. LcpidocUndron 
h/copodioides, Sternb., L. o/Jiiuvtis, Brongn., and a new species. 
III. JS^euroj>teru- ohliqva, Brongn., and xV. cullosa, I^esq. 

Mr. C. Turner showed the zygospores of Staurastrum Diclciei 
under the microscope; he also brought mounted slides for distri- 
bution. Drosera rotundi folia, Linn., and O.vj/coccus jyalvstris, Pers., 
were also laid on the table for the same purpose. 

Dr. G. P. Bidder and Lt.-Col. J. U. Tull Walsh raised certain 
points whifh were replied to by the exhibitor. 

INIr. JosEi'ii Burtt-Davt gave a summary of his paper, " A 
Eevision of tiie South African s])ecies of Dianthns." A few words 
on the (Teographical Distribution closed the paper. 

Mr. F. N. Williams, Mr. T. A. Sprague, Mr. E. G. Baker, 
Dr. Stapf, r.H.S., and Dr. A. W. Hill, F.R.S., spoke on the paper. 



Lisr in accordance tvith Bye-Laws, Chap. XVii. Sect. 1, of all 
Donations of the amount or value of Tiventy pounds and 
upwards, received during the past Tweniij years. 


Eoyal Society: Contribution toward Dr. Elliot Smitli's paper, =£150. 
Legacy from the late Dr. K. C. A. Prior, £100 free of duty. 
Mrs. Sladen : Posthumous Portrait of the late Walter Percy 

Sladen, by H. T. VV^ells, 11 A. 
B. Arthur Bensley, Esq. : Contribution to his paper, .£44. 


Royal Societv : Grant in aid of third volume of the Chinese Eloi'a, 

Frank Crisp, Esq. (afterwards Sir Frank Crisp, Bt.) : Cost of 

Supplementary Koyal Charter. 
The same : BuUiard ^J. B. F.). Herbier de la F'rance ; Diction- 

iiaire ; Histoire des plantes veneneuses; Champignons, in 

10 vols. Paris, 1750-lSll>. 


Royal Societv : First grant in aid of Dr. G. H. Fowler's ' Biseayan 

Plankton.' £50. 
Executors of the late G. B. Buckton, Esq. : Contribution for 

colouring plates of bis paper, £26. 


Royal Society : Second grant towards ' Biseayan Plankton,' £50. 
Subscription portrait of Prof. S. H. Vines, by Hon. John Collier. 
Royal Swedish Acadeu7y of Science : Copies of portraits of C. von 

Linue, after Per KrafFt the elder, and A. Roslin, both by 

Jean Haagen. 


Royal University of Uppsala : Copy by Jean Haagen of portrait of 

C. V. Linne, by J. 11. Scbeffel (1739). 
Royal Society : Tliird and final grant towards 'Biseayan Plankton,' 

The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : First grant 

towards publication of Mr. Stanley Gardiner's Researches 

in the Indian Ocean in H.M.S. ' Sealark,' £200. 



Prof, (xustaf Retzius : Plaster cast of bust of Carl von Liiine, 
modelled by Walther liuneberg from tbe portrait by Scbeffel 
(1739) at Linnes llammarby : the bronze orif^inal designed 
for tlie facade of the new building for the lloyal Academy of 
Science, Stockhohn. 

Miss Sarali iNlarianiie Silver (afterwards Mrs. Sinclair), F.L.8. 
Cabinet formerly belonging to Mr. S. W. Silver, P.L.S. 


The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Funtl : Second grant 
towards publication of Mr. Stanley Gardiner's Kesearcbes in 
the Indian Ocean in H.M.S. ' Sealark,' iJ200. 

Prof. James William llelenus Trail, IMl.S., F.L.S. : Gift of £100 
in Trust, to encourage Research on the Nature of Proto- 


Royal Society : Grant towards Dr. G. H. Fowler's paper on 

Biscayan Ostracoda, .£50. 
Sir Josepii Hooker : Gold watch-chain worn by Robert Brown, 

and seal with portrait of Cai'l von Linne by Tassie. 
Prof. J. S. Gardiner : Payment in aid of illustrations, .£35 Os. Gd. 
Sir Frank Crisp : Donation in Trust for Microscopical Research, 

The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Third grant 

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Note on the Occurrence of Bracliiomonas sp. 
By W. Xeilson Jomes, M.A., F.L.S. 

[Read 1st December, 11)21.] 

The sudden nppearance of many of the simpler algse iu a locality 
and their equally suddeu disappearance from it is a well-known 
phenomenon. The present coninumication deals with a mysterious 
visitation of this kind, which is worth putting on record on account 
of the rareness of the species in question and of the unorthodox 
conditions under which it was found growing. 

Brachiomonas is a unicellular green alga belonging to the sub- 
family Chlamydomonadece of the family VolvocineiB. It it charac- 
terised by possessing a cell-body furnished with four regularly 
disposed hollow lateral horns, each of which is curved backwards, 
and a fifth posterior horn whicli is straight. At the apical end 
are two long cilia arising from a slight wart-like protuberance. 
The nucleus is situated anteriorly ; a large pyrenoid is present 
towards the posterior end. The chloroplast appears, in most cases 
at least, to extend not quite to the tips of the horns : this is 
specially noticeable in the posterior horn. The proto[)lasm, how- 
ever, extends to the distal end of each horn. Reproductioti takes 
place (1) by the formation of four zoospores within the body of 
the mother-cell, which retains its motility up to the moment that 
the zoospores are liberated — or even a little longer; (2) by the 
formation of gametes of smaller size than the zoospores, 16 in each 
mother-cell, which conjugate in pairs to form a resting zygote. 
The organisms progress forward with a somewhat jerky move- 
ment, rotating about their longitudinal axes. 

The botany garden at Bedford College possesses, among other 
possible locutions for algae, a small lily pond about 2 feet deep 
ami a winding " ditch " of varying depth. The latter, ow ing to 
defects in the concrete, had been allowed to dry out in the summer 
of 1920 preparatory to repairs being carried out : in May 1921 
it was for the most part dry, although some of tlie deeper parts 
still contained water. 

During May, material of Clamydomonas was required, and 
samples of water were collected from the garden and examined in 
the laboratory. In three cases the water was found to contain 
an ahnost pure culture of Bracliiomonas. In every case these 
samples had been taken from sliallow pools formed in the ditch 
by recent rain — the lily pond and the deeper pools showed no 
evident signs of the alga. 

The appearance of this plant in London becomes the more in- 
teresting when its known distribution is considered. So far as 
I have ascertained, there are recorded in the literature only three 


stations in u hicli Brachiomonus has been found : Sheerness in 
Kent, .Stockholm in Sweden, and Constanta on the Black Sea — 
in all cases in brackisii water. 

It must bo presumed, therefore, that in the present case the alga 
was transported a distance of at least forty miles, either by wind 
to be deposited e\entiially by rain, or possibly by the sea-birds 
which visit Kegent's Park constantly. One must not forget, 
however, that if the plant occurs at Sheerness, it may extend up 
the estuary of the Thames, even though unrecorded. Although 
the distance travelled in the latter case would not have been so 
great, the mechanism of transport remains an unsolved problem. 

During the fortnight or more that the plant was kept under 
observation, it appeared to be in perfectly healthy comlitioii, in 
spite of the fresh-water habitat. 

The earliest account is that of K. Bohlin (1897), whose material 
\\as obtained from brackisii water off tlie Swedish coast, the 
salt content of the water being about one-third that of the open 
sea. A second description is given by E. C. Teodoresco of 
material obtained by him at Constanta on the Bhick Sea. There 
the alga was found under similar conditions to those described by 
Bohlin, viz. in rock pools containing brackish water. A description 
in considerable detail is given by (t. S. West (1907) of material 
obtained from brackish marshes at Sheerness. The alga was then 
reported to be common there in February: whether this is still 
the case I have not ascertained. 

Bohlin distinguished two species, B. suhmarina and B. r/racilis, 
the former possessing a more spherical and massive bodj' and 
shorter horns. West referred the Sheerness organism to B. sub- 
iiiai'liia after some hesitation, since the specimens showed much 
variability and were, on the whole, intermediate in form, none 
having processes so short as figured by Bohlin for B. suhmarina, 
nor the anterior ])art of the cell so flattened or the posterior horn 
so long as figured for B. r/racilis. The London samples also 
showed very great variability. If there are t«o species of 
Brachiomonas, then I think it likely that both were present in 
the samples examined by me. An alternative view is that one is 
dealing with a single species which exhibits a great range of form. 

To summarise: — Brachiomonas, a genus hitherto recorded only 
from three widely-separated stations in brackish water, is now 
put on record for London growing in fresh water under conditions 
which .suggest that it may have been deposited with rain or 
brought by sea-birds. The individual plants showed great varia- 
bility of form, ranging between the types figured by Bohlin as 
B. suhmarina and B. gracilis. 

My thanks are due to Prof. F. E. Fritch for identifying the 
material as B, suhmarina. 

Bohlin, K. — Zur Morphologie und Biologie einzelliger Algen, 
Ofversigt af Kongl. Yet.-Akad. Fcirhandl. 1897, No. 9, 


Tkohoresco, E. C. — Materiaux pour la flore algologique tie la 
Eoumanie. Bot. Centralb. Bd. xxi, Abt. ii. Heft 2. 

West, G. S. — 8oiue critical Green Algse. Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. 
xxxviii. (1908), pp. 279-289, tab. 20, 21. 

Bed lord College, 
Kegeiit's Park. London, N.W. 1. 
Nov. 1921. 

The Life-History ot" Stanrastrum Dicl'u'l var. parallelum (Nordst.). 
By Charles Turner, E.C.S., Manchester. (Communicated 
by the General Secretary.) 

[Read Gth April, 19i>2. 

(Plate 1.) 

The summer of 1921 was characterised by the long period of dry 
weatlier during June and July ; the pastures were withered and 
the grass beside the railways was burned in large patches. 
Towards the end of the latter month I went to Glyn Ceiriog, a 
picturesque district about four miles south of Llangollen. The 
chief attraction is perhaps the little river Ceiriog, a tributary of 
the Dee, which flows down tlie valley and is a stream well known 
to the disciples of I/aac Walton for the excellence of the trout- 
fishing and for the Eish Hatcheries near Chirk. When the rain- 
fall is abundant the stream becomes a torrent, but the long 
drought had caused its diminution, and the curi'eut had become 
negligible in tlie detached pools which had been left at the side of 
the stream. The district is in the Silurian formation, and tliere 
are quarries of granite and slate as well as deposits of limestone 
in the vicinity. I was looking out for Alg*, and had a small 
microscope with me for the prcliminaiy e.xploration. After 
a few days of introductory exploration, I settled down to 
a semi-stagnant pool by the side of the river, not far from a 
farm known to tourists as the place in wliich the chair of the 
celebrated A\^elsh Bard, Hugh Morris, is still to he seen. One 
of the slides which I have prepared has on it more than a hun- 
dred zygospores of Staurastrum Diclclei \av. jjaraUeJum (Nord^iK), 
in addition to those of two other Desmids, and the material has 
yielded literally thousands of these in all stages of development. 
I consider this to be largely due to the stagnation caused by the 
drought. I had living material under observation for about three 
weeks, and prepared many slides from it on the spot, in addition 
to several dozen which 1 have subsequently obtained from pre- 
served specimens. 

When I considered the great number of zygospores, I thought 
I should be certain to find many conjugating individuals, and, 
with that idea, I collected fresh material every day. AVhen 
I returned home I found a large number showing the jdieno- 
menon which 1 had previously failed to recognise. 


The coiitlitiou of stagiuitioii appears to mo to be coiulucive to 
coiiiui;ati()ii. Filaments of ^piro'Hira frequently become coated 
with debris of various iiiiids during tlie process, and tlie "bacteria' 
associated with the Glyn material constitute a notable feature. In 
addition to JJesmids, enormous num[)ers of IScenedesmus ohliquus, 
cells of a species of T(>/'m^<, filaments of tSj)iroc/i/ra with zygospores, 
and CEdot/oiiium with ougonia. and many larvae were present. 

It is well known that Desmids have the power of locomotion, 
and that their movemt-nts are influenced by light. They usually 
set themselves so that the longer axis points in the direction of 
the sLrongest illumination, and they occasionally swing round on 
one extremity. These Desmids are almost as broad as they are 
long, nevertheless the movements probably occur, and the debris 
witii whicii tliey are associated acts bolh as a helpiuid a hindrance 
in this : it forms a substratum for their sup|>ortand prevents them 
from becoming widely separated, so that they become associated 
in large numoers. It is rather noteworthy that the greater 
number of Desmids composing this association are almost of the 
same size, namely 26 yn to 30 /x ; they almost look as if they had been 
sifted, though there are at least three s|)ecies present. They may 
be found in several positions, and their movements seem to be 
due to gamotactic rather than lieliotactic force. 'J'lie Desmids are 
arranged symmetrically and asymmetrically, both in front and in 
apical view as well as superposed. 

The three-r.iyed form of Desmid is more abundant than four- 
rayed, and, as might be expected, the conjugation of the two 
three-rayed forms is the most common ; I have several times 
seen the conjugation of a three-rayed with a four-rayed form, but 
have not yet observed the conjugation of two four-rayed modili- 
cations, though I have searched for this. It will be noticed that 
when the zvgospores germinate, three-rayed Desmids sometimes 
occur in the same protoplasm with the four- rayed forms — that is 
to say, that the same spore gives rise to both kinds simultaneously. 
Desmids with a four-rayed end and a three-rayed end are also met 

In the early stages of the conjugation of tlie Desmids there is 
a protrusion of protoplasm from the plants. In a specimen which 
I iiad under observation for an hour or so immediately after its 
removal fron) tlie river pool, the granules in the protoplasm were 
"dancing" conspicuously in this protrusion, and they continued 
in movement until I was obliged to leave the microscope. The 
material had dried up when I again examined it. As a rule there 
is no conjugation tube, and the contents of the two Desmids com- 
mingle in the water. I was fortunate enough to secure one 
specimen, however, in whicli the somewhat uncommon formation 
of the conjugation tube was well shown. The total length of the 
two Desmids and the tube was about 70^. The Desmids were 
about 28 /J in length and almost of the same diameter. The con- 
jugation tube was about 30 fj. in length, perhaps 35 fj in extreme 
measurement, there was some overlapping, and it varied in dia- 
meter from 10 fx to 15/u. The Desmids were asymmetrically 


placed, and there seemed to be a slight indication of diil'ereiice of 
sex, as the contents of one Desmid were passing to the other 
without ii corresponding return. The wall or membrane of the 
tube was very delicate and fragile. There are several examples 
which have become separated from their conjugating partner and 
show a small protuberance between the semi-cells. One specimen, 
which can only be regarded as a monstrosity, has developed a 
large bulging swelling, apparently well covered by a cell-v»a]l, 
and it has continued its existence in a distorted form, deciding 
that it would not die until it was compelled to do so. 

I think that it is quite possible that a conjugation tube may 
be formed more frequently than it is observed ; any rough treat- 
ment would easily destroy it. Evidence of conjugation without 
its formation is abundant ; this is the onlv specimen which I have 
seen with the tube really complete. 

The spores are formed in the water between the two Desmids, 
and, at first, the protoplasm is surrounded by a gelatinous 
coating which changes into the hardened wall and develops 
spines. It is difficult to trace the early stages of the nucleus 
during the process of the growth, as the oil-drops, which consti- 
tute a prominent feature of the metabolic processes going on 
within the zygospore, obscure the other cell-contents. When the 
cell-contents are set free, they ultimately increase greatly in size, 
and the oil disappears, doubtless forming food for the young 
Desmids. If W(^ consider the nucleus of the parents to be haploid 
and the conjugation nucleus to be diploid (of which I can offer no 
evidence), the subsecpient division of the contents of the spore 
into four masses is probably of the nature of a reduction division, 
and this process may be commonly and easily seen. As previously 
mentioned, there were great numbers of zygospores produced last 
year, and I obtained many dozen showing this formation of four 
" Desi.iid Mother Cells " before the contents leave the spore. The 
oil-drops have gone, and a tetrad formation appears to have 
taken place ; three nuclei with their surrounding protoplasm and 
colouring matter are seen in focus at the same time, and the fourth 
is concealed by the other three ; thev do not at first fill the spore, 
but are widely separated from each other and arranged near the 
spore coats; later they inci'ease in size, and the four masses of 
protoplasm collectively fill the entire space, the division between 
them still remaining distinct. 

The cell-contents appear to be of slightly lower specific gravity 
than the spore-coat. The first indication of a germination is the 
contraction of the plasma membrane, and the cell-contents, in 
almost every instance, come to the upper surface of the sj)ore ; 
I have seen very few dehiscing laterally — the contents escape in 
an upward direction; possibly the empty spore-coating sinks; at 
any rate, the contents do not remain associated w ith their former 
abode; the empty cases do not appear in numbers proportionate 
to those of the developing embryonic Desmids. 

Three or four nuclei may be seen in the escaping contents, and 
four, three, two, or only one embryonic Desuiid may result ; 


there is frequently an atropliied uucleuH w lien the smaller mini hers 
are t'ormed. The division ot" the conjugation miclens into four, 
and the accimudation of the cytoplasm etc. into four Desmid 
mother-cells, each with a distinct nucleus, is abundantly shown by 
my microscope preparations. There are a great many zygospores 
wliie-h show this most clearly. It is to be seen in the spores 
whilst they are still associated Avith the old semi-cells of the 
parent Desmids. The protoplasmic masses at tliis stage are con- 
nected by threads only, and are divided by broad spaces; they 
appear to increase in size in the older zygospores, many of which 
show the component parts of the tetrad consisting of naked masses 
of ])rotoplasni, only separated by the merest line — they are prac- 
tically in contact, except at the point where three mother-cells 
ap]n'oxiniate. I was some time before 1 found the division of the 
cell-contents into two parts; this phase is much less abundant 
than the tetrad one. 

When 1 Knd the young Desmids enclosed in the protoplasm, 
I have no hesitation in saying that they have been formed from the 
spore. There are many amoeboid masses of protoplasm on the slides 
wliie-h do not show this, and they may, or may not, constitute the 
early stage of the escaped contents. The first indication of the 
production of the young Desmids is the formation of a hyaline 
district surrounding a central area, nuclear mass, or masses. These 
soon show the outlines of the Uesmids. I lind two almost mature 
in each moss most commonly : there are few slides out of the 
several dozen which I have prepared which do not contain at 
least one specimen showing this ; many have three or four. The 
number showing one Desmid only is approximately the same ; 
the majority are of the tri-radiate form, one or two show the 
tetra-i'adiate modification only. The number of clusters of three 
embryonic Desmids is less than that of the little clusters of 
two, and I have seen perhaps half-a-dozen clusters of four — the 
four nuclei do not always survive. I have found four dead, also 
eight empty semi-cells, enclosed in a surrounding membrane — the 
remains of the enclosing protoplasm. 

The protoplasm surrounding the young Desmids is very granular 
at first, and I have three or four times seen the same protoplasmic 
mass containing three-rayed and four-rayed forms. One of the 
best examples of this escaped capture, one has moved, but I still 
have one or two slides illustrating this phenomenon. 

The vegetative division of the Desmid is sometimes of the 
normal type, namely that a bulging protuberance is formed by 
each semi-cell, the two swellings being soon covered by a cell- 
wall and gradually increasing in size till they reach the dimensions 
of the old semi-cell. In other instances only one circular central 
cell is formed between the semi-cells ; this sometimes elongates 
wnth the production of an hour-glass contraction in the centre, 
and two Desmids result. In a third method a central heart- 
shai)ed cell is formed by the asymmetric divison of the bulging 
portion ; the two terminal semi-cells approach each other, the 

PROC. Linn. Soc. 1921 22. P. . 1. 

V * /\V' / 





--1 *. 
1 -^.^ 





12 13 

C. Tuincv.acl.& i.lift. 


15 [ihotosf 


lieart-sliaped cell begins to divide at its broadest end, and the two 
Desniids which ultimately result are so arranged that conjugation 
would he a natural sequel. 

I am indebted to Dr. O. Borge, of Stockholm, for very kindly 
identifying the specimen for me, and a beautiful little sketch of 
it which he was good enough to draw. 


Si a lira strum Dkkiei var. parallel um, Nordst. 

Figs. 1. & 2. Early stages of conjugation. Fig. 1. vertical view ; Fig. 2, front 

Fig. 3. Conjugation complete, with the early stage of the zygo.spore. 
4. The unusual formation of a conjugation tube, 
f). The mature zygos]iore, showing the contents divided into four (the 

fourth being concealed by the other three), 
(i. A zygospore with the contents divided into two parts. 

7. The contents of the spore contracted and escaping. 

8. Tl)e esca)ied contents of the zygospore, showing four embryonic 

Desmids (three vertical view, one front view) surrounded by the 

9. Four Desmids (two vertical view, two front view) with their sur- 

rounding periplasm. 
^ 10. Tln-ee Desmids (one of them a four-rayed form) produced in the 
escaped contents of a zygospore. 
11. The usual arrangement of three Desmids in tlie escaped contents 
(vertical view). 
Figs. 12 & 13. Two Desmids (fig. 13 with an atrophied nucleus) produced from 
a zygospore. The arrangement shown in these two figures is most 
frequently met with. 
Fig.'14. An embryonic four-rayed form with its surrounding protoplasui. 

15. A Desmid (vertical view), .showing a four-rayed end ai.d a three-rayed 
end in the same individual. 

Tlie Desmids are 26 /x to 28 f* in length, and are of the same diameter. Tlie 
zygospores are o.'i /i to 38 ju in diameter, without tlie spines, wiiieh are S fx to 
lU/i in lengtii, making a total diameter of .'lO /i to bb fi. 

Faria iiifernalis, Linnaeus. 

By Sir Arthur E. Shipley, G.B.E., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

[Read 15th June, 1922.] 

In the classical tenth edition of his ' Systema Natuiw,' that of 
1758, Linnteus gives on page 644 the following list of genera 
of his Group Intestixa : Oordius with three species, Faria 
witli one species, Lumbricns with two species, Ascaris with 
two species, Fa^ciola with two species, Hirudo with eight s|)ecies, 
MijA'me with one sjjecies, Teredo with two species. 

Mijccine, the cyclostoni.e fish, and Teredo, the boring mollusc, 
obviously had nothing to do with the Intestina. 

Altogether his characterisation of the species enumerated above 
occupies only four and a half pages. 

The history of Furia is a curious one. Dr. Daydon Jackson 
records in his interesting article on Linnaeus in the ' Encyclopjodia 


Bfitaimica ' that "wliilst botanisiiig in tlio spring of 1728, 
Liniueiis was jittackeJ by wlial. he roiisidercd to be a venomous 
animal, at'terwards named by him Fm-'ta infenialis, in allusion to 
the torment and tlanger he suffered from it." 

The following is a translation of Jtndolphi's remarks on 
Fnriii * : — 

'' With 13lumenbac!i and others of our more recent writers 
I exclude Fttria, a creature never seen by observers of nature 
spokeu of as a worm and yet as flying in the air. .Should you, 
however, incline to believe in sneli an animal it most assuredly 
will not belong to the Vermes, but will be the larva of an insect 

" ("27. Furia inferiinlls vermis et nb eo concitari solitus morbus 
descripti a Dan. C. Solander. In Nov. Act. Upsal. vol. i. pp. 44- 

" Versio germanica : D. Solauder's Treatise on the Mordw urm 
and the disease caused thereby. Translated by J. i\.E. Goeze in 
Der Naturforscher, St. xi. pp. 183-204. 

" That Linnaeus (Amoju. Acad. vol. iii. p. 322) regarded it as a 
dry worm (verinem siccum), but so elusive (evanidum) that it was 
not possible to define its genus or species. Neither did Solander 
ever see it, but constructs its character from accounts derived 
from other people: body filiform, continuous, equal, ciliated on 
both sides with retlexed adpressed spurs. That it descends from 
the air upon men and beasts and causes a disease called Skott — 
that is, stroke (ictuni); very frequent in Northern Sweden, par- 
ticularly in Lapland Torneaensi et Kjemensi. 

" Analecta tow:irds the iiistory of Furin infernalifi Car. Godofr. 
Hagen, [Pries., resp. C. Metzger] Kegiomontan., [1790] 22 pp. 
4to. For the existence of Fw'ia, although he concedes the 
little creature (animal culum) never to have been seen by any 
person worthy of credit. Query: whether it is right to admit 
things of this sort into a system. 

" Sliigtet Dodskott (Furia) by Adolph Modeer. In Nya 
Yetensk. Akad. Handl. 1795, pp. 143-1G7. Puts forward many 
things abiHit the Furia iiif,runlis, and classes it in \he same g^nus 
with t/hat fabulous little creature (animalcnlo) the Fihtria medin- 
ensis (which he wrongly supposes to have bristles), a thing greatly 
to be reprobated." 

The following account of the incident is taken from the Diary 
of LiniiJBiis, translated for Maton's edition of Pulteney f: — 

" In the spring of 1728, Linnseus went in a herborising ex- 
cursion with Matthias Benzelstierna, to a very pleasant spot at 
Fagle-sang, where, having taken off some of his clothes on account 
of the heat, he was bitten in the riglit arm by a worm, called Furia 
ivfenialis. The arm innnediately become so violently swollen and 

* 'Eiitozoorum sive verniiiim intestinaliuin Historia Naturalis,' vol. i. 
p. 171 (180S). 

t 'A General View of the Writing of Linnajiis,' by Kichard Pultenev, London. 
1805. 2nd edition, p. 516. 


inflamed that his life was endangered, especially as Stobcens being 
about to set off for the Mineral \\aters of Hehinborg, he was left 
to the care of * * *. Siiell, however, having made an incision, the 
whole length of his arm, restored him to his former health. He 
nassed, tlierefore, the summer vacation with his parents in 
fSm aland." 

Nobody seems to have been able to identify this " pessmia 
omnium," as it is called in the Tenth Edition. We may, I think, 
follow the example of Eailliet and regard it as one of the " para- 
sites fabuleux." What probably stung Linnreus was a virulent 
insect, which may very well have conveyed to his system some 
pathogenic germs unknown in the tiuie of tlie great systeraatist. 




L 1 13 11 A R Y. 


Abreu {Dr. Elias Santos). Monografia de los fungivoridos de las 
Islas Canarias. (Mem. E.. Acad, Cieiic. Artes, xvi.) 

4to. Barcelona, 1920. Author. 

Mouografia de los Phoridos de las Islas Canarias. (.Mem. 

K. Ac-ad. Cieiic. Artes, xvii.) 4to. Barcelona, 1921. Author. 

Arnold Arboretum. Journal, vols. I.> 8vo. Cambridge, 19iy> 

Atlases. 'The Times ' Survey Atlas of the World, 1922. 

British Museum (Natural History). 

British Antarctic ('Terra Nova') Expedition, 1910. Natural 
History Keports. 4to. London, 1921. 

Zoologj'. Vol. III. No. 7. Crustacea, Pt. V. Ostiacoda. By E. W. 
No. 8. Crustacea, Pt. YI. Tanaidacea and Isopoda. 


No. 9. lusecta, Pt. I. Colleiubola. By George H. 
Insecta, Pt. II. Mallopbaga. By James 
Vol. IV. No. 1. Protozoa, Pt. I. Parasitic Protozoa. By 
H. M. Woodcock and Oliver Lodge. 

Catalogue of the Fossil Bryozoa (Polyzoa) in the Department of 
Geology. The Cretaceous Bryozoa (Polyzoa), Vol. III. 
The Cribrimorphs— Pt. I. By W. D. Lang' 

8vo. London, 1921. 


A Handbook of tiie British Lichens. By Annie Lorrain 
Smttii. 8vo. London, 1921. 

GuinE-BoOKS, ETC. 

Guide to the Gallery of Birds in the Department of Zoology. 
Parti. Text and Atlas. 8vo. London, I92l. 

Summary Guide to the Exhibition Galleries. 8vo. London, 1922. 

Guide to the Specimens illustrating the Eaces of Mankind 
(Antliropology) exhibited in the Department of Zoology. 

8vo. London, 1921. 

Guide to the Keptiles and Batrachians exhibited in the Depart- 
ment of Zoloogy. 8vo. London, 1922, 


Guide to the Wliales, Porpoises, and Dolphins (Ordei- Cetacea) 
exhibited in (lie Department of Zoology. Svo. London, 1922. 
Guide to the Specimens of the Horse Familj' (Equidae) ex- 
hibited iu the Depai'tnieut of Zoolog3^ 8vo. London, 1922. 
Guide to the Galleries of Mainiiials in the Department of 
Zoology. Svo. London, 1921. 

A Guide to the Fossil liemains of Man in the Department of 
Geology and Palaeontology. Svo. London, 1922. 

A Guide to the Fossil Eeptiles, Amphibians, and Fishes in the 
Department of Geology and Palaeontology. Svo. London, 1922. 
Economic Series : 

]\o. 2. — Tlie Louse as a Menace to Man. Its Life-History 
and Methods for its Destruction. 13y James Watbrston. 

Svo. London, 1921. 

No. 12. — The Cockroach. Its Life-History and how lo deal 

with it. By Frederick Lang. Svo. London, 1921. 

No. 13. — Mites injurious to Domestic Animals (with an 

appendix on the Acarine Disease of Hive Bees). 

Svo. London, 1921. 
Instructions for Collectors: 

No. 1. — Handbook of Instructions for Collectors. Fourth 

Edition. Svo. London, 1921. 

No. 2. — Birds and their Eggs. Svo. London, 1921. 

Camus (E. G.). Iconographie des Orehidees d'Europe et du 

Bassin Mediterrane'en. Text and Atlas. 

4to. & Folio, Paris, 1921. 
Chanveaud (Giistave). La Constitution des Plantes vasculaires 
rcvelee par leur ontogenie. Svo. Paris, 1921. Author. 

Chopard (L.). kiee Faune de France. III. 

Cooper (C. S.) and Westell (W. Percival). Trees and Shrubs of 
the British Isles: Native and Acclimatised. 2 vols. 

4to. London, 1909. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 
Cuuuingliam (J. T.). Hormones and Heredity. 

Svo. London, 1921. 
Davidson (John). The Cascara Tree in British Columbia. 

Svo. Ottmva, 1922. Author. 

Dean (William). An account of Croome d'Abitot 

with notices of the Coventry fauiily, to which are annexed 

an Hortus Croomeusis, and observations on the propagation of 
exotics, etc. 4to. Worcester, 1824, S. Savage. 

De Toni (G. B.). La flora marina dell' isola d'Elba e i contributi 
di Vittoria Altoviti-Avila Toscanelli. 

Svo. Padova, 1916. Author. 
Doncaster (Leonard). An Introduction to the Study of Cytology. 

Svo. Cambridge, 1920. 

Edwards (Henri Milne). Elemens de Zoologie. 

Svo. Bruxelles, 1837. Lieut.-Gol. J. H. TuU Walsh. 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. Eleventh Edition. Vols. 1-32, 

4to. Cambridge [1911-22]. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 


Faune de France. 1. Efhiiioderiiies. Par It. 
11. Oiseaiix. Par P. Paris. 
Ill, Orthoptcres et Uermapteres. Par L. 
8vo. Paris, 1921-22. Tagart Fund. 
Froggatt (Walter W.). Some Useful Australian Bird.s. 

8vo. Sydney, 1921. Author. 
Gallery of Portraits. AVith INfemoirs. Vols. L-llI. 

8vo. London^ 18:53-34. JJr. W. Rushton Parker. 
Gwynne-Vaughan {Dame Helen). Fungi : Ascomycotes, U.stila- 
ginales, Uredinnles. (Cambridge Botanical Handbnoks.) 

4to. Camhridge, 1922. 

Herdman {S\r William A.). Variation in Successive \"ertical 

Plankton Hauls at Port Erin. (Lancashire Sea-Fisli. Lab. 

Kept, xxix.) 8vo. Lii'crj:>ool, 1921. Author. 

Charles Kingsley and tlie Chester Naturalists. An 

Address delivered at the Jubilee Meeting of the Chester Society 
of Natural Science, October 13th, 1921. 

8vo. Chester, 1921. Author. 

Jungersen (Hector F. E.). See Steenstrup, Japetus. 

Kentiard (A. S.) and Woodward (B. B.). Tiie Post-Pliocene 

Non-Marine Mollusca of the East of England. (Proc. Geol. 

Assoc, xxxiii.) 8vo. 1922. Authors. 

Koehler (R.). >'See Faune de France. I. 

Lee (W. A.) and Tfavis (W. G.). The Muscinea^ of the Wirral. 

(Lanes, and Clu'sliii-e Nat. Ixiv.) 8vo. 1921. Authors. 

Mattirolo (I'rof. Oreste). Phytoalimurgia Pedeniontana. (Ann. 

R. Accad. Agric. Ixi.) 8vo. Torino, 1918. Author. 

Newport. Isle of Wight Natural History Society. Proceedings. 

Vol. I.> 8vo.' Newport, 1921-> 

Orchid Review, The Edited by E. Allen Eolfe. Vols. i.-xxx.-> 

8vo. Ketv, 1893-1922> 
Paris (P.). See Faune de France. II. 

Percival (John). The Wheat Plant. 4to. London, 1921. 

Petronievics (Branislav). L'Evolution Universelle. 

8vo. Paris, 1921. Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 
Printz (Heurik). The Vegetation of the Sibei-ian-Mongolian 
Frontiers. (The Sayansk Region.) 

4to. Trondhjem, 1921. Author. 

Rattray (James). A Botanical Chart or Concise Introduction to 

the Linnican System oP Botatiy. Glasyov [n. d.]. E. Step. 

Eeid {Mrs. E. M.). Eecherches sur quelques graines pliocenes du 

Pont-de-Gail (Cantal). (Bull. Soc. Geol. France, (4) xx.) 

8vo. 1920. Authoress. 
Rodger (Alex.). A Handbook of the Forest Products of Burma. 

8vo. Ranr/oon, 1921. Author. 
Rolfe (R. Allen). See Orchid Review. 
Savage (S.). A Little-known Bohemian Herbal. 

4to. London, 1921. Author. 


Scliinz (Salomon). Anleitung zu der Pllanzenkeniituiss unci 
tlerselbeii niit/.licbsten Aiiweiidung. Fol. Zurich, 1774. 

Scott (Dunkinfield Henry). Studies in Fossil BotaTiy. Third 
Edition. Vol. I. Ptericiophyta. 8vo. London, 1!)20. Author. 

Sendai. Atiatomischen Institut tiei' Kaisei'licli-Japanisclien 
Uiiiversitat Ai'beiteii. Heft i.-vii.> 8vo. Sendai, \d\i^^ 

Smith (Annie Lorraiu). Lichens. (Cambridge Botanical Hand- 
books.) 4to. Cambridge, 192]. 

A Handbook of tlie British Lichens. >S(2(3 British Museum 

(Nat. Hist.). Plants. 

Smith (Erwin F.). An Inrroductioii to Bacterial Diseases of 
Plants. 8vo. riidadelphia (Sf London, 1920. 

Steenstrup (Japetus). Mindeskrift i anleduing af hundredaaret 
for Japetus Steexstrups f0dsel udgi\'et af en kreds af natur- 
forskere ved Hector P. £. Jungersen og Era. Warming. 
Two volumes. 4to. Kobenhavn, 1914. 

Stone (Herbert). A Text-Book oF Wood. 

8vo. London, 1921. Author. 

Thiselton-Dyer (>S'm- William Turner). Plora. Reprint from the 
Third Edition of a Companion to Latin Studies, edited by 
Sir John Sandys for the Syndics of the University Press, 
Cambridge, 1921. 8vo. Author. 

Torcelli (Alfredo J.). Obras completas y Correspondencia 
cientiiica de Ploeestino Ameghino. Vols I. and XL 

8vo. La Plata, 1913-14. 

Travis (W. G.). See Lee (W. A.). 

Trotter (Pnif. Alessandro). La Ginestra [Spartium junceum, L.) 
sua utilizzazione ed imjtortanza come pianta tessile. 

4to. Napoli, 1919. Author. 

Troup (R. S.). The Silviculture of Indian Trees. 3 Vols. 

4to. Oxford, 1921. 

Vallentin [Mrs. E. F.). Illustrations of the Plowering Plants 
and Perns of the Falkland Islands, With Description by 
Mrs. E. M. Cotton. 4to. London, 1921. 

Wall {Col. Frank). The Snakes of Ceylon. 

8vo. Colombo, 1921. Author. 

Warming (Eug.). See Steenstrup (Japetus). 

Watson (White). An explanation of a Tablet representing a 
section of the Strata in Bewerly Liberty, near Pateley Bridge, 
Yorkshire. Sm. 8vo. London, 1800. H. W. Monckton. 

Westell (W. Percival) See Cooper (C. S.). 

Witherhy (H. F.). A Practical Handbook of British Birds. 
Vol. I. 8vo. London, 1920. 

Wolle {liev. Francis). Fresh-water Algse of the United States. 
Text and Atlas. 8vo. Bethlehem, Pa., 1887. Tagart Fund. 

Woodward (B. B.). See Kennard (A. S.). 


(The t'ollowiiig Obituary was received too late to be inserted on 
page 49.) 

WALTfciii Gkorge EiUEWoOD, wlio died 0)1 21st September 1921, 
was born in London on Ist February 1867, and studied at the 
Koyal College of Science from 1883 until 1887. He was interested 
in zoology, and from 1881 until 1917 he held a temporary appoint- 
ment in the British Museum (Natural History). During most ot" 
this period he was also lecturer on Biology in the St. Mary's 
Hospital Medical School. He was especially skilful in making 
anatomical preparations, and a very large proportion of those in 
the central hall of the Museum are his work. While occupied 
with the preparations lie availed himself of every opportunity for 
original observation and u)ade many important contributions to 
our knowledge of the anatomy of the A^ertebrata. His early 
paper on the structure and developmejit of the hyobranchial 
skeleton and larynx in Xcnoims and Pqia, published in the 
Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 26, was his thesis when he 
received the degree of D.Sc. from the University of London in 
1897. His later researches on the skull of certain Teleosteau 
fishes, pul)liahed partly by the Linnean Society, partly by the 
Zoological Society, were intended to be incorporated in a volume 
on the osteology of fishes, which unfortunately he never com- 
pleted. His last memoir, on the structure of the vertebrae of 
sharks and rays, was an especially valuable w ork publistied in the 
Philosophical Transactions of the Koyal Society in 1921. He 
also publislied a memoir on the gills of lamellibraneh ^lollusca in 
the Philosophical Transactions in 1903, and new observations on 
Cephalodiscus in the Keport of the British Autai'ctic (Terra JSova) 
Expedition in 1918. Dr. Ridewood was elected a Pellow of the 
Linnean Society on the 2Md March, 1893, and served on the 
Council from 1903-06 and 1910-14. [A. S. AV^] 


SESSION 1921-1922. 

Note. — Tlie fullovring are not indexed : — The name of the Cliairman at each meeting ; 
speakers whose remarks are not reported ; and passing allnsions. 

Abstracts, 57-65. 

Accessions, Librar}', 66-69. 

Acconnts, 24. 

Address, President's, 27-36 ; to medal- 
list, 36. 

JEsciilus rubictinda, 17. 

African spp. of Biaiithics, 52. 

Age and Area, 10. 

A/oe, drawings, z. 

Ahmiiniuni in Orilc^, 7. 

Amher with moss enclosed, 13. 

Ammi Visnaga, 51. 

Apiumleptophyllum, 51. 

Appleyard, P., adm. 18. 

Appointment of V.-Presidents, 50. 

Arber, the late Dr. E. A. N., Coal- 
Measure Plant-impressions, 52. 

Arber, Mrs., comm. by, 52. 

Arctic Expedition, 9. 

Arctic station in Grreenland, 14. 

Arum italicum, 16. 

Ashbj, E., adm. 18; Anstralian Chi- 
tons, 51; Orchids from Australia, 

Aspidomorpha saiictm-crucis, 12. 

Auditors, 17. 

Australian Chitons, 57; Orchids, iS. 

Bacon, Mrs. A. S., adm. 20; el. 15, 

prop. 5, 6. 
Bal, S. N., el. 50; prop. 11, 13. 
Ballots announced, 6, 7, 15. 
Banerji, Prof. S. 0., el. 15; prop. 9, 

1 1. 
Beamish, R. B., hybrid orange, 2. 
Bean cheese, 13. 
Bear Island bird-life, 15. 
Beccari, O., obituary, 37-40. 
Beetles from Bombay, 12, 

Benefactions, 1903-1922, 53-56. 
Benson, Prof. M., el. Oouncilloi-, 22. 
Berks Heleoplankton, 15. 
Bidder, J)r. G. P., el. Councillor, 

Biology of Samoa, 6. 
Bird-life in Bear Island and Spitz- 

bergen, 15. 
Blackburn, K. B., adm. 16; el. 7; 

read 2nd time, i. 
Blackman, Prof. V. H., retired, 22. 
Blow, T. B., Charophyta, 2. 
Boiler, new, installed, 2. 
Bombay, beetles from, 13. 
Boi-radaile, L. A., Shore Crab, 17. 
Bottomley, Prof. W. B., deceased, 20 ; 

obituary, 40. 
Boulger, Prof. G. S., deceased, 20 ; 

obituary, 40. 
Bourne, Sir A. G., withdr. 20. 
Bourne, Prof. G. C, Raninidaj, 7. 
Brachiomonas, 5 ; abstr. 57. 
British Museum, Watson's section of 

Derbyshire, 4. 
British jjlants, new, 16. 
British Primulas, pollination, 6. 
Brown, Dr. H. T., withdr. 22. 
Browne, E. T., app. V.-Pies., 50; el. 

Councillor, 22. 
End of Horse-chestnut, new terminal, 


Burmese Amber, 13. 

Burr, Capt. M.. withdr. 22. 

Burtt-Davy, J., see Davy, J. Burtt-, 5. 

Bury, H., i-etired, 22. 

Butler, F. B.-L., el. 13 ; prop, i, 3. 

Biitschli, Prof. O , For. Memb., de- 
ceased, II ; obituary, 41. 

Bye-Laws, proposed changes, 5, 6 ; 
carried, 7, 



C'liladenia spp., i8, 19; C. tutelata, 

Ctilman, Dr. W. T., el. Coimoillor, 22. 
Cameroons, visit to, 4. 
Campbell, F. M., add. to obituary, 4:. 
Canadian Arctic Expedition, 9. 
Carum copticiim, 51, 52. 
Canfio/jf tetragoiiu in Greenland, 14. 
Central Heating, 2. 
Cerastium subfetrandrum and C. tetran- 

drum, 16. 
Cereiis, drawings, 2. 
Ceylon Cbarophyta, 2. 
Cbarophyta frt)ni Ceylon, 2. 
Ciiiswic'k, Glycine Soja culture at, 12. 
Cliitoiis. Australian, 51. 
Chorda, cultures, 20. 
Christy, M.. Pollination of Primulas, 6. 
Cliristy, W. M.. witlidr., 22. 
Cissiis ani Rafflesia, 2. 
Citrus Aurantium var. sinensis, 2 ; 

C. trifuliatn, 2. 
Clarli, F. J., withdr. 22. 
Coal-ciieasure plants, 52. 
Coley, Miss II. M., succulent plant 

drawings. 3. 
Collins, Miss M., el. 13; prop, i, 3. 
Collinge, Dr. W. E., Eluma cxlatum, 

52 ; Isopods from Madagascar, 52. 
Cory, R., el. 15 ; prop. 9, 11. 
Council elected, 22. 
(Jrab, mouth-parts, 17. 
Vra.<sufa, drawings, 2. 
Cuenot, Prof. L., For. Memb., el. 18 ; 

prop. 13. 
Cyclamen corm, 51. 
Cymodocea habitat of Chitons, 51. 

Dallimore, W., wind effects on trees, 

Darlington, II. R., el. Auditor, 17 ; 

oil in Soj'a, 13. 
Davy, J. Burtt-, Sali.v in S. Africa, 51 ; 

S.'.\frican Dia/ithiis. 52. 
Delage, Prof. Yves, obituary, 42. 
Delf, Miss E. M., Mucrocyxtis, 8. 
Derbyshire, section. 4. 
Diau'thmt, rev. of S. African spp., 52. 
Dinner announced, 5. 
Disko Island flora, 14. 
Distribution of Plants and Animals, 

Diuris hi/brida, D. longifolia, D. macu- 

lata, b. palachila, 18. 
Dixon, H. N., Burmese Amber, 13. 
Ducie, Earl of, deceased, 21 ; obituary, 

Dutliie, J. F., deceased, 20; obituary, 

Pwarfing effects of wind, 12. 

Echinocactus, drawings, 2. 
Ecology of flora of Spitzbergen, 14. 
Edwards, .S., el. Auditor, 17; letired, 

Election of Council. 22 ; Oflicers, 23. 
h'mpetrum nigrum in Greenland, 14. 
Encyclupaedia Britannica presented, 6. 
Ericaceous plants in Greenland, 14. 
Evolution in Plants and Animals, 10. 
Exhanst-fan installed, 2. 

Fan, exhaust-, installed, 2. 

Fellows deceased, 21; obituaries, 37- 

49 ; withdr. 22. 
Ferns, distribution (Hooker Lecture), 


Flora of Jan Mayen Island, S ; of 
Spitzbergen, 14. 

Flower size in plants, 12. 

Fossil plants in Gi-eenland, 14. 

Foreign Members deceased, 22 ; obitu- 
aries, 37-49. 

Fritch, Prof. F. E., el. Councillor, 22. 

Furia iytfernalis, 51 ; abstr. 63. 

Garstang, Prof. W., adm. 16 ; el. 4. 
Garside, S., adm. 18 ; el. 15 ; prop, i, 3. 
Gasteria, drawings, 3. 
Gates, Prof. R. R., Flower size in 

plants, 12. 
General Secretary, obituaries, 37. 
Geographic distrib. of plants and 

animals, 6. 
Gibbons, A. J. F., withdr. 22. 
Gilson. Prof. G., el. For. Memb., 18; 

prop. 13. 
Glossodia, 16. 
Glycine Soja, culture, 12. 
Goodrich, Prof. E. S., el. Councillor, 

2 1 * Sec. 2 3. 
Goodrich, Prof. E. S., Skull from 

Rhodesia, 4. 
Gordon, Miss F. A., adm. 16; el. 13; 

pro)). I, 3. 
Great Ormc's Head. Wind effects at, 12. 
Greenland fossil plants, 14. 
Greenwood, W. F. ^' , prop. 50. 
Griffiths, B. M., adm. 16; el. 7; prop. 

!, 3 ; Helcoplankton of Berks, 15. 
Groom, J. B., withdr. 22. 
Groves, J., Ceylon Cbarophyta, 2. 
Gurney, R., el. 13 ; ])rop. i. 3. 
Owynne-Vaughan, Dame, app. V.-Pres., 

50; el. Councillor, 22. 

Ilarley, Dr. J., deceased, 20; obituary 
Harmer, Sir S. F., el. Councillor, 22. 


Ilaworlhiu, drawings, 2. I 

Healing, new boiler insLalled, 2. 
Heieopianktou of Berks, 15. I 

Jleiulerson, M. R., el. 7. 
Herbarium, Limiean, catalogued, 2 ; 

notes on (Suppl.,). 
Heidinan, Sir VV. A., Spolia Euniana, 

v., 15. 

Hill, Dr. A. W., Cameroons and Nigeria, 
4; Cyclamen corni, 51 ; el. Coun- 
cillor, 22. 

Hindle. Prof. E., el. 13 ; prop. 1, 3. 

Hogartli, W. O., el. 7; prop, i, 3. 

Hulluws, W. E., adni. i. 

Holtum, R. E.. Flora of Greenland. 14. 

Hooker Lecture, 50. 

Hunter. Major C, prop. 20, 50. 

Hybrid orange, 2. 

Hypnodendron in amber, 13. 

Impressions of Coal-measure plants, 52. 
Inheritance of flower size, 12. 
Isopods from Madagascar. 52. 

.Jai-kson, E. Da;, don. Catalogue of 
Linuean Herbarium, 2 ; notes on 
same (Suppl.) ; el. Councillor, 22 ; 
See. 3. 

Jan Maycn flora, 8. 

Johanssen, F., Canadian Arctic Ex- 
pedition, 9. 

Jones, Prof. W. NeiLson, BrachlvihUias, 
5; iibst. 57. 

Jourdain, Rev. F. C. K., bird-lite ot 
Bear Island and Spitzbergen, 15. 

Juel, Prof. H. O., visitor, 51. 

Justesen. P. T.. h'ajflesia. 2. 

•• Xarluk" in Arctic Expedition, 9. 

Kippist, R., re Herb. Linn., 2. 

Kirk, Sir John, deceased. 20; obituary, 

Klebs, Prof. G. A., P'or. Memb., de- 
ceased, 11,21; obituary. 47-49. 
• Kurubut," Malay name. z. 

Lacaita, C C. retued, 22. 

Ijamb, P. II.. el. 5c ; prop. 16, iS. 

L(i/iiiii(iriu cultures, 20. 

Lancum. F. H., adm. 15 : el. 13 ; prop. 

«. 3- 
Last, G-. V. C. el. 50; prop. 15, 17. 
i.ecbe. Prof. ,1. \\ . E. C, el. For. 

Memb., 18 ; prop. 18. 
Lecture, Hooker, 50. 
Lely, H. v., plants from ^.'igcria. 4 ; 

el. Fellow, 15 ; prop. 9, n. 
Lepidudendron lycopodioide.<, 52; L. 

(ijjfiiiirut!, 52. 
I.cpidostrobus revi.sion, 52. 
Jjibrarian's report, 22. 

Library accessions, 66-69. 
Linne and Fitria infernalis, 63. 
Linnean Herbarium catalogue, 2 ; notes 

on (Suppl.;. 
Linnean medallist, 36 ; his thanks, 

Llandudno, wind effects on trees, 12. 
Loder, G. W. E., el. Auditor, 17; 

■ Councillor, 22. 
Lomas, Miss VV. M. A., adm. 16; 

el 4. 
Lord. C. E.. el. 13 ; prop, i, 3. 
Lowe, E. E., withdr. 22. 
Ludford, W. C. G-., succulent ])lants, 2. 
Lyte, Henry, bis library, 19-20. 
Lytes Cary, 19. 

MacmiUau, H. F., el. 9 ; prop, i, 3. 
yiacnici/sfiti angustiJ'oUa, 8. 
jMainillaria. drawings, 2. 
Marchant. Rev. Sir J., withdr. 22. 
Marine biology of Samoa, 6. 
Marquand, C. V. B., el. 50: prop. 18, 

Matthai, Prof. G.. el. 13 : prop, i, 3. 
Mee-Power, C. J. C, withdr. 22. 
Mitchell-Hedges, F. A. M., el. 7 ; 

prop. I, 3. 
Mizauld, A., books presented, 19. 
Monckton, H. W., app. V.-Pres., :;i ; 

el. Councillor, 22, Treas. 23. 
Moretou, Rt. Hon. J., Earl of Ducie, 

deceased, 20; obituary, 43. 
Morris, Sir D. (comm.), 2. 
Moss in Amber, 13. 
Mouth-parts of Crab, 17. 
Musters, J. L. C, Jan Mayen Island 

flora. 8. 

Narramore, W., adm. 15. 

Nvuropteris rallosa, 52 ; N. ohiiqna, 52. 
Nigeria, visit to, 4. 

North. J. L., Gljiciue Soja culture, li. 
Nowell, W.. pi'op. 20, 50. 

Obituaries, 37-49. 

Oenothera, flower size in. i;. 

Officers elected, 22. 

Oil in Soya.. 13. 

Orchids from Australia, 18. 

Orilc.-i excdsa, aluminium in, 7. 

Oxford Exped, to Bear Island and 

Spitzbergen, i 5. 
O.vyria in Jan Mayen Island, 9. 

Parker. Dr. VV. R. (comm.), S ; thanks 
for gift,. 6. 

Perrier, Prof. J. O. E., Fur. Memb.. de- 
ceased, II, 21 : obituary, 49. 

Phi/Uocacftts, drawings, 2. 
i Plankton of Irish Sea. 1 v 




riiooene floras, lo. 
Pocock, R. 1., rttirod, 22. 
I*ollii)ntiuu of Priitml:i». 6. 
I'orsild, Dr., Arctic stalion, 14. 
Posidonia, habitat of Cliitons, 51. 
Potts, C'apt. F. A., Biology of Samoa, 

6 ; el. Councillor, 22. 
I'oiilton, Prof. E. E., Linnean medallist, 

President elected, 23 ; liis address. 27- 

36 ; — to ineduUist, 36. 
Prinndas, pollination, 6. 
Pteroti/i/lis sp\^.. 18. 
Pli/chotis ammoides, 51, 52. 

liafflcsia )>liotos, 2 ; 11. Anioldi, 2 ; JL 

Has»ellii, 2. 
Ranisbottoin, Capt. J., beetles from 

Eombay, 12 ; el. Councillor, 22. 
Raninid;i', 7. 
Rees, Miss E. M., adm. 18: el. 15; 

prop. 6, 7. 
Reid, D. M., adm. 18: cl. 15; prop. 

4. 5- 

Reid. Mrs. E. M., Pliocene floras. 10. 

Rendlf. ])r. A. B., el. Councillor, 22. 
Sec. 23; hor.^e-chcstiuit with new 
terminal bud, 17 ; hybrid orange, 2 ; 
Orilcii exccha, 7 ; Rufflesia, 2 ; seed- 
lings of horse-clicstnut after terminal 
bud removed, 51. 

Rhodesia, skull from, +. 

Richards. M. R., adm. 13. 

Bidewood. Di\ \V. (>., deceased, 20 ; 
obituary. 70. 

Ridley. H. N.. el. Auditor, 17: 
Raffiesia, '1 ; Soy and Bean Cheese, i 3. 

Robinson, J)r. B. L., el. For. Memb., 
18 ; prop. 13. 

Robinson-Douglas, W. D., deceased, 20. 

Rothschild, Lord, app. V.-Pres., 50; 
el. Councillor, 22. 

Rowntree, W. S., Scrutineer, 22. 

Saffina apetala, S. ciliata, and >'. fili- 

caulis, 16. 
Salisbury, Dr. E. J., el. Councillor, 22. 
.S'«//x in S. .'V.frica, 5; S. (jnriepina, 5; 

5. huilleims, 6 ; S. S'afiaf, 6 ; S. 
Woodii, 5. 

Samoa, bioh^gy of, 6. 

Salmon, C. E., el. Councillor. 22 ; new- 
British plants, 16. 

Scrutineers elected, 22, 23. 

Secretaries elected, 23. 

Seward, Prof. A. C, fossil jiiants in 
Greenland, 14; Hooker Lecture, 50. 

Sheppard, A. W., Scriilineer, 22. 

Sherrifls. VV R., adm. 9 ; el. 4. 

Shipley, Sir A. E., Fiiria iiifemalia, 51 ; 
abstr. 63. 

Silky oak with iiluminium deposit, 7. 

Sini])Sou. ?^. \).. el. 15 : )irup. 4, v 

Size and s-pace in distrib.. 10. 

Skull from Rhotlesia, 4. 

Smith, Miss E. P., adm. 18; el. 15; 

prop. 6, 7. 
Smith, MisB M., el. Associate, 1. 
Smith, Rev. Canon F. C, deceased. 20. 
Soar, Miss I., adm. 15; el. 13; jirop. 

Soy, manufacture, 13. 
Soya, culture at Chiswick. 12. 
Spengi-1, Prof. J. W., For. M.Mub.. 

deceased, 11, 21. 
Spitzbergen bird-life, 15 ; flora, 14. 
Spolia Rumania, V., 15. 
Sprague. T. A., el. Councillor. 22 : 

Jii.toii Aiinni, 51. 
Sf auras/rum iJkkiei var.. 17. 
Steel, T., aluminium in Orifes, 7. 
Stevens, W. S., el. 4. 
Subramaniam, L. S., el. 9. 

Taraxacum in Jan Mayen Island. 9. 
Thadani, K. I., el. 15 ; prop. 7. 
Thel limit ra. 18. 
Thotleci grandiflorn. 2. 
Thomas, J. T. N., deceased. 20. 
Treasurer elected, 23; his accounts. 24. 
Trees, wind effects on, 12. 
Turner. C, adm. Fellow, 50 ; el. 50 ; 
prop. 1 8, 20; Staurastriiiii, 17, 59. 

Ventilation of Meetnig Rouni, 2. 
\ipan. Major C. deceased, 20. 
A'ice-Presiclents appointed. 50. 

Walker, Comm. H., Scrutineer. 22. 
Walsh, Lt.-Col. J. n. T., thanks 

moved by, 36. 
Walton, J., ecology of flora of Spitz- 
bergen, 14. 
Watson, W.. section of Derbyshire, 4. 
Wheelwright, E. G.. withdr. 22. 
Williams, Prof. J. L., aaui. 18 ; Lani- 

inn'ia and Chorda. 20. 
Williamson, H. B., ad.u. 15: el. i 3 : 

]u-op. I, 3. 
Wilkins, W. H.. prop. 50. 
Willis. J. C. & G. U. Yule, Evolution 

in Plants and Animals. 10. 
Wind eftects on trees, 12. 
Wood ruffe-Peacock, Rev. E A.. 

deceased, 21 ; obituary, 49. 
Woodward, Dr. A. S.. el. Councillor, 

22 : President, 23 ; skull from 

Rhodesia, 6. 

Yermoloff, Sir N.. thanks seconded In. 

Yule. G. v., fee WiUi.s. J. C. 









Knight of the Swedish Order of the Polar Star, 

Hon. Ph.D., & A.M., Upsal. ; 

General Secretary of the Linnean Society of London. 

Forming a Supplement to the 'Proceeding's' of the 
Society for the 134th Session, 1921-22. 






Foreword 5 

Introduction 7 

The Linnean Herbarium 9 

Plan of Index (1912) 10 

Earlier Enumerations, 1753-1767 10 

List of Contributors to the Herbarium 11 

Linne as a Collector 21 

Signs used in the Herbarium 22 

Numbers employed 24 

Damage to Herbarium before 178^3 24 

Collateral Type-collections 25 

Bibliography 25 

Abbreviations and Signs used in Index 30 

Histoi'y of the name Linncm 32 


M. Brongniart fait remarquer combien il est regrettable 
que Ton n'ait pas encore songe a publier im simple catalogue 
de riierbier de Linne.— Bull. yoc. J3ol. Fr. xiii. (1866) p. 135. 


The manuscript to which this refers is intended to supply an 
answer to questions whicli an enquirer is apt to put when 
examining Linnean specimens ; the exphinations are purposely 
shortened so as to compress the reuiarks into a moderate compass, 
usually a single line, hut when more is needed, it is supplied on 
the opposite page (verso). 

Certain frequent ahbreviations are : — 

A. = Alstromer. 
Ard. = Arduino. 
Br. = Browne. 
C.B.S. = Caput BonsB Spei= 
Cape of Good Hope. 
Gerb. = Gerber. 
Gmel. = Gmelin. 
H.B. = Herb. Banks. 
H.L.=Herb. Linn. 
H.TJ. = Hort. Upsal. 
Jacq. = Jacquin. 

K.— Fvalm, Kouig. 
Kh. = Kaehler. 
L., Loefl. = Lufling. 

M. = Maguol. 

E. = Eoyen. 

S., Sm., J. E.S,=Smith. 

T. = Thunberg, Tulbagh, 

V°-=: Verso, the left-hand 
page ; the back of 
the Eecto, the right- 
hand page. 

Most of the Linnean contractions are expanded; other signs 
are explained in the 'Index' published in 1912, but republished 
here after revision. 

For use of the remarks, the sheets of each genus in the 
herbarium are numbered at the top left-hand corner in green 
ink ; these numbers refer to those in the lirst coluiim of the 
manuscript Catalogue, then followed by the name of the species 
where given, and the number belonging to the species in the first 
edition of the 'Species Plantarum ' 1753, wlien used by Linne ; 
in a few cases the number is written without the name. Addi- 
tions made in the ' Systema ' ed. X, were denoted by capital 
letters in place of numbers, and these are also cited. Occasiorjally 


figures in pencil may be seen upon tlie sheets ; these are due to 
the preliminary attempt effected in 1747-50, which is still pre- 
served, see Dr. J. M. llulth's account of Linne's first sketch of 
his 'Species Plautarum * in the Bot. Tid.^kr. vi. (1912) 

The handwriting of Linno is simply copied ; where nothing is 
added, it is his alone (the figures in the first column and the 
running numbers of the genera excepted). The handwriting of 
everyone else is shown by its being underlined, or in parentheses, 
or brackets ; the cataloguer's comments are shown by an initial J. 
Long sentences on the face or the back of the sheets are shortened 
by omission of the middle, the beginning and the end being given 
before the name or sign of the writer. Labels as a rule are not 
copied, but the writer's name when known is given ; as the label 
is open to the inspection of the enquirer, it does not need to be 
set out. Amongst the Mosses will be found many additions by 
James Dickson, who not only gave his opinion to Sir J. E. Smith, 
but largely added to the material ; these are shown by the 
initial D. ; the water-mark on these sheets is English. 

Many of the numbers written on the sheets by Linnc refer to 
books, as, for instance, ' Flora lapponica ' and ' Flora suecica,' 
though not specified ; others correspond to lists sent by corre- 
spondents, such as Tulbagh (c/. Proc. Linn. Soc. 1917-18, SuppL), 
Alstroraer (MS. of consignments in 1762, kindly supplied by 
Dr. .T. M. Hulth), Allioni, Arduino, Sparrman and Thunberg, 
though the last two are not available. 

A full account of the herbarium was issued in the Society's 
'Proceedings,' 1911-12, Suppl. ; as fresh information has accrued 
since that was issued, the introductory matter has been revised 
and reprinted in the following pages, as a Supplement to the 
' Proceedings ' for 1921-22. 

Burlington House, 

December, 1921. 


In the autumn of 1906 a suggestion was made to the Council of 
the Linnean Society of Loudon, that a Catalogue of the contents 
of the Linnean Herbarium, together with a series of photographic 
illustrations of selected types from it, would be an appropriate 
publication for the celebration of the 200th anniversary of the 
birth of Carl von Linne. 

Experiments showed that a fairly complete Catalogue of the 
sheets in the hei'barium in question, would extend to about three 
volumes of the Society's Journal, and that its compilation would 
require from fifteen to eighteen months ; the suggestion was 
therefore found to be impossible of fulfilment, quite apart from 
its cost. The second proposal was entertained by the Council so 
far as preparing estimates of the cost of issuing a series of 100 
collotype plates, the actual size of the specimens, provided one 
hundred subscribers at a given rate were forthcoming, but as 
only seventeen subscribers offered, that project also fell through. 

In order in some measure to meet the wishes expressed, the 
Council sanctioned the printing of a catalogue of generic names 
in the Linnean Herbarium in the original sequence, with the 
number of the sheets under each, followed by an alphabetical 
index, and preceded by an accouut of an enumeration by Linne 
himself of the plants possessed by him in 17o5 ; advance copies 
Avere printed and distributed before the 23rd May, 1907, and 
reissued in the 'Proceedings ' in October of that year. 


Though the original project could not be carried out, it was 
not forgotten, and in 1911 it occurred to the compiler, that an 
indi'X on a uKxlest scale, showing by special type every plant 
autl»en(icated by the author himself, or at his dictation, would be 
acceptable ; the 'Index' was the result. 

The Tiinnean sequence has been preserved in tlie herbarium as 
far as possible, and more than one hundred specimens which had 
been transferred by Smith to other genera have been replaced, 
so that the Linnean material is again brought together. As an 
instance, Smith removed 4 species from Oklenlandia to JJedyotis, 
thereby obscuring Linnc's conception of the former genus. A few 
slight shps of the pen have been disregarded, but important 
variations of name have been noted. The zoological genera in 
the herbarium were not catalogued specifically until the MS. 
catalogue was prepared. The total number of sheets is as 
follows : — 

Sheets of plants 13,832 

Zoological, as Flustra, etc 99 

Uudetermined 284 

Total 14,215 

To/ace 2^i</c J>. 

Pkoc. Li.nx. Soc, Session 1921-1922. 

A view of tlie Liiiiieaii Jlerbarium at the present lime. Tiie 
doors are open, showing the twenty-one steel boxes wliich contain 
the parcels of plants; one box is open, showing the ends of tlie 
parcels, one of which is placed at the bottom. The doors have 
double steel sheets with asbestos between them, and the cabinet 
is lined throughout with tlie same fire-])roof materials. 

Before the recent war, the herbarium was kept in the three 
painted wooden cabinets used by Linnaeus, and the cabinet had 
glazed doors, but the risk of damage by enemy aircraft caused 
the adoption of the changes above indicated. 


The Linnean herbarium itself is knowu at lio)))e and abroad 
to many botanists, who have consulted it, but to the modern 
systematist, accustomed to good specimens accompanied by full 
information on the collector's tickets, it may be disappointing. 
The paper is small, 12i by 8 inches (32 cm. x 20-5 cm.), and 
the information when given is often meagre. Linue evidently 
trusted to a strong and retentive memory, so that his notes 
are very brief, or little more than arbitrary signs to remind 
him of the source of the specimen. The specimens are usually 
authenticated by a number, namely, that prefixed to tlie species 
in the first edition of the ' Species Plantarum' in 1753, followed 
by the specific or "trivial" name; the species added to his 
collection up to the 10th edition of his ' Sytema Naturae,' vol. ii. 
1759, are siiown by capital letters, in the case of Hedysarum 
extending from A to L. With the second edition of the ' Species 
Plantarum' in 1762-3, an entirely new series of numbering was 
used, and in the latest (12th) edition of the ' Systema Natune ' in 
1767, additions were numbered on, but put nearest to their allies, 
disregarding their Jiumerical order; this enlarged numbering was 
not employed in the herbarium. 

In small or moderately large genera, one cover suffices ; at 
the bottom left-hand corner is the generic name written by Linne, 
but in the case of monotypic genera, the number " 1 " is often the 
only authentication on the species-sheets. I have in such cases 
printed the name as being non-existent, but have put (pi.) after 
it, to show that the type is there, though not verified under the 
hand of the author. Similarly, all names in italic type are names 
either not vouched for by Linne, or are absent from the collection; 
the names written by him are printed in ordinary Eoman type ; 
where the name has been written b}^ an amanuensis, I have added 
(m. Sol.) = manu Solandri, or other assistant as the case may be. 
It is only where I am convinced by the special circumstances of 
each case, that I have allowed myself this licence. Thus, we have 
the distinct assurance from Sir J. E. Smith, that Solan der wrote 
all the specific names to PatricK Browne's specimens (Linn. Corr. 
i. 43), and if corroboration be ^\•anted,in the Linnean library there 
is a copy of Browne's 'History of Jamaica' with the Linnean 
trivial names written in the margin by Linne himself. Other 
auianuenses were Olof Soderberg, (iabriel Elmgren, J. P. Falk, Pehr 
Lbfliug, Erik Gustaf Lidbeck, Anders Dalil, and tlie younger Liiuic. 
As to tlie first and second, lam unable to assert that their writing 
is in the herbarium ; but when the writer is, so far as I am 
concerned, uncertain, I have shown it by adding (m. am.) = manu 
amanuensis. Tlie handwriting of the others is knowu, from some 


of whom, e.g. Lofling, many letters are preserved in Linne's 
corresponilence, and this valuable body of letters has been 
constantly appealed to for information or confirmation. 

Plan of (1912) Index. 

The method of framing the index was as follows. A list of 
all names of genera and species issued by Linne was drawn up, 
cliielly from Petermann's Index to E.ichter's ' Codex Linna^anus,' 
with some additions and corrections. The herbarium was then 
examined sheet by sheet, and the Linnean names marked against 
the list. Many manuscript ami unpublished names have been 
fountl, aiul are distin^niished by the aflix (MS.) ; further, a fair 
number of species which were published in the ' Supplementura' of 
the younger Linnd in 1781, have been marked as in (Suppl.). 
These last are of interest as making certain wliich species were 
described by the elder Linne, al)out 189 in all, for the book itself 
gives no clue as to autliorship. I may remark parentlietically, tliat 
the manuscript of the ' yupplemenlum' sheds but. little light ui)on 
this question, as the earlier part has' been copied by another hand, 
and practically none of it remains in the handwriting of Linnc. 

Earlier Enumerations. 

The next step was to collate certain enumerations existing in 
Linne's writing. 

1. An interleaved copy of 'Species Plautarum ' ed. 1, 1753, 
in which the number before each species then possessed by Linnc 
is underscored. This was copied by Jonas Dryander in or about 
1785, wlien the Linnean and Banksian herbaria were collated 
(Proc. Linn. Soc. 1887-88, p. 28; Smith in Linn. Lachesis, pref. 
p. ix.). A transcript of this copy is also at Kew (Proc. Linn. 
Soc. 1906-7, p. 91). I found in the Linnean copy that the printed 
pages 849-856 inclusive had been cut out, the interleaves alone 
remaining; as tlie Banksian copy has no marks on the corre- 
sponding pages, it is clear that these pages were already missing 
when the Linnean books came into the possession of Smith. 

2. A manuscript list described in the ' Proceedings ' 1906-7, 
pp. 90-95 : it was brought down to the spring of 1755, most of 
the marking being by dots prefixed. 

3. A copy of the second volume of the twelfth edition of the 
' Systema jVatur»,' 1767, the numbers of the species represented 
in the Linnean herbarium being underscored as in No. 1. 

The collation of these tliree Linnean lists, with the actual 
noting from the herbarium as it now exists, permits of a few 
observations being made. Each of these lists is faulty; the third 
especially so, for such genera as AliJura, Phlomis, and Pulmonaria 
have escaped marking altogether ; pages 408 and 409 have been 


turned over together, so that three small genera and the first 
third of AntirrJiinum have been missed, though the remainder 
of the latter has been duly marked ; such omissions show that 
the marking was done from memory. Trifolium comosinn is not 
in the herbarium now, and was not noted in 1753 nor 1767, but 
was so in 1755 ; in all probability the dot in the mauuscript 
catalogue is an error, and the plant was at no time in Linne's 

Contributors to the Herbarium. 

At the hundredth anniversary of this Society on 24th May, 
1888, I gave an account so far as then ascertainable of the con- 
tributors to the Linnean herbarium (Proc. 1887-8, pp. 18-22). 
Since then fresh information has been obtained fi'om Prof. T. M. 
Fries's ' Linne,' 1903, the early volumes (i.-vi.) of the coi're- 
spondenoe of C. v. Linne (Bref och skrifvelser) and my exami- 
nation of the entire collection. The last word cannot be given as 
yet, but when the whole of the letters are printed, it will be easier 
to add to the present account, than it is now to give a complete 
presentation. The following may be considered as the chief 
contributors to the herbarium : — 

Ahlelof, Jonas Joachimson (1717-1783), a pupil of Linne, 
afterwards rector of Prillesas. 

Allamaki), Frederique (fl. 1770-86), born at Lausanne, gra- 
duated at Leyden in 1749, and communicated Surinam 
specimens from 1756 to 1771 and later. 

Allioni, Carlo (1725-1804), Italian alpine plants. 

Alstromeb, jSrtroH Clas (1736-1794). Prof. T. M. Pries states 
that during his travels in Spain and the South of Europe, 
from 1760 to 1764, the Baron sent to Linne no fewer than 
1550 dried plants, 250 sorts of seeds, 202 shells, 60 corals, 
and 94 fishes, with many living plants, bulbs and roots. 
These numbers rest upon the correspondence, as I do not 
find so many tickets or memoranda I'rom him in the herb- 
arium ; some sheets are marked " A.'' Linne speaks of 
receiving " several packets, which he had partly collected 
himself and partly received from others "' ; possibly many 
were exchanged or given away. 

Ammann, Johann (1707-1741), born at Schaffhausen, died as 
Professor of Botany at St. Petersburg ; during his short life, 
he corresponded and sent dried plants. 

Ankarcrona, Admiral TuEODOE Christopher, afterwards en- 
nobled (1687-1750). With other plants comuiunicated 
Phaseolus radiatus about the year 1742. 

Aeuuino, Pietro (1728-1805); sent many plants, which are 
usually marked " Ard." close to the base of the stem. 

Argillander, Abraham (1722-1800); communicated Swedish 
and Finnish plants. 



ASCAMUS Pedee (1723-1803), a pupil of Linue, who devoted 

himself to zoology and luineralogv ; his iiaine is ineutioued 

as a contributor to the Centuria secunda (Am. Acad. 

iv. 330). 
Back, Auuaham (1713-1795), Liniic'« most intimate friend, from 

wliom he received occasional gifts of plants. 
B.ELTKU, SvEN (1713-1760), Chaplain to a Eussian embassy; sent 

a few plants from llussia. 
Banks, ^Ir .Iosepii (1743-1820); sent specimens of BanJcsin. 
Bakxedes, Miguel (d. 1771). Spanish plants. Alstromer, Hall- 

niiin, and LoHmg were personally acquainted with him. 
Baererk, Pierre (1711-1755). European plants, chietiy from 


Bartram, John (1699-1777), "King's botanist in America"- a 

few plants from the North United States; some through 

Dr. Alex. Garden. 
Bassi, FerbIxVAnjdo (1710 ?-1 774), Prefect of the Bologna garden, 

whence lie sent plants. Lasegue (Mus, hot. Deless! 359) 

states that Bassi and V. Donati sent Porsskdl's Arabian 

plants to Lmue, on what authority I know not, but as 

Donati died in 1762 and Forsskal in" 1768, there is' proof of 

a blunder. 
Baster, Job (1711-1775). A collection of plants from Java 

more than 300 in all. ' 

Bergen, Carl August ton (1704-1759), professor at Franlifurt- 

Bergius, Peter Jonas (1730-1790), a pupil of Linnc, settled at 

Stockholm as an eminent physician ; collected plants in Got- 
land ; best known for his volume ' Descriptiones plnntarum 

ex Capite Bonae Spei,' 1767. 
Berlin, Anders (1746-1773). European plants, and .ome from 

Guinea, where he died. 
BioRLiN, M.; sent a specimen of Glohidaria from Xatolia. 
Bjelke, Baron Sten Carl (1709-1753). Visited Eussia in 1774. 

whence he sent MS. catalogues of plants from Russian 

collectors, and plants also. 
Bladh, Pehr Johan (1746-1816). Resident for some years at 

Canton; some Chinese and Cape plants in the herbarium 

possibly came through Thunberg. 
Blom,^Carl Magnus (1737-1815); cf. • Bref och skrifv.' I. iii. 

270. Hydrangea arborescens. 
Beaad, Christopher Henrik (1721-1781); supercargo in the 

Swedish East India Company's service, who brought home 

plants from Surat and other Asiatic ports. 
Brander (afterwards Skjoldebrand), Erjk- (1720-1814). 

Swedisli consul at Algiers from 1753 to 1765; sent insects 

and a few plants from North Africa. 
Bretne, JoHANN Phjlmpp (1680-1764). ilis contributions are 
mentioned in the ' Hortus Upsaliensis.' 


Browxe, Patrick (1720-1790). Born in Ireland, he pi-actised 
as a doctor in the AVest Indies, and published in 1756 a folio 
volume on the Natural History of Jamaica; his lierbarium 
was bought by Linne through CoUiuson in 1753 for c£8 8s. ; 
the purcliaser marvelled that the English sliould let so fine a 
collection slip through their hands for " 100 plfitar," that is, 
double what it cost Liune. The specimens are denoted by 
" Br." in Linne's hand, but the names were written by 
Solander at the extreme bottom of each sheet, presumably 
from the printed volume which Linne annotated, 347 being 
noted; (/. Smith, Linn. Coi-r. i. pp. 42-44. 

Burgess, Rev. Dr. John (fi. 1771-1805), lichenologist at Kirk- 
michael, Dumfries. 

BuRMAN, Jan (1706-1779), eujinent Dutch botanist; contributed 
Cape and Javan plants ; father of 

BuRMAN, NicoiiAus Laurent (1734-1793). Visited Uppsala in 
1700, and afterwards was a frequent correspondent. 

" CAPELL," = Capellanus, Chaplain; used by Linne for Frater 
Gabriel, of Aix. 

Catesby, Mark (1680-1749), author of the 'Natural History of 
Caroun:!,' etc. 

Celsius, Oloe, the elder (1670-1756). Linne's early bene- 
factor in his Uppsala student period. He returned to the 
botanic garden plants he had taken thence when the place 
lay in neglect. 

Clayton, John (168G or 1693?-1773). Born in Middlesex, 
collected in Virginia, sent plants to Gronovius, who published 
his 'Flora Virgiuica ' in 1739—13. Linne says: — "When 
I assisted Dr. Gronovius in exaniining plants from A-^irginia, 
I got duplicates of most of them." The labels to these are 
in the handwriting of Gronovius. 

Clifford, George (1685-1760). Linne's patron at Hartecampe, 
near Haarlem, who "had an excellent herbarium from which 
he gave me all the duplicates"; (see also ' Sp. PL' ed. 2. 
prief.). These are recognisable by their good thick paper, 
which has been cut down from the original size, 18"xir' 
(45-5 cm. X 28 cm.) to the small size noted on p. 9. They 
amount to about 100 sheets, most of them still further 
marked, by portions of the printed vase at the base of the 
stem of the specimen, or the ticket at the left hand at the 
bottom, marks well known to those who have referred to 
Herb. Cliifort. at the British Museum. 

CoLLiNSON, Peter (1694-1768). Contributed plants from his 
garden; bought Browne's herbarium on behalf of Linne in 

Cronstadt, Count Carl Johan (1709-1779) [not " Jakob "]. 

Dahl, Anders (1751-1789). The records in the herbarium are 
probably only as an an)anuensis ; his names are on the bai-k 
of each sheet, close to the bottom. 


DAnLBERG, Colonel Carl Gustaf (fl. 1754-75). A Swede residing 
in Siirinain ; during a visit to his native country in 1754, 
lie invited llohinder, then a promising pupil at Uppsala, to 
return with liitn. Plants were sent to Linne from i)ahlberg, 
including those which came tlirough the King (Gustaf III.)i 
whicli were the last upon whicii Linne was able to do 
any botanic work ; many were i)ublished in the ' fSupple- 

Dalberg, Nils (1736-1820), a brother of the last, though he 
spelled his name differently ; a student at Uppsala, became 
eminent as a medical man, and enthusiastic naturalist. 

Dalmax, Johan Frbdrik (1726-1809), Sent some plants from 
Indiii, the result of a voyage thither in 1748. 

De Geer, Cou)i< Charles (1720-1778). Eminent entomologist ; 
having assisted Rolander with funds for his South American 
journey, the latter on his return gave all his plants to 
De Geer, " who made me a present of every one of them." 
Not a single plant seems to have been given direct to Linno, 

Demidoff, Prince Gregorey (fl. 1750-60). In a letter dated 
15th May, 1750, he spoke of his collection of more than 800 
plants sent to Linnc for naming, with permission to retain 
duplicates. Amongst these came Steller's from Kamtschatka, 
Gerber's from Astrachan and the Eiver Don, and Lerche's 
from Persia. The following March he thanked Linnc for his 
work, and said that the Moscow plants were of his own 
gathering. Karamyschew regretted that all were not allowed 
to remain in Linne's possession (Am. Acad. vii. 447). 

Dick, Jacobus (A. 1775), of Spiez, near Thun, Switzerland; a 
pupil of Haller, and friend of Jacquin. JJis herbarium was 
bought by Sir Josepli Banks. Cf. Jacq. Hort. Vindob. iii. 
12; Ep. ad Haller, v. 141; 2S4-291. Journ. Bot. (1902) 
389; (1904) 357-358; (1909) 272-273. This name is 
attached to a few plants in the herbarium, sent by Gessner in 
1763, as collected by Dick and Fueslin in the Rliaetian Alps. 

DiLLENius, JoHANN Jakob (1687-1747). " Manv from the garden 
at Oxford." 

DoN'ATi, Vitaliaxo (1717-1762). Said to have sent Forsskfil's 
Arabian plants to Linne, but the dates disprove this. 

Duchesne, Antoine Nicholas (1747-1827). Specimens of 
Frar/aria, named. 

Du E.OI, .JoHA^'N PiiiLipp (1741-1785). Plants from Bruns- 
wick, Hortus Harbeccensis ; Plarbke, near Helmstedt ; he 
was author of 'Die harbkeschische Baumzucht.' Braunschw. 
1771-2 ; Ed. II. by J. F. Pott, if,. 1791-1800. 

Ehrhart, Friedrich (1736-1795). Many specimens named by 
him, especially amongst the cryptogams. 

Ekeberg, Carl Gustaf (1716-1784); Captain of an Indiaman, 
who brouglit ])lants to Linne from tropical Asia. 

Ellis, John (1711-1776), a London merchant and friend of 
Peter CoUinson ; these two were Linne's most constant 


English correspoudeiits ; Ellis sent American plants and 
specimens of CoraUina. 

EscALLON, — . (fl. 1777). Plants sent through Miitis. 

Fabricius, Johan Christian (1745-1808). After studying two 
j'ears at Uppsala, became Professor at Copenhagen and after- 
wards at Kiel ; eminent as an entomologist, see Linne's 
remark quoted under Zoega. A few plants sent to Linnd. 

Eagrabds, Jonas Tiieodor (1729-1797). Studied at Lund and 
Uppsala; afterwards custodian of Baron C. Alstriimer's 
collections at Aliiigsas. 

Ealck (or Talk), Joiian Pehr (1733-1734). Sent plants from 
Russia, also from Gotland. 

Ferber, Johan Jakob (1743-1790). Specimens sent during his 
travels in the South of Europe. 

Feuillee, Louis Econches (1660-1732), French explorer : 
cf. Physalis, sheet 12. 

FoRSSKAHL, Johan Christian (1725-1756), brother of the 
following, in spite of the varied spelling ; sent plants from 

ForsskaL, Pehr (1735-1768). Plants from Germany ; after- 
wards made collections of plants and animals in Egvpt and 
Arabia, published by C. Niebubr, the sole survivor of the 
expedition. Zoega wrote the text of ' Flora a3gyptiaco-arabica,' 
Havniae, 1775. 

FoRSTER, JoHANN Georg Adam (1754-1794), son of the next 
named ; accompanied bis father on Cook's second circum- 
navigation ; afterwards Professor at Wilna. 

FoRSTER, JoHANN Eeinhold (1729-1798). Naturalist on board 
the ' Resolution,' with George Forster and A. Sparrman. 
Sundry plants were supplied to Linne from the Southern 

FoTHERGiLL, JoHN (1712-1780). Corresponded with Linne, and 
sent him both plants and animals. 

FuESLiN (fl. 1770). Collected with J. Dick. 

Gabriel, Fmtev \_Bayon de Latourdaignes ?] (fl. 1757-1768). 
Plants sent from Aix in Provence ; the collector was a 
Capuchin friar : cf. Cotta, J., C. Gerber et M. Godefroy ; 
Une lettre inedite de Linne au frere Gabriel, apothicaire des 
Capacins d'Aix. 

Gahn, Henrik (1747-1816). Specimens sent from England, 
where he Mas offered the chance of taking part in a voyage 
of exploration ; his decision to decline the proposition seems 
to have annoyed Linne. 

Garden, Alexander (1730-181 G). Plants, etc., from Carolina, 
principally through Collinsnn and John Ellis. 

Gerard. Louis (1733-1819). Provencal plants. 

Gerber, Traugott (fl. 1739-1741), Prefect of the Moscow 
Medical Garden ; drew up lists of plants observed near the 
rivers Volga and Don, which lists were sent by Baron Bjelke 
to Linne, and some of the plants by Prince Demidoff. 


Gessner, JoHANN (1709-1790), of Ziirich, where lie was professor 
of niivtlieriiatics and physics, at the same time the friend and 
correspondent of Ilalhu- and Linne ; (Jessner communicated 
Dick's plants. 

Glei)IT3CH, Joii.VNN GoTTLiEB ( 17 14- 17.'^6). profcssor in Berlin. 

Gmelin, .Jokvnx GEoiia (1709-1755). kSpent 1733-1743 in 
Siberian exploration for the Kussian Government ; from 
1749 professor in Tiibingen. Linne's statement is: — "On 
Giuelin's return from Siberia, ... he gave me a specimen of 
ever}' plant he had collected, in order to learn ui}' opinion of 
each." Steller was one of (i-melin's assistants. 

GoEUON, James (d. 1783), Nurseryman at Mile P)nd, 1750-1770; 
sent living plants to Linne. 

Goeter, David van (1717-1783). Became physician in the 
Kussian service ; sent plants from Kussia. 

GouAN, Antoixe (1733-1821). Constant correspondent, sending 
material from JMontpelier and its neighbourhood. His labels 
are extremely neat. 

Gko^'ovius, Jan Eredrik (1 090-1762). An early friend and 
snpporter of Linne when in Leyden ; sent Clayton's dupli- 
cates which came from Virginia. 

GtJNNER, JoiiAN EuxsT (1718-1773), bishop of Trondhjem, and 
author of ' Flora norvegica ' ; a few marine algse sent to 

Gustap III. (1746-92), King of Sweden ; presented Surinam 
plants preserved in spii-it : cf. Am. Acad. viii. 249-267, t. 5 
(ed. 3). Gustavia, Linn. (Myrtacese). 

Hager, Johak Henric (d. 1770), pupil under Linne at Uppsala, 
afterwards M.D. at Lund ; supplied TussUago alba from 

Hagstrom, JoHAif Otto (1710-1792). One of Linue's cleverest 
pupils ; he wrote on bee-flowers. 

IIaller, Albrecht vox (1708-1777). Seems to have supplied a 
few specimens only. 

Hallmaxx, Daxiel ZacharIvT; (1722-1782). Specimens from 

Hasselquist, Eredrik (1722-1752). Sent to Egypt and Pales- 
line; died at Smyrna. Queen Lovisa Ulrika redeemed his 
collections, and Linne received specimens of each when there 
were three. Linne says : — "1 have a specimen of every one 
of the plants found by Hasselquist in Anatolia, Egypt, 
and Palestine." This seems to be exaggerated, as the list 
I have taken out of the plants marked as collected by 
Hasselquist, falls far short of the number cited by Linne as 
observed by the traveller in ' Elora Palaestiua ' (Am. Acad. iv. 

Hebenstreit, Jouann Erxst (1702-1757). Plants from the 

Heinzelmaxn, Johaxn Gottfried (fl. 1732). Historiographer 
to the Eussian government ; recorded plants from Astrachan. 


Holm, Joeqen Tige (1720-59). Danish student and respondent 
under Liune ; returned to Copenhagen and died the same 
year. Sent Atriplex pedanculata from Denmark. 

Houston, William (1695-1733). American plants received 
through P. Miller. 

Hudson, William (1730-1793). Author of the ' Flora anglica.' 

Jacquin, Baron Nicolaus Joseph von (1727-1817). A valued 
correspondent ; most of his tickets were pasted down by 
Liniie. Plants from America, Austria, and many from 

JussiEU, J3ERNARD DE (1699-1776). Seeds to Linne in Large 
quantity for tlm Uppsala garden during many years ; many 
plants reared from tliem, no doubt, are concealed under the 
initials H. U. = Hortu8 Upsaliensis : "he also gave me a 
great many dried specimens." 

Kahler, Martin (1728-1773). Chiefly plants from Italy ; many 
are marked "Kh." 

Kalm, Pehr (1715-1779). This pupil of Linue travelled from 
1747 to 1749 in jN'orth America and Canada; he " collected 
a vast number . . . and gave me one of each." These speci- 
mens are marked " K." 

Kleynhof, Ciiristiaen (fl. 1701-65), " who formed the largest 
botanical garden in Java, and there raised a great many East 
Indian plants, on his return home to Holland, sent us a large 
trunk full." Some Japanese plants are also recorded from 

KoNiG, JoHAN Gerard (1728-1785). Several hundreds of plants 
from Iceland and Southern India; the latter are labelled 
with the collector's own tickets, and sometimes annotated by 
the younger Linne. 

Kraschenin:nikow, Stephan Petrovic (1713-1755). Siberian 

KuHN, Adam (1741-1817), pupil nnder Linne, afterwards Prof, 
of Medicine at Philadelphia; sent Cliuojjodium. hicanum 
from North America. 

Lagerstrom, Magnus (d. 1759). Engaged in the East Indian 
trade ; communicated some Asiatic rarities to Linue. 

Latourette, Maro Antoine Louis Claret de (1729-1793). 
Many specimens noted as contributed by him. 

Lawson, Isaac (fl. 1734-1759). A Scottish graduate of Leyden, 
and a generous friend to Linne. D. Z. Hallman met him in 
London in 1759. 

Laxmann, Eric (1737-1790). A correspondent of Linne who 
sent Siberian plants. 

Leche, Johan (1704-1764). A few sheets from his herbarium 
written up by him. 

Le Monnier, Louis Guillaume (1717-99). French prof, botany ; 
sent Pyrenaean plants. 

Lerche, Johan Jakob (1703-1780). Persian plants ; some from 
Astrachan were received in 1735. 


Levser, FniEDRicii WiLHELM VOX (1731-1815). .Sent a few 
plants troiii Central Europe. 

LixxE, Caul yon (1707-177iS). See separate account on p. 21. 

LixxE, Caul von (1741-17815), son of tlio foregoing. Chiefly as 
auKiuuensis, and editor of the ' .Suppleinentuni.' JMost of his 
own collections are incorporated with Smith's herbarium, 

LiSTEU, Mautin (1638?-1712). Contributed Lycopodium denti- 
cidaium from Portugal. 

LuFLiXG, Peiiu (172y-17r)(i), Amanuensis and favourite pupil ; 
sent Spanish and Spanish American plants to Uppsala, most 
of which are marked " llispan. Luji." 

LomiEiuo, Juax (171'J-179G). Plants from Cochinchina; after- 
wards brought out his 'Flora cochhichinensis,' 1700. 

LuDwiG, Christian Gottlieb (170U-1773), professor in Leipzig. 

JMaqnol, Pierre (1638-1715). His herbarium was bought by 
Sauvages, and presented to Linno ; most of the specimens 
are marked " M " close to the base of the ])lant, som.etimes 
also " Monsp." Linne's statement is, " Professor Sauvages 
had received from Magnol (the great botanist) his entire 
herbarium, whicli Sauvages made me a present of."' 

^Iartin, Anton Eolandsson (17i;*J-1786). Spitzbergen. 

Masson, Francis (1741-18U5). A few plants from the Cape. 

Miller, Philip (1691-1771). "Miller of Chelsea permitted me 
to collect many in the garden, and gave me several dried 
specimens, collected by Houston in South America." 

MiNUART, Jl'an (1673-170S). Spanish plants ; he was a friend 
of Liifling. 

Mitchell, John (d. 1768), resident in Virginia from 1700 to 
1748, when he returned to England. 

Monti, Giuseppe (1682-1700), professor of botany at Bologna. 

Montin, Lars (1723-1785), pupil of Linnc: travelled in 1749 in 
Lule Lappmark for plants; uncle of J.Dryander, Linne's pupil. 

MtJNCHHAusEN, Otto, FreiJierr VON (1716-1774). North German 

Murray, Adolf (1751-1803), a favourite pupil of Linue, though 
amongst the younger students ; sent plants from Padua to 

Mutis, Josi^: Celestino (1732-1808), resident in Xew Grenada 
(Colombia) ; his second collection arrived when Linue was 
too ill to examine them, so that the younger Linne described 
them in the ' Supplementum ' and placed them in the her- 
barium with his written names. Escallon's plants were sent 
by Mutis. See Smith, Corr. Linn. ii. pp. 532, 537. 

Mtgind, Frands, afterwards Fuantz ton (1710-1789). Many 
Austrian plants are marked as from him. 

Nietzel, Dietericii (1703-56). German gardener employed 
at Hartecamp, and from 1741 to his death, at Uppsala ; 
cf. Gard. Chron. III. Ivii. (1915) 353. 

NoRDBERO, — . The name occurs in the 'Supplementum,' 
p. 265, as the sender of specimens of the nutmeg tree from 


Oeder, GrEORG Christi.vx ( 172S-17'J 1), the first editor oE the 

' Mora danicn.' 
Oldenland, Henrik Bernard (d. 1761). Cape plants collected 

about 1760 ; given to Linnc by J. Burmau. 
Ortega, Josk (d. 1761). Spanish plants ; a friend of Lolling 

during his two years' stay in Spain. 
OsBECK, Peiir (1723-1805). Travelled to Canton as ship's 

chaplain; his plants are marked in the herbarium with O, 

or more frequently on the back with the name in full, as 

"Habitat in China. Osbeck "; about 600 plants from 

Pallas, Peter Simox (1741-1811 ). The distinguished traveller 

in Russia, who was born and died in Berlin. 
PoNTiN, Dayid Datidsox (1733-1801)). A cousin of Hasselquist; 

transmitted plants from Malabar. 
Pott, JoiiA^^'y Friedrich (1738-1805), physician to the Duke of 

Brunswick ; sent a few plants ; see also under Du lloi. 
Rathgeb, Joseph ton (fl. 1744). Austrian Minister at Venice, 

who sent Italian plants to Liiine. 
EiciiARD, Louis Claude Marie (1754-1821). Mentioned in the 

' Mantissa ' as a contributor. 
EoLAMDER, Daxiel (1725-1793). One of Linne's pupils, who 

went to Surinam, but on his return to Sweden gave all his 

plants to Count de (xeer, to Linne's great disgust at the 

" ungrateful liolander." 
llosEN (afterwards Kosenblad), Eberiiard (1714-1796); pro- 
fessor at Lund, and younger brother of Linne's colleague 

Nils Rosen (von Eosenstein). Plants from Skfiue. 
RoTTBoLL, Christen Friis (1727-97), pupil of Linnc', then 

professor of medicine and hotany at Copenhagen ; sent 

Cyperacea?, etc. 1771-75); styled ' Friis ' in his herbarium 

by Linne. 
EoYEN, Abriaan van (1705-1779). "On my assisting Van 

Eoyen to ari'ange the garden belonging to the University of 

Leyden, I obtained not only a large number of recent plants, 

but also many dried ones." 
EoTEX, David van (d. 1799), professor in Leyden. 
Sahlberg, Johan (1741-1810). A few Swedish plants. 
Sauvaqes, Francois Boissier de la Croix de (1706-1767). 

Linne's most valued correspondent abroad ; he contributed 

plants from the south of France, and also Magnol's herbarium; 

many specimens are labelled by him. 
Schreber, Joiianx Christian Daniel (1739-1810), an eminent 

pupil of Linne. 
ScHMiDEL, Casimir Christorii (1718-1792). 
ScopoLi, JoHANN Anton (1723-1 788). Author of ' Flora Carnio- 

lica,' etc.; plants from south-eastern Europe. 
Seguier, Jean Franc^ois (1703-1784). Chiefly alpine plants 

from Monte Baldo near Verona. 
Sibthorp, Humphrey (1713 ?-1 797), professor of botany at 




SoLAKDER, Daniel (1733-1781'). ^'ext to Lofting, esteemed 
by Limie as his favourite pupil ; plants from Pile Lappiuark 
and England ; wrote up Browne's Jamaica plants in the 
herbarium in 1759, and shortly afterwards left ISwedeu for 
London ; never returned to his native land. See Biography 
in Ikniis's 'Journal,' edited by Sir .Joseph Hooker, liondon, 
1896, pp. xxxviii xlii, with portrait by John Zoffany. 

SoxxEUAT, riLHRE (1749-1814), celebrated traveller in Tropical 

Spahrmax, A>'i>EHS (1748-1820). Another of Linnd's noted pupils. 
Ho travelled to Cliina (Canton), and published his tra\els, 
lirst as a thesis, and afterwards in a volume. Whilst staying 
at the Cape he was induced to join the Forsters in Cook's 
second voyage, on board the 'Kesohition ' in 1772, returning 
with them to the Cape in 1775 and coining home later. 
Numerous specimens in the herbarium, marked " Sp," 

Steller, Georg WiLnEr.Ai (1709-1746). Assistant to Gmelin in 
the Siberian investigations; travelled to Kamtschatka, and 
crossed to North America ; he died at Tinmen on his return 
homewards. His collections were bought by Deiuidoff and 
some were given to Linne ; about thirty of his ])lants are iu 
the herbai'ium. 

SwARTZ, Olof (1760-1818). The specimens are chiefly lichens, 
ticketed with extreme care, and iisuall}'' marked " Sz." or 
" O.S." ; probably incorporated by the younger Linne. 

Teunstrom, Christopher (i703-l74()). Travelled to India for 
natural history purposes, and died at Pulo-Condor. 

Thouin, Ats^dhe (1747-1824), a munificent donor of dried speci- 
mens, chiefly to the younger Ijinne when in Paris. 

Thunbbrg, Carl Peter (1743-1828). Traveller to the Cape, 
Ceylon and Japan ; successor to the younger Linne in the 
Chair at U|)psala. His plants are marked "T" with a 
number referring to some MS. catalogue. 

ToEfcx, Olof (d. 1753). A ship's chaplain, and contemporary of 
Osbeck ; visited Surat and Malabar ; cf. Osbeck ' Dagbok ' 

TtJLBAGii, C. liuK (d. 1771). Dutch Governor of the Cape, who 
made Linne "a present of above 200 of the rarest plants 
that grow there, all put up with great care, besides a number 
of roofs and bulbs alive, for the purpose of being planted 
in the garden." 

TuRRA, Antonio (1730-1796), professor at Yicenza. Sent Italian 

Tuv(^;n, Erik (fl. 1754). Sent Orchis samhucina to Linne from 
near Stockholm, tlie first record in Sweden. 

Vandelli, Domingos (fl. 1768-1789), ])rofessor in Lisbon. Sent 
Portuguese plants, and some from the Colonies. 

Velez, Cristobal (d. 1753), a friend of Liifling. Sent Spanish 
plants to Linne ; his collection passed into the hands of Quer. 

AVaciiendorf, Eveuhard Jacob tan (1702-1758), of Utrecht, 
where he was Professor. 


Wagneb, Joiianxes Gerhaed (1706-1759). His contributions 

are noted in the ' Hortus Upsaliensis.' 
Waxsteom (or Wenstrom), S. M. Named iu connection with 

two iS'orth African plants. 
Weigbl, Christian Ehkenjfried (1748-1831). Plants from 

A\^ILCKE, iSAMUEL GUSTAY [?] (fl. 1700-1705; d. 1791). 
WuLEEN, Franz Xater, Freiherr von (1728-1805). Professor 

at Klagenfurt ; sent Austrian plants. 
ZiNN, JoHANN Gottfried (1727-1759). Named as a contributor 

of plants, in the preface to the second edition of tlie 

' Species Plantarum.' 
ZoEGA, JoHAN (1742-1797). A Danish pupil highly esteemed by 

Linne : " If Fabricius brings me an nisect, or Zoega a moss, 

I take off my hat and say, ' Ye are my teachers,' " Fries, 

" Linne," ii. Bil. xviii. 9. 

The citations in the foregoing are mainly from Linne's own 
autobiography in the 'Egenhiindiga anteckniugar,' edited by Adam 
Afzelius in 1823 ; in the words of a translation from the manu- 
script printed in Maton's edition of Pulteney's 'Linnaeus' in 
1805, pp. 543-547, and condensed in Proc. Linn. Soc. 1887-88, 
pp. 20-22 ; see the Eibliography appended (p. 2-5). 

Linne as a Collector. 

Thus far we have considered the contribution to the herbarium ; 
the next question is, how far did Linne himself collect specimens ? 
His own statements are these: — "I have collected, from my 
infancy, all the plants of Sweden, together with those of the 
Swedish gardens" (Maton's ed. of Pulteney's 'Linnaeus,' p. 574), 
but the following, copied from j). 515 of the same work, is some- 
what discrepant ; it describes him becoming acquainted with dried 
plants only, while living with Dr. K. Stobseus at Lund in 1727. 
" He was highly delighted with the mode of making a hortus 
siccus, and immediately began to collect all the plants that grew in 
the neighbourhood of Lund, and to glue them on paper." After 
deserting Lund for Uppsala, in the spring of 1729, he told Prof. 
Olof Celsius that he " had above 600 indigenous plants preserved 
in his cabinet." From liints in his works, and from indications in 
his herbarium, he seems to have collected at various times, such as 
his Lapland journey: wlien at Tuggenforsen in Lycksele Lappmark 
he gathered and named for the first time the Linvcea borealis, on 
29th May, 1732, though the genus is stated to be of Gronovius upon 
a scrap which he gave his friend in 1735. His three journeys to 
Oland and Gotland, West Gotland, and Skane, produced additions ; 
but many plants are those gathered in the Uppsala Garden, the 
produce of those innumerable packets of seeds, sent year after 
year to him, from a more genial climate, and now recognisable in 
the herbarium under the initials H. U., i. e. Hortus Upsaliensis. 

22 iNbKX TO 'IIIK 

Tlie younger Hart man nientions with evident surprise that so 
many Swedisli plants should b« absent from the collection, and in 
some cases the native plant is represented only l^y a specimen 
from a foreij^n country. 

It can nt'vcr he too empliatically stated, that it would be 
unjust to judge I.inne's melliods by modern ones, to condemn 
the pioneer because he could not foresee the latest developments, 
and to liold his collections cheap because the specimens are small 
and too often imperfect. The diiticulties of travelling and sending 
specimens in those days quite sudiciently account for these 

Signs employei). 

The lierbarium itself lias been so often described in the memoirs 
mentioned in the bibliography, that a detailed account is not 
wanted here. Besides the small size, both of ])aper and the actual 
specimens, a modern observer is struck with the want of informa- 
tion as to the collector, place, and time of recei])t. Linne, it is 
certain, trusted to his memory, using abbreviations and arbitrary 
signs to remind him, should occasion require, of the circun)stances 
under which he acquired the specimens. Some of these signs offer 
no (lilliculty, such as Iv for Kalm ; others have been held as more 
doubtful, as Sji. for Sparrman, which is correct. The younger 
Hartman was puzzled by the use of the sign V» ^''^ ftreek capital 
delta reversed, but Linne was accustomed to use nmny of tliese, 
which were usual among medical men of his time. This particuhir 
sign means aqua, easily guessed from Acp-ostis slolonifera \7 : t'ua 
(Hartman, p. 28) or Veronica yinagall. V (Sp. Ph ed. 1, p. 12), 
the latter when written out being Veronica Anagallis-aqvatica , 
this pre-Linnean name appearing in the synonymy. Scandix 
Pecten $ (Sp. PL ed, 1, p. 256) is now invariably written in full 
as Scandix Pecten-Veneris, the $ being the astronon)icaI sign used 
for the planet Venus, as well as by the mineralogist for copper. 
A long catalogue might be compiled of Limic's signs in his various 
works, though as he used the same sign at times with different 
meanings, it need not be pursued further. 

But ever since the herbarium came into the possession of the 
Society, three signs stand out as especially enigmatic, they are 
numbers 1, 2 and 4 in the following: — 

1. 2, 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. H. 

o- # 

12. 13. 



llartuian in his prefiice says : — " One of these signs very often 
occurs, either with a specific name or alone, what their meaning is, 
has not yet been made out ; by comparison they seem neitlier to 
indicate locaUties, person's names, the duration of the plants, 
annual, biennial, perennial or the like," but he also points out 
that jN'o. 1! above is confined to Siberian plants. My own first 
reference to the herbarium, in August 1874, made me ask 
Mr. Kippist, the then Librarian, what the sign (No. 4) meant, 
and he owned that he did iiot know, nor did anyone else. 

The latest guess was tiiat made a lew years ago by Pastor 
Enauder ; his view is :— that they are certainly Kussian letters, 
aud thus may be regarded as pointing to J. P. Falck, born in 
Westgotland in the year 1732 oi- 1733, professor at the Medical 
College in St. Petersburg, with whom Linnc stood in close relation 
(Salices, p. 11). Now although the sign No. 4 may be taken as the 
Greek e, it cannot stand for ^, and No. 1 resembles no current 
Eussian letter whatever. This speculation therefore does not 
help us. 

Tills tantalizing uncertainty therefore was a subsidiary point 
that I set myself on beginning my investigation of the herbarium 
to find out, where possible, what these puzzling memoranda 
meant. I therefore copied them each time they occurred, and 
at the end, I had lists of plants bearing the cryptic signs. 13y 
comparison of the whole material thus obtained, I was able to set 
out the meaning of most of the signs occurring, thus : — 

No. 1. Collected by Gerber, principally in the district of the 
river Don or Astrachan. 

No. 2. From Siberia, communicated by Gmeliu, 

No. 3. From Kamtschatka, collected by Steller. 

No. 4, Hasselquist's plants, as also No. 6. 

No. 5. Almost certainly Osbeck ; see No. 9. 

No. 6, Hasselquist, the sign appears to be derived from "Habitat 
in Oriente." I have tried to discover if there was any 
reason why two signs for one collector were employed, 
but so far fruitlessly. 

No. 7. Unknown ; applied to Bellis annua, a Sisijmhriuvi, a 
Trhjonella, and an unnamed specimen of Conferva. 

No. 8 is used as meaning "aristate,"' and 

No. 9 for " muticous," but the terms seem sometimes loosely 
applied, aud in one case misapplied ; the latter sign is 
also confused with Osbeck, aud with for annual. 

No. 10. May be a long S, and stand for " suecia " ; a cross-stroke 
is sometimes present ; Linnc often used a small initial, 
as " Stockholm." 

No. 11. Occurs in relation to Anthericum cahjculatum, Ornitho- 
ijaJum minimum, Salix rosmarinifolia , and Sisymbrium 
altissimum. With regard to the third, Enander prints 
the sign as ]) , which means silver to the mineralogist, 
and may refer to a silvery appearance of the specimen. 


No. 12. p. J. Bladh's plants. 

No. 13. Cristate, e.g. Erica cordifolia ; cf. Nos. b & 'J. 


The system of numbering adopted by Linne must be mentioned. 
Tlie numbers found in the herbarium, either alone, or in asso- 
ciation witli a specific name, refer to the numbers given in the 
original edition of the 'Species Plantarum ' in 175li; additional 
species were lettered in capitals and intercalated in their appro- 
priate place : thus llechjsarum in the lOtli edition of the ' Systema' 
has no fewer than twelve, a to L inclusive. In the second edition 
of the ' Species' 17G2-3, an entirely new numbering was carried 
througli, and in the 12th edition of the ' Systema' 1767, additions 
were numbered in sequence with the ' Species' numbers, but put 
into their affinity, regardless of numerical order ; this emended 
set was not applied to the herbarium. After this date, such 
numbers were abandoned. Numbers are also found referring to 
lists sent with plants, the ' Plora lappouica,' etc. 

Damage to IIbebaeium liEroEE 1783. 

The herbarium suffered risks and actual damage before it came 
into the hands of Smith in 1784. We have au account by 
Beckmanu, the author of the ' Century of Inventions,' that on 
30tli April, 1766, a fire broke out in Uppsala during a fierce 
gale and destroyed a large part of the town. Linne had his 
lierbarium and library removed to a barn outside the town, but 
the risk to which it was exposed led him to build his little 
museum at Hammarby, some distance from the house, and 
without a fireplace. This in its turn produced the opposite evils 
of damp and mould ; the younger Linne complained of the 
terrible damage done by mice, mould and insects, and at the first 
opportunity, he removed tlie collections once more into the town. 
Linne left a memoranda begging that the herbarium should be 
kept from harm by mice or moths, that no naturalists should have 
a single specimen — valuable by itself, it would acquire added 
value by age, and he then gave the probable value of the various 
parts oF his collections. But a loss had already taken place 
before the death of its possessor; the son in a letter of 1779 to 
Archiater Bilck, says : — '' My late father weeded out his herba- 
rium, while he was able to work, and seems to have burned all the 
duplicates, why, no one knows'' (Fries, Linne, ii. p. 416, note). 
Tlie terrible damage by mice is not now perceptible, for I only 
noticed two sheets which had been gnawed besides three of the 
undetermined ; the son must have withdrawn the damaged sheets, 
and amongst these may have been those I have had to note as 
missing, such as Cuj^ania and Sarracenia. 

linnean herbarium. 25 

Collateral Type-collections. 

There are otlier coUectious whicli may be looked upon as 
contaiiiiug types of Linne's species, especially when his own 
herbarium is wanting in them, or they were acquired alter the 
descriptions were published. The Martin-Burser herbarium at 
Uppsala is a case in point ; in the Am. Acad. i. pp. 141-171 will 
be found descriptions of 250 plants, with Liiuiean names to tit 
those according to Caspar Bauliin's ' Pinax,' ;ind several of them 
seem never to have been represented in Linne's herbarium at any 
tiuie, such as Poa Erafjrostis, Anilwxanthum 2}(inicidatum, Allium 
splufrocephalum, Senecio incanus and (Enanthe crocata. Clifford's 
herbarium is now at the British Museum, having been bought by 
Banks, and is valued, as showing the originals of Linne's descrip- 
tions in his ' Hortus Cliffortianus.' Then, too, it is certain that 
he described many species of Lichen in the broad sense, from the 
Dillenian herbarium at Oxford. In the preface to the 'Species 
Plantarum,' ed. 2, we find him specifying the gardens which he 
has gone through : Paris, Oxford, Chelsea, Hartecamp, Leyden, 
Utrecht, Amsterdam, Uppsala and others. From these he may 
have had a good supply of specimens, but very few of the list 
of herbaria following could have afibrded so liberal a supply; 
Burser, Herman, Clifford, Burman, Oldenland (in Burman's 
possession), Grouovius, Roijen, Sloane, Sherard, Bobart, Miller, 
Tournefort, Vaillant, Jussieu, Surian (St. Domingo plants in 
Jussieu's herbarium), Back, and Browne. Anything in these 
of special note must almost certainly have been described from 
those specimens. 

In the year 1760 the younger Burman visited Linne at Uppsala, 
bringing with him his father's large collection of Cape plants, in 
wliich department the Dutch Avere supreme; many amongst these 
ivere new to science, and formed the types of such as were 
described by Linuc on this occasion. 


In the following bibliography I have given my authorities for 
the statements made above with regard to the Linnean herbarium ; 
its growth, aud subsequent history. Although I have arranged 
the titles of the various theses according to the dates when they 
were sustained, yet for the sake of convenience in citation I have 
confined my references to Schreber's edition of the ' Amoenitates 
Academicse,' Erlangae, 1787-90, 10 vols. 8vo. I have not cited 
the 'Flora Suecica,' ed. 2, Stockholm 1755, throughout, for 
although I extracted nearly 30 additional names, I cannot assert 
that plants were sent to Linne as vouchers, or to add to his 

1745. Plantar Martino-Bursei'ianae ; j-fsp. li. Martin. (Am. Acad. 

i. 141-171.) 
Hortus Upsaliei7sis, resp. S. Naucler. (Am. Acad. i. 197, 


2b INDKX to TlIi; 

174b. llortus Upsalieiisis, torn. i. (et unic.) pr.nef. ]). [2J. 

17oU. PlaiiliC C:iiut.scliatceiises rariores, rcsj). J. 1*. ilaleinus. 

(Am. Acad. ii. 330-303.) 
1751. Nova Plaiitaruiu genera, resj^. L. J. Clieiioii. (Am. Acad. 

iii. 8-25.) 
1753. Spi'cies Plantaniin, prici. p. 4 [-5]. 
1755. Centuria prima plaiitarum, 7-esp. A. J. J usleniuy. (Am. 

Acad. iv. 201-1^90.) 
175G. C'eiituria secimda plantanim, 7-esj). E. Tonier. (Am. Acad. 

iv. 297-332.) 

Flora palaestina, resp. B. J. Strand. (Am. Acad. iv. 441- 


1757. Buxbaumia, liesp. A. Ii. Martin. (Am. Acad. v. 78-91.) 

1758. Systema Naturre. Ed. X. Vol. i. praif. ]). [2]. 

1759. Flora capensis. Itesp. 0. II. Waunmau. (Am. Acad. v. 

350, 358.) 

Flora jaraaicensis. liesp. C. G. Sandmark. (Am. Acad. v. 

Piigilhis jamaicensium plantarum. liesp. G. Elmgreu. 

(Am. Acad. v. 389-413.) 
1702. Species Plantarum. Ed. 2, praef. f. 4 verso, 5. 

1760. Necessitas bistoriae naturalis Rossiae. liesp. A. de Kara- 

mvscbew. (Am. Acad. vii. 438-460 ; Fl. sibirica, ib. 

1767. Systema Xatura3. Ed. XII. Vol. i. prsef. p. [2J. 

Mantissa plantarum .... 1-142 (2). 

1768. Iter in Chinam. liesj). A. Sparrraau. (Ara. Acad. vii. 

1771. Mantissa plantarum altera .... (4) ] 43-588. 

1774. Planta Cimicifuga. Res2\ J. Hornborg. (Am. Acad. viii. 


1775. Plantae surinamenses. liesp. J. Aim. (Am. Acad. viii. 


1781. Supplementum plantarum .... editum a C. a Liniic. 
Brunsvigse. [The speci(\s ot" the elder Linne are now 
ascertainable, being marked iu the ' Index.'] 

1805. [Autobiography.] English version in E. Pulteney : A 
General View of the Writings of Linnaeus, second 
edition .... by W. G. Maton, to whicli is annexed 
the Diary of Linnaeus, written by himself, and now 
translated into Englisii, from the Swedish manuscript 
in tlie possession of the editor. London, 1805. 4to. 
Pp. 507-578, and genealogicial table. 

[The Swedish original was printed in * Egenhiindiga 
afteckningar af Carl Linnieus om sig sjelf/ printed by 
A. Afzelius at Stockholm, 1823. 4to.] 

L1>">*EAN llEIlBAlilUM. 2/ 

1S21. A selection of tlie Correspondence of Linnteiis, smd other 
natunilists, from the original niannscripts. By Sir James 
Edward Smith. Lontlon, 1821. 2 vols., 8vo. 

1885. Aiiiu-i>"G, EwALD. Oin Karl von Linno, Liniie d y., 
Linnean So(,-iety of London, Linneska Jnstilutet, Lin- 
ueska Sanifundet, och Liiincska samlingarna. (Al'tryck 
ur Kordisk Faniiljebok.) Slockholni, 1885. 13 pp. 

[lyO'Jj. LiNNE. Lefnadsteckning af Th. M. Fries. Stockholm 
[19031. 2 vols., 8vo. 

[The special portion referring to the Collections and 
their disposal will be found in Vol. ii. pp. 413-429.] 

1907. Bref och skrifvelser af och till Carl von Linnc ; med under- 
stiid af Svenska staten, utgifna af Upsala universitet 
och med upplysande noter forsedda af Th. M. Eries. 
Stockholm, 19o7 (-1912). 

[In progress ; seven volumes or parts have appeared 
to 1921. The letters are jjrinted iu the original language 
in which they were written; the explanatory notes are 

1825. Eorsetzung des Ausziiges aus einem Schreiben .... von 
J. A. Schultes. Flora, viii. (1825), ler Beil. 3-8. 

• — — Transl. as ' Schultes's Botanical visit to England,' 
Hooker's Botanical Miscellany, i. (1830) [1829-30], 
pp. 48-53 ; reprinted as 'On the cultivation of Botany 
in England,' Phil. Mag. vi. (Nov. 1829), pp. 351-355. 

[Contains an account of a visit to Sir J. E. Smith, 
and of the Linnean herbarium in 1824.] 

1832. Memoir and Correspondence of the late Sir James Edward 
Smith .... edited by [Pleasance] Lady Smith. London, 
1832. 2 vols., 8vo. 

[The letters which passed on the purchase of the 
Linnean hei'bariiim iu 1783-4 will be found iu Vol. i. 
pp. 91-134.] 

1840. Gkay, Asa. Notices of European Herbaria, particularly 
those most interesting to the North American botanist. 
Am. Journ. Sc. xl. (1840) 1-9. 

1843. Neavmax, Edavauu. Observations on the Linnean speci- 
mens of Eqidsctum. (From the ' Phytologist ' [i. 1843], 
1?. 530.) In: History of Ikitisii Ferns [Ed. 2], 
pp. 412-415. Lond. 1843. Transl. Duval- Jouve, 
Joseph ; in Histoire naturelle des Equisetum de France, 
pp. 228-230. Paris, 1864. 

1845. Laskgue, Antoine. Herbier de Linne. In: Miisee Bot. 
do M. Jienjamin Helessert, pp. 349-359. 


1845. Pahlatoue, Filippo. Flora palerinitana . . . Vol. i. Svo. 
Firenze 184.3 [-47], xxii + 442. [KeFerences to the 
Liiineaii herbarium •' ex ejus lierbario "' throughout the 
vohuue ; see also preface p. viii.J 

1850-53. Hartman, Cakl. Anteckningar viil de .Skandinaviska 
viixterna i Linnes Herbarium. Hand). K. 8v, Vet.-Akad. 
Stockholiii, 1849 (1850) 145-193; ib. 1851 (1853) 

1861. MuNRO, AViLLiAM. On the identification of the Grasses 
of Liuna^us's Jlerbirium, now in possession of the 
Linnean Society of London. JLourn. Linn. 8oc., Bot. vi. 
(1861) 33-55. 

1802. Fries, Theodor Magnus. Anteckningar riirande en i 

Paris befinthg Linneansk vilxtsamling. Stockholm, Ofv. 
k. Vet.-Akad. Fiirh. xviii. (1861) 255-272. 

1803. AxDEHSOX, Thomas. On the identification of the Aean- 

thaceae of the Linnean Herbarium, iu tlie possession of 
the Linnean Societv of London. Journ. Linn. See. 
Bot. vii. (1863) 111-118. 

1866. LoRET, Henri. De I'herbier connu sous le nom A'herhier 
MagnoL [Atlribuled by internal evidence to tlie younger 
Antoine Magnol, and a portion to Claude CliaptaL] Bull. 
Soc. Bot. Fr. xiii. (1860), lOl-lOO. 

1866. DuvAL-JouvE, Joseph. L'herbier de Linne et les graminees 
frangaises, d'aprcs les travaux de MxM. Parlatore, 
C. Hartman et W. Miinro. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr xiii 
(1886) 106-135. 

1809. ScHiMPEE, WiLHELM PiiiLipp. Synoiiymia Muscorum 
Hcrbarii Linneani apud Societatem Linnscanam Londi- 
nensem asservati. Jonru. Linn. Soc, Bot. xi (\SQd\ 
246-252. ^ '' 

1883. RoLFE, EoBERT Allex. On the Selagineje described by 
Linnaeus, Bergius, Linnjeus//., and Thunberg. Journ. 
Linn. Soc, Bot. xx. (1883) 338-358, 

1885. Masters, Maxwell TiLDEif. Kestiacearum in Herb. 

Linnaei asservatarum catalogus. Journ. Liun Soc ' 
Bot. xxi. (1885)590-591. 

1886. Baker, John Gilbert. On the Narcissi of the Linnean 

herbarium. Gard. Chrou. xxv. (1880) 489. 

1888. Jackson, Benjamin Daybon. History of the Linnean 
Coliections, prepared for the Centenarv Anniversary 
of the Linnean Society. (Proc. Linn. *Soc. 1887-88 
pp. 18-34.) 

1903. On Linnean specimens presented to Sir Joseph 

Banks in 1785. (Proc Linn. Soc. 1902-3, p. 10.) 


1907. Jackson, B. D. On a Manuscript list of the Linnean 
Herbarium in the handwriting of Carl von Linne, pre- 
sumably compiled in the year 1755 .... to which is 
appended a Catalogue of the Genera in the Herbarium, 
with the numbers of the sheets of specimens. Prepared 
ior the Anniversary Meeting of tlie Linnean Society of 
London, 24th May, 1907, in celebration of the 26oth 
Anniversar)^ of the birth of Carl von Liune. (Proc. Linn. 
Soc. 190G-7, pp. 89-126.) 

1907. Index to the Linnean Herbarium, within dication 

of the Types of Species marlied by Carl von Linne. 
(Proc. 1911-12 (1912) Snppl. pp. 1-1.52.) 

Catalogue of the Linnean Specimens of Amphibia, 

Insecta, and Testacea noted by Car! von Linne. Tran- 
scribed and codified. (Proc. 1912-13 (1913) Suppl. 
pp. 1-4S.) 

Correspondence between Carl von Linne and C. Eijk 

Tulbngh, Governor of the Dutch ('olony of the Cape of 
Good Hope. Including a List of 203 specimens sent in 
or about the year 1767 to Upsala. (Proc. 1917- ] 8 
(1918) Suppl. pp. 1-13.) 

Notes on a Catalogue of the Linnean Herbarium. 


1888. Waixio, Edvard August. Eevisio lichenum in herhario 
Linnaei asservatorum. Medd. Soc. Pauna et Plora 
feunica, xiv. 1886 (1888) 1-10. 

1894. Clarke, Charles Baeon. On certain authentic Cyperacese 
of Linnaeus. Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xxx. (1894) 

1899. Briquet, Jon?r. Notes sur quelques Buplevres de Therbier 
de Linne. Bull. Soc. Bot. Pr. xlvi. (1889) 289-291. 

1907. EvANDER, SvBN JoiiAN. Studier tifver Salices i Linnes 
herbarium. {In : Inbjudiiing till Theologie Doktors 
Promotionen .... den 24 Maj, 1907.) Uppsala, 1907. 
1-138, t. 2. 

1907. LiNDMAX, C[arl] A[xel] M[ag^'Us]. a Linnean Her- 
barium in the Natural History IMuseum in Stockholm. 
I. Arkiv for botanik, vii. 1908, No. 3, 57 pp. 

1907. Marshall, Edavard Shearburn. Carex and Epilohmm 

in the Linnean herbarium. Journ. Eot. xlv. (1907) 

1908. Hitchcock, Albert Spear. The American grasses de- 

scribed bv Linnoeus. Coutrib. Nat. Herb. Washington, 
sii. (1908) 114-127. 


1910. LiNn:MAX, C[AnL] A[xkl] M[A(;Nrs], A Limiean Her- 

barium in the Natural History Museum in Stockliolni. 
II. Arkiv for botanik, ix. 1910, No. 6, 50 pp. 

Note the introductory portion, pp. 1-18, of the first 
part, where the respective herbaria of the younger 
Linne, Alstriimer, and Montin are set forth. 

1911. Beckmaxx, Johanxes. J. B.'s Sclnvedische liAse in den 

Jahren 1705-1766. Tagebuch herausgegeben 

von Th. M. Fries. Upsala, 1911. 8vo. (Pp. 96-99.) 

1912. lIowE, Keginald Heber, Junior. The Lichens of the 

Linnean Herbarium with remarks on Acharian material. 
Bull. Torrey ]3ot. Club, xxxix. (1912) 199-203. 

1912. PiPHK, Charles A^vncouver. On the identity of Dtilichos 

anr/uiculalus Linnajus. Torreya, xii. (1912) 189-190. 

1913. Lister, GrULiELMA. Notes on the Mycetozoa of Linnaeus. 

Journ. Bot. li. (1913) 160-104. 

1913. PuAix, Sir Datid, The South African species of Gluytla. 
Kew. Bull. Misc. Inf. 1913, 373-416. 

1920. Browx, Nicholas Edward. A new species of Lobos- 

lemon [L. mcujnisepalum] in the Linnean herbarium. 
Journ. Linn. See, Bot. xlv. (1920) 141, 142. 

1921. Kroxfeld, EiixsT Moriz. Jacquin des Jiingeren botanisclie 

Studienreise 1788-1790. Aus den unveroflentlichten 
Briefe herausgegeben. Beihefte z. Bot. Centralbl., 
Orig. Arb. xxxviii. (1913) 132-176. 

Explanation of the Abbreviations and Signs 

USED in the pages OP THE (1912) ' InDEX.' 

Specific names printed in Roman type, as " fastuosa," show that a 
plant is so termed in the herbarium by Linno himself ; if by 
an amanuensis and clearly under Linno's direction, that is 
indicated by the addition in parentheses of the name of the 
amanuensis, as, for instance, uuder Acalypha vmjata 
(m. Sol.)=manu Solandri, or the name on the sheet being 
in the handwriting of D. Solander, or (m. L. f.) where the 
handwriting is that of the younger Linno. 

Specific names in itaUc type show that there is no specimen so 
named by Linne, but in cases where there can be no doubt 
as to the actual plant, I have added (pi.). Thus Abrus 
precatorins is the only species, and is represented by a 
s])«cimen, but does not show the name as written by Tjinne ; 
sometimes the number from the ' Species Plantarum,' ed. I. 
is put, but although there can be, in nionotypic genera 
especially, no doubt as to the authenticity of such specimen, 
1 have kept to my rule of not printing in Roman type, unless 
the name is written in full by Linno. 

LINXEAN heubaeium. 31 

The numbers followiiif}; the genera refer to the running numbers 
of the Catalogue of the Herbarium, as printed in Proc, Liun. Soc. 
1906-7, pp. 9G-1IL>. 

The numbers (1, 2, or 3) following the species refer to the 
enumeration in w Inch they first occur, thus : — 

In 1753 by the figure 1. 
„ 1755 ,, „ 2. 

., 1707 „ ,, 3. 

These lists are fully explained on' p. 10. Where no figure 
follows, the specimen was obtained after 1707, or was by some 
accident not recorded by Linne. 

The same specimen was frequently shifted by Linne, as liis 
views of afiiiiity changed. I have tried to point out where a 
specimen may be found, by adding the later name, as under 
AcuYR.VKTHES repens = Illecebrum Achyrantha, which means 
that the specimen is now in Illecebrum. MS. names are shown 
by that abbreviation ; when they w-ere ])ublished in the ' Supple- 
mentum* which bears the name of the younger Linne as author, 
tlie abbreviation of " Suppl." has been affixed ; this has the further 
interest of pointing out which species in tliat work are really due 
to the father and not to the son. 

The types of the younger Linne in the herbarium are not as a 
rule indicated ; they have been left for another opportunity. The 
zoological lists which were brought to light during the preparation 
of this Index liave been printed in 1913. 

The numbers following the generic name in Clarendon type, 
refer to the Catalosue drawn u]) by David Don and Ilichard 
Xippist, when the Linnean Collections were acquired in 1830, 
after the death of Sir James Edward Smith ; they are still used 
when consulting the Herbarium. 

(Some modifications have been made in the MS. Catalogue, 
which are explained in tlie Foreword.) 



Examples of tlie use of the generic name Linno'a by Linnaeus 
himself several years before it was published in his 
' Genera.' 


' Spolia botanica,' a MS. written in 1729 ; on the first j^age 
" liiiuuea" has been written, but partially erased, and liis 
patron's name, " Iludbeckia," substituted. 

Originally published by Dr. 3^1 Ahrling, but indepen- 
dently discovered again some years afterwards. 

II. MS. 'Iter lapponicum'; record of 29th May, 1732, o. s. 
f = 9th June, n. s., when specimens were gathered at 
Tugganforsen]. Published by Sir J. E. Smith (1811), 
Dr. Ahrling (1889), and Prof. T. M. Fries (1913). 

III, ' Genera plaiitarum ' ; p, 188 (1737) nominally by J. F. 

Gronovius, but drawn up in Linnseus's style, and not that 
of Gronovius. 

IV. Bloclc from a pliotograph of the actual specimen given by 

Linnaeus to Gronovius, to justify the i)uhlication ; from 
ProF. T. M, Fries ; the original specimen is in the Botanical 
Department of the British Museum (Natural History). 





in 1912 


Page 8, line A frmn bottom, the last word should read actual. 

11, after line 33, insert Commer.son, Philibert (1722-1773), 
dried plants received in 17o4, 

14, ItJie 40, 7-ead Gerhard. 

J"), ^, 13,/o/' p. 17 read p. 18. 

18, affer line (), insert AVjcigkl, Christian Ehrenfrieu (1748- 
1831), plants from Griefswald. 

18, line S'S,for autumn read spring. 

23, ,, ^ from bottom, for On read Om. 

26, line 3, read D. Solander. 

27, col. 1. Acer orientale = creticiim. 

2. Achillea i«orfo?r< = Atl]anasia annua. 

28 2. A.ciiOfiTicnvuferriu/inei(m=ferruffinosnm. 

nodosum of. Asplenium nodosum. 

29 1. ADiANTUMjy?//'/HJaez<?/i,lapsu,vide Asplenium pygmaeum. 
JiO 2. Aizooti lanceolatian cf.panicidatmn. 

32 1. Alopecurus grossarius cf. Paniciim grossarium. 

ALY8SUM ^/v/ssoufes = calycinum. 
34 1. Andropogon quadrivalve = nutans (err. typ.). 

Anemone canadensis cf. pennsyhanica. 








Pngo 34, rol. 2. ])liila(l(}Ijiliia ^fS. lftpsu=ppnnsi/lrn)iicn. 

Anon.v discietii = Unona discretn. 
35 1. A\TnEJ>Ufi (■rettco=}noiita7ui. 

frnficosa = Osmites Hellidiftstnim. 

AntiieriClm hispidttni cf. Asjjhodelus capensis. 

AxTinnHiNUM Imstatum, 'MS. = cirr/iosum. 

Arknaria mucrofiata = Ahine mucronata. 

Arktia Vitaliana = Primula Vitaliana. 

2. Artkmisia umhiyua cf. Seriphium (imljii/mim. 

40 1. Asi'ARAGus tov«//»<//s = Dracaena terininalis. 
2. AsPHODKLUS capcnsis = \\\i\iG\\cVim htspiduin. 

AsPLENiuM rrtf/jVnjJS^ vhizophoruni. 

rluzopliylliim. 2. =rhizophoriim. 

41 1. Aster opposififulit/s = C'meTav[ii Amellnides, 
polifolius. 3. = Inula caerulea. 

2. Astragalus tenuifolius. 3. =A. Onobrychis. 
trat/oides = tragacanthoides. 

42 1, ATRACTYLis//-M('/co.'>'« = CTorteria fruticosa. 

43 1. Azalka ^JOJ?/jVa= IJhododendron [flavum, G. Don, 7iti/i 
pouticuni, L.^. 

44 2. Bktonica hirta = Stachys recta. 
BiDExs /';7/^icos« = Aerbesina fruticosa. 

45 2. BoRASSus tiabelliformis MS.^Jlabelii/er. 

47 1. Bryum crt;«V/a;'e=Mnium capillare. 
2. rubrum = simpler. 

BcLitocoDiUM sero^trtfo?j = Antliericum serotinum. 

48 1. Bl'pleurum iv7/os?o» = Hernias depauperata. 
51 1. Caprakia /7r«i«o/on/ec'!=Lindernia Pyxidaria. 

Cardamine Lunaria = 'Ricotia. aegyptiaca. 
.52 2. Carthamus coryj«?>o.s?ts = Echinops cori/nibnsu^. 
Cassia /'/«/ey//b//« = biflora. 

54 1. CEXTAUREA//7<(' fruticosa, 
2. sessiliJ{ora = \\'v^Vi\, 

55 2. Chenopobium rt/^m('/««»i = Salsola altissima. 
66 1. /)-«?«co«?<??i=Salsola fruticosa. 

hirsutum = Salsola liirsuta. 

salsiim = Salsola salsa. 

virgin icum. 1. =aristatura. 
Chironia dodecandrid = Ch\ova dodccundrn. 
Chlora dodecandra ut supra. 

perfoliata. 3. cf. Gentiana perfoliata. 
57 2. Cineraria sonchifulia cf. Othonna sonchifoUa. 

59 1. Clerouendrum scandeus MS. cf. Knoxia sccnide/is. 
Ci.iTORiA hrasiliana=: (.j]yc'mti Gdlactia. 

Galactia =■ G 1 vcine Gidactia. 


Page 59, cul. 2. Clutia [postea Cluytia]. 

Clyi'Kola A/j/ssoides= Alysaum calycinum. 
Ii7ie 6, irnd Alaternoides. 
., 18, read calycimun. 
to 1. CoMKTKS S(/ra</eHs/s = alternitlora. 

:.'. CoMMELiNA «.ii;7/«)7's=Traclescantia axillaris. 
cristata = Tradescantia cristata. 
61 1. Convolvulus rtrM/w<(/s = Ipomoea Bona-nox. 

(lei/i/ptius = pentapliy llus. 
alsinoides=E\ o\\uhi3 alsinoides. 
gaup-eticus cf. Evolvulus gangeticus. 
/«M«/b/ms=Evolvulus linifolius. 
'2. immmularius = Evolvulus nummularius. 

trideiitatus = Evolvulus tridentatus. 
02 1. CoRiiiA i)'o?</Te;«« = Eln'etia Bourreria. 

glabra. 1. cf. C. Callococca. 
•J. CoRKOi'Sis a7iffustifulia =:lludheckia. angustit'olia. 
Go 1. CoTULA capensis cf. Matricaria capeusis, 

64: 1. Orassula ramosa MS. [post ' jj!t?ic<ato' ponendum]. 

2. line 12, read Rhagadioloides. 

Crotalaria rt/6« = Sophora alba. 
6o 1. i'/7/oA-« = Sophora biflora. 

Op-OTOX ricinoccuyus cf. Mercurialis procumbens. 

66 1. Cynanchum aphylluin cf. Euphorbia viminalis. 

67 1. Cytisus aetliiopicus = Ononis cernua [(iJj. 
2. 'inonspessidaniis = (Aei\\sta. candicans. 

68 2, Dianthus sr^.!,-//'rfl/7;« = Gypsopbila .saxifraga. 

DiAPENsiA helvetica=^ A.Yet\&, helvetica. 

69 2. DoLiCHOS pubescens. 3. cf. Glycine tomentosa. 

70 1. Dracocephalum sibiricum. 3. cf. Nepeta sibirica. 
2. Drupixa cristata [ = Besleria bivalvis, Linn. f.]. 

EcHiNOPS cori/mbosus cf. Carthamus corijnihosus. 

71 1. Kllisia r/c'»^<< = l)Liranta Ellisia. 

72 2. Erica paUide-pnrpurea=}ntrpur(t!if(ns. 

73 2. Erythrixa Pisciptda cf. Piscidia Erythrina. 

74 1. line 19, read Colpoon = Cassine capensis? 

75 1. Eupiiohbia viminalis cf. Cynanchum aphylhiDi. 

Y.V01.VU Lvs yanyeticus cf. Convolvulus ya»//e<iCM^'. 

76 1. Fevillea trilobata . . . 1179] cf. Tricho^antbes ;)?<wc- 

f.ata (pi.). 

77 1. Eucus e.rmMs = canaliculatus. 

muscoides = aculeatus. 
2. Fumaria cuculata [ante " Cucullariam " ponenda]. 
79 1. Gentiana perfoliata. 1. cf. Chlnra perfoliata. 

(jitadrifo/ia= Chlora quadrifolia. 

Pajjo 70, ro'. 2. Gkkamum rnpacemi: cl'. proliticum. . 

80 ]. Gkhakdia iii^'rina [transponeiida Jib GesneriaJ. 

Gksnkhia [niprinR, lapsu, vide sii])ni]. 

GiNKGf) [spllillm. GiNGKo". 

81 1. Glycine tonientosa. 1. cf. Doliclios pubescens. 

GxAPHALiUM dccHrreiis = Cony zsi decurrens. 
2. m'retim = Stoehe gnaplialoides. 

82 1. vi'rffa(um = Comy.ii virgata. 

84 1. IliCDYSAitu.M ]"]castopli_vllum. .'^5. cf, Ptfrocarjuis Ecasto- 

prast ration = Indigofera cnneaplivlla. 
8r>. 2. Hkspkius ;wom?cj«//s = Clierianthiis tristis. 

Hibiscus cancellatus Siippl. (" Cf. " deletur). 
8') 2. Wivvo^wav. (/lnn(hilo!-(i = bir/l(ui(hiIos((. 

87 2. IlYDnASTis canndt'iisis. 3. cf. Ilydropliyllmn canadense. 

JlYDnoi'uvLLi M canadense. .'5. cf. IIydiastis(utpiaec.). 

88 1. Hyoscyamus atropoides=ll. Belladocna (ponitur post 

" album ") (non Belladoimae). 
Hyi'Kuic LSI <hiiie7ise=mono<:\in\m. 
8f> 1. IIypociiakuls ninis cf. Seriola vrens. 

IIyi'oxis ovatii liiiin. f. [post " ininuta" ponendaj. 
90 2. Inula 7V/.r/.s' = revdiciuin ladiata. 
Ipomoka alba = l. J{ona-no.\. 

rubra cf. Polemonium rubnan. 
verticillata=Con\o\\n\ns, verticillatiis. 

93 1. KxoxiA 5CrtHrf<'»s = Clerodendruiu scandcus MS. 
2. Laetia nmcricann — npetala. 

Thamnia — apetaht. 

94 1. Lap.sana cflf/)?V/^07"5=Crepis virens. 

chondrilloides =Cre'p\» pulchra. 
do 1. Leontodon Dandelion = TragOY)OgQn Dandelion. 

ln?H(fum = Tragoi[)Oi\ lanatuni. 
Leonuuus indicua cf. Phlomi.s zoylauica. 
2. Lkucadkxdron acmilon [ = Protea acaule, Thunb.]. 
cancellatum = Vxoieti pinifolia 5- 
Conocurpodcndron [=Leucospermum conocarpuni, 

l\. Br.]. 
Scoli/mocephaliim [ = Protca Scolynms, Thunb.]. 

98 2. LoiiKLiA /»Wr? = zeylanica. 

prona MS. fpone post " P/'uniieri"]. 
Yolubilis [Burni. f.] [pest "iireiis" ponenda]. 

99 1. JjONICkha parasitica cf. hovanihus loniccrioides. 

IjORanthus lonicerioides [ut praec.]. 
Lotus niaiiiitanicns. .'>. cf. Ononis niauritanicus. 
piojtratus. o. cf. Ononis piostiata. 


I'an^e 10i\ col. ]. ^lATKiCAiiiA cupeupis. S. cf. Cotiila fiipeiisis. 
{iiod<>ni= Chrysaiitlieimim iiiodoiuin. 
rcculifa = suaveolens. 
2. '^iKLAi.v.vCA Lettccideudro)/ {■p\-)ci'.'M\v\.u^ Lcucadniili-mi. 
^Iklampouium australe (in. L. f.) cf. Unxiu camplionita. 
103 '2. My.JiCViiiAi.i>^ pronwibens cf. C'ruton rlcinocarjms. 

]()•■) 1. Mimosa rjwfrr'« cf. M. t'lncrarid. 

lOi) 2. MucoR iiiictiiosHS = septicHs. 

107 2. Myktus Z(7/c«f/c/(f//-on = Melaleuca Leiicaik'ndion. 

Xai'AKA /«i"m = liermaplirodita. 

Nahdus arl iciil(i(a= Aegi\o-pf^ iiicurvata. 

108 1. Nkpeta latifolia MS. [poue ])ost ' italicaiu "". 

sibirica. 1. cf. Drncoceplialnm sibirlcum. 
'J. Ochxa Jahotapita = squ(vrv.s(i. 
lOU 1. Oknothera ;m>wm/A' = piniiila. 

Oldenlandia capensis (noii capense). 
2. OxoMS cermia cf. Cytisus aethiopicus. 

110 1. Opiiuvs /rtf/fo/m = lilif(ili!i. 
2. OiiCHLS satyroides cf. lijiora. 

111 1. line 34, read Scorpioides. 

112 1. Othois'xa c/('f/'o//rt = Cineraria ;^eifoii;t. 

parvifolia cf. Senecio rigens. 
sonchifolia cf. Cineraria sonc/iifolid. 

113 1. Panicuji repe7is [non 'repeus'j. 

2. Paihetama ^e///an/c« = Urtica alieiiata. 
Passerina fZoc?ec«?!c?;'« = Strutlnola erecLa. 
11.5 2. Phaca SM/r;«^rt = Astragalus sulcatus. 

116 2. Phlomis zeyliiuica cf. Leonurus indicus. 

117 2. PisciDiA Erythrinu cf. Erythrina Fiscipida. 

118 2. 'PhiaiA 2n'inuta = crocea. 

119 1. PoLEMONiUM rubnim cf. Ipomoea ruhva. 

121 2. PoRTVLACA Vo) tulacas,truin = Sesuvium Portula- 

tvianynlaris cf. Vdccmosa. 

122 1. VnoT'RA fusca — V. Levisamis. 

123 1. PsoRAMCA piniiata. 1. cf. Iiidigofera eiineapliylla. 
2. Ptkkis (//rAo<uwu/ = Acrostichum fiircatuin. 

/■(ffrt^: Acrosticlmm rufiim [Am. Acad. ed. 8chreb 
i. 276 J. 
Ptkrocarpus Ecastaphylluni cf. Iledysanini casta- 

124 1. (irF.RiA canadensis ["canadensi" err. ty]).]. 

2. Kanunculus [flagellilbrmis, Sm.] "Mutis"' m. Linn 
apud herb. Sm. 


•• \'2'), Lu/. 1. I.'au\ oi.MA ie<rojj/ti/l/a = mUdii-\-ciiiniiCL-u». 
1 { i;sKi»A siijf'niiiciilusd = fruticiilosa. 
l'. JfiiAMNUs «V?</Ms = pentaphyllus. 
]i'(i •_'. lloniMA .•l(v«:-?V/= 15. Pseud-acftcia. 
1 1'S > ] . S A M X (/rpressa = 1 a 1 1 a t a . 

l.'U 1. Saturkja r7';y/////«?i« = Thymus virgiuicus. 

l."5-_' 1. StiiOKNUS deustus MS. [of. seq.]. 

nstuluttis = deustus. 
13") '2. Skiuola uieih^ cf. Ilypocliaeris unnu. 

Skiiu'IUlm (Duhif/Hiim cf. Artemisia ambiiiiia. 
.Skiuiatl'la C'li(iinaepeucc cf. Staolielina Chaiwiepence. 
];Jt) 1. Sksili C'rtrr(/b//« = Selimiin Carvifolia. 

SiBTHORPiA afncana=perc(/rina q. v. 

perefffina = Disandra prostrata. 
SiCYOS tnfoliata = Ciasas acida. 
l-*]" 1. SiLiMiiUM helinnihciiles — soWda^'mvidt'n. 

138 1. line \2, {or " (/roeciim^' read '' f/raccnm." 

13!) 1. Soi-iDAGO Z>oj7jnj«o/i = Senecio Doronicum. 

140 :i. Spinikkx sf^uai-rosus [non 'sqiiarrosus "J. 

Spondias lutea [non * lutea ']. 
Ill 1. Stachys recta. 3. cf. Betouica liirta. 

Stakhki.ixa C/ifon(iejH'iicc cf. Serratiila C/iaiiiuepei'cc. 

143 2. Thksium Frisca [non ' Frisia "]. 

144 1. Thymus virginicus cf. Satureja virginijiua. 
2. Tournkfortia c)'mosa. 3. cf. glabra. 

14-> 2. TuiCHOSA:KTHy.s ])U7ictata (pi.) cf. Fevillea trilobata. 

146 1. TRrFOLiUM/;i/if/ca??s = Psoralea bracteata. 

Melilotus var. curuiculata = Trigonella coriiiculata. 
2. TuKiONKLLA coruiculata [cf. praec.'. 

147 1. TuiTicUM livbernum [non hiihernian . 

148 1. Unona discrcta (pi.) cf. Annona discreta. 

Unxia campborata. Suppl., cf. Melampodium autitrale. 
Urtica africana MS. = capensis, Linn.f. 

149 2. Vkrbesixa fiuticosa (m. L. f.) cf. Bidens fruticucia. 
loO 2. Viola arborea cf. 7'. Hyhaiithus. 

151 2. Xkkanthkmum c///«^i/m = Gorteria squarrosa. 

('/•Mr//b/jMHi = Ceutaurea radiata. 

152 2. Zinnia ^;e/uy/rtwrt=:pauciflora. 



OF Tino 



From November 1922 to JuiVE L923. 

L N I) N : 





List of Publications issued iv 

Proceediii<i;s of the 135th Session i 

Presidential Address , 27 

Obituai'ies 36 

Absti'acts 51 

Benefactions, 1904-1923 69 

Additions to the Library 73 

Index 78 

rUJU.lCATIONS: Session July 1922-Junf, ]023. 

Journal, Botany. 

Vol.XLV]. No. 15O0. 10/- 

„ ;iu7. 18/- 

„ 308. 12/- 
Journal, Zoolo<xy. 

Vol. XXXV. No. 232. 10/- 

„ 233. 10/- 

„ 234. 10/- 

„ 235. 12/- 

Proceedings, 134tli ISession, Novenibtr 1 !)22. 6/- 

List of [Fellows, Associates, and Foreign Members '„ Nov. 1922. 





November 2nd, 1922. 

Dr. A, Smitu Woodwahd, F.R.S., President, 
in the Cliair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the loth June, 1922, 
were read and confirmed. 

A s])ecial vote of thanks was passed by acclamation to Dr. W. 
RusHTON Parker for his gifts of the last edition (11th) of 'The 
EncyelopsBdia Britannica,' 32 quarto vols, on thin paper, and case ; 
the ' New Oxford Dictionary,' complete to date, with shelves to 
accommodate tlie set; Sonnini's etlition of Button's ' Histoire 
Naturelle,' 127 vols., with six vols, of 'Suites a Buffon'; and 106 
additional porhviits of naturalists and patrons of botany. 

Mr. Reginald Cory, Mr. Harry Bertram Harding, and Mr. Hugh 
Vandevaes Lely were admitted Fellows. 

The certificate in favour of Mr. AVilliam Henry Wilkins «as 
read for the second time. 

The following were proposed as Fellows : — 

Miss Annie Dixon, F.R.M.S. ; Joseph Bunny ; Zenon loannon 
Solomides; Miss Elizabeth Marianne Blackwell ; IMiss Helena 
Bandulska, M.Sc. ; Robert Edward Chapman ; and George Allan 

LIXN. see. PROCEEDINGS. — SESSION 1922-1923. h 


The President gave notice that a Ballot for Fellows would take 
place on the 14tli December next ; he also annoiuK ed that two 
vacancies now exist tor Associates, due to the deaths of Kobert 
Allen l^olfe and "William Cole. 

The President read the following proposed alterations in the 
Bye- Law 8 : — 

Chap. Vm. Sect. 1 (p. 21). To omit the following: "and 
each AnniverHary Meeting shall also be advertised in Two or 
more of the Public Newspapers, at least one week before the 
same takes place." 

(Now needless, as every Fellow has notice.) 

Chap. VIII. Sect. 4 (p. 22). For " Three o'clock " substitute 
"Five o'clock"; for " Half-past Three o'clock" substitute "Half- 
past F^ive o'clock"; and for "Four o'clock" substitute "Six 

(Thus altering the hour of meeting from 3 to 5 p.m.) 

Chap. X. Sect. 8 (p. 24). After " Iron Chest," insert " or 
with the Society's Bankers, and the Iron Chest shall ". 
(Giving power to lodge securities at the Bank.) 

The first communication was by Dr. A. B. Eexdle, F.E.S., 

Sec.L.S., on "Early specimens of Daldia and Chnisanthemxmi from 
the Banksian Herbarium." illustrated by lantern-slides. 
Mr. J. BmxTKX contributed a few additional remarks. 

Dr. Eexdle also showed on behalf of Mr. Alfred O. AValker, 
F^.L.S., a vine-tendril bearing a ripe grape, and explained the 
relation of tendrils to inflorescence in the vine. 

The meeting sent its best wishes to our veteran Fellow, now 
entering his 91st year. 

Mr. Julian S. Huxley thtni gave his paper on " The Courtship 
of Birds,'' with slides from his own drawings and other sources in 
illustration ; it was communicated by Prof. E. S. Goodrich, F.E.S., 

A discussion followed, in which the President, Mr. W. P. 
Pyeraft, A.L.S., and Lt.-Col. J. II. TuU Walsh engaged, the 
author replying. 

Dr. B. Daydon Jacksox, Gen. Sec.L.S., then made a short 
statement concerning the use of the name Forstcra or Forsteria, 
both used by Linne in his herbarium with his note Forsiera 
vaginalis, on a sheet which formerly had a grass-like plant 
glued upon it, and therefore was widely separated from the 
fStylidiaceous genus Avhich al the present day bears the name 
Forstera. F^u'ther doubts as to the respective shares of Si'arrmax, 
G. F'onsTER, and Fiixx. f. were raised by statements published by 
Linn. f. and the Forsters. 


November 16tb, 1922. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.E.S., President, 
ill the Chair. 

The jMinutes of the General Meeting of the 2nd November, 1922, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Eobert Gurney, M.A., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., was admitted a 

The Certificates in favour of the following were i-ead for the 
second time : — 

Miss Annie Dixon, F.E.M.S. ; Joseph Bunny : Zenon loannon 
Solomides ; Miss Elizabeth INIarianne Blackwell, M.Sc. (Liver- 
pool); Miss Helena Bandulska, M.Sc. ; Robert Edwaixl Chapman, 
M.Sc. (Leeds) ; and George Allan Frost, F.G.S. 

Tlie following were proposed as Fellows : — 
Frederick Tom Brooks, M. A. (Cantab.) ; Eobert McGilUvray ; 
George Norman Bunyard; and INIontagn Charles Allwood,F.R.H.S. 

The President read the proposed alterations in the Bye-Laws, 
as announced on the 2nd November, for the second time. 

The President also read a letter from Mr. A. O. ^YALKBR, 
expressing his appreciation of the message sent to him from the 
last Meeting. 

The first communication was by Mr. A. J. Wilmott, B.A., 
F.L.S., entitled " Orchis latifolia, Linn. (Marsh Orchis) from the 
Island of Oland, Sweden obtained from the station in which it 
was found by Linnaeus in 17-il." The author, in the following 
abstr.ict sujjplied by him, stated : — 

It was pointed out that 0. latifolia, L., 1753, was a general 
name for Marsh Orchids, but in 1755 this name was limited 
without varieties, and separated from 0. incarnata and 0. sam- 
hacina. The diagnosis is general, and comes from Linnaeus's 
article in Act. LTpsal. 1740, where it applies mainly to unspotted- 
leaved plants. The plant referred to as " it. oel. 48 " was 0. sam- 
hucina, but the "O. palmata palnstris non maculata " of "it. oel. 
48 " was pratermissa. This is referred by Linnaeus in MS. notes 
to Fl. Suec. (ed. 1 ) no. 728 var. (728 being referred to under 
0. latifolia), and is what remains when 0. samlnwina has been 
separated. The herbarium specimen is also 0. jwcetermism , 
matching one brought back by Mr. Edwards from the identical 
spot in Oland. The plant of the ' Hortus Cliffortianus ' which 



grew around Haarlem niiglit possibly be 0. prcrtermissd, but 
Linnaeus said " Variat loliis niatrulatis & imniaculatis,'' which 
iiulicates that hybrids with 0, maculata, or perhaps 0. majalis, were 
incliultHJ. This was, however, his earliest work on the subject, 
beinj: ])uhlislu'd in 1737 before he saw Vaillant's orchids or 
travelled in Olaiid. The Vaillant plant referred to, seen in situ 
by Linnanis in 173S, was the most common one round Paris with 
unspotted leaves : also probably 0. pr(ttermissa. Of the J3auhin 
])laiits, tlie " type " of 17o3 and the var. /3, which are respectively 
the var. u and " type" of his 17-10 paper iu Act. Upsal., are both 
unspotted-leaved plants, the " non maculata '' and " latifolia " of 
the pre-Linnean authors ; most likely both were forms of 0. prce- 
tenniss'i. The var. e of the ' Species Plantarum ' was probably 
0. mdjdlis, for the fi<2;ure in Uudb. Elys, is good iwijaJis. All of 
this iudicates that by 0. latifoUn LinuKus had primarily in mind 
0. pnetermissa. T3ut Linnaeus, in his description of 1755, says that 
the leaves are slightly spotted. This may refer to the decay spots 
on the plant in his herbarium, for this note was made when he 
descrii)ed 0. incarnata in the ^1":^. notes in his copy of the 'Flora 
Suecica,' ed. 1, or it may refer to the hybrid forms with spotted 
leaves which occur where 0. pnvtermiam and 0. riiacuhtta occur 
together. The descri])tion of 0. incarnata refers to the form so 
named by British botanists to-day. liinna^us knew 0. prrrtemussa, 
and included it under n. 72S of Fl. Suec. ed. 1, whic-h became 
0. Intifolia. It seems fairly clear that by O. latifolia Linmeus in 
1755 understood O. pra;iermi.ssa, perhaps including the hybrid 
with maculata. Certainly he did not intend O. majalis, Eeichb. 

A discussion followed in which Mr. W. X. Edwards (visitor), 
:\rr. C. C. Lacaita, Mr. T. A. Dymes, :\rr. II. W. Pugsley, and 
Lord Eothschild engaged, the author re])lying. 

Mr. T. A. Spragub then gave a description, with a large number 
of specimens, of Twin-leaves and other abnormalities in the 
Common Ash, Fraxinus excelsior. 

Specimens were shown of the following abnormalities: — 
1. Fasciated stems, -with dichotomous branching. 2. Bud- 
variation, with narrow caudate-acuminate leaflets. 3. Accessory 
leaflets ; one or both leaflets of a pair replaced by sessile or stalked 
bifoliolate pinnae. 4. False accessory leaflets, by suppression of the 
internode above the lower pair of leaflets. 5. Confluent leaflets. 
6. Twin-leaves aiul Triplets : occurring in various forms — Nature 
of leaf-twinning — Cause of this abnormality, probably hyper- 
trophy — Significance of accessory and twin-leaves. 7. Auiso- 
phylly, the foliage leaf having a bud-scale as its nodal companion. 
S. Suppression of a leaf: examples shown of complete or partial 
suppression of one leaf of a pair without disturbance of the 
opposite-decussate phyllotaxy, which continues as thou<::h the 
missing leaf were present. 


Lt.-C.jl. J. H. Tull Wiilsli, Mr. J. AV. Bodger, Dr. E. J. 
Salisbury, aiul Lord liotliscliild discussed the paper, the last- 
named coiiimentiug on similar nianiFestatioiis in Fistacia Lentiscus, 
the Terebinth, in certain parts of Algeria. 

The last paper, by Dr. H. ,T. Tileyaiii), on the wing-venatioii of 
the Oriler Plectoptera or May-Hies, Avas postponed. 

November 30th, 1922. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 16th November, 
1922, were read and confirmed. 

Certificates in favour of the following were read for the second 
time : — 

Frederick Tom Brooks, M. A. (Cantab.) ; Eobert McCxillivriiy ; 
Greorge Norman Buiiyard : and Montagu Charles Allwood, 

Charles Chubb, M.B.O.L"., was proposed as an Associate. 

The alterations in the Bye-laws, read from the Chair on tiie 
2nd and 16th November, were balloted for and accepted. 

Dr. A. B. Eendle, F.K.S., Sec.L.S., exhibited a visitors' book, 
in use from 1778 to ISll, by Sir Joseph Banks, Bt., P. R.S., the 
weight of the visitors being noted. The book contains the names 
of many well-known botanists of tlie period and of other visitors to 
Banks's herbarium and library. Some of the entries are in Banks's 
hand, others are autograph ; many are by Jonas Dryander, who 
was librarian to Banks from 1782 till his death in 1810. In several 
cases the same person is recorded at different dates, anil the 
variation in weight is curious and interesting. Banks was weighed 
13 times, his weight increasing from 13st. 10 lbs. to 
April, 1811. 

The General Secretary commented on two names mentioned by 
Dr. Bendle as occurring in the volume : (1) Sir Charles Blagden, 
a noted physician and close friend of Banks, appreciated also by 
Dr. Samuel Jolnison, whose " Blagden, sir, is a delightful fellow" 
occurs in Boswell's 'Life of Johnson'; and (2) Prof, von Linne, 
who was Banks's guest in 1782, and was present when Solauder 
was struck down by apoplexy in that year ; the professor's weight 
was 12 st. 3 lbs., which shows that he was a bigger man than his 
father, the famous naturalist. 

A paper by Dr. II. J. Tillyaud on "The Wing-venation 
of the Order Plectoptera or May-liies " was read in title by Prof. 
E. S. Goodrich, P. U.S., Sec.L.S. 

6 t»nocEi;niNos of the 

Tlie next pajxT, " Tlio Structure of cerl:iiii Palaeozoic Dipnoi 
|Fislie.s]," by Prof. 1). 8. M. AVatson and Mr. E. L. Gikl, coni- 
municatcd by Prof. E. S. Goodrifh, F.K.S., Sec.L.S., was explained 
by Prof. AV'atson, w itii the help of a series of lantern-slides. 

The President, in commenting upon the value and interest of 
the pajn'r, alluded to the Norllunnhrian coal-niinei-, Thomas 
.Althey, to whose care and assiduity the splendid collections at 
Newcaslle-on-Tvue are so greatly indebted. Other speakers were 
Prof, (iroodrich and Mr. J. K. Norman (visitor), to whom 
Prof. A^'atson replied. 

The tieneral Secretary exhibited a copy of a v(dunie entitled 
* The Giant Trees of A'ictoria,' by Mr. J. Dukcan Pj;ikce, C.E., 
an expert photographer, of which only 25 copies were prijited ; 
there are 8 plates, averaging 16 in. x 12 in. Mr. Peirce stated 
tliat the tallest trees grew in gullies between ridges, the greater 
moisture and abundance of leaf-mould conducing to their height, 
but the liigliest tree measured proved to be only 326 feet 1 inch. 

^Ir. G. W. E. LoDEH reuuirked that the height of the Australian 
Kiicali/jilKs had probably been exaggerated and did not equal that 
of the American Big-trees, and Dr. IiKNUI.e adiled further 

December 14th, 1922. 

Dr. A. !Smitji Woodwahu, F.K.S., President, 

in the Chair. 

Tlie Minutes of the General Meeting of the 30th November, 
Id'J'J, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Willis Opeushaw Howartli, M.Sc. was admitted a rellow. 

,lohn Koxbrough Norman and Major Eobert Deresford Seymour 
Sewell, I. M.S., were proposed as Fellow s. 

Major Charles Hunter, M.Sc.(Durh.); William Nowell. D.I.C.; 
William Frederick Neville Greenwood ; William Henry Wilkins ; 
Miss Annie Dixon, 31. Sc. (Manch.); Joseph Bunny; Prof. Zenon 
loannon Solomides ; Miss Elizabetli Marianne Blackwell, M.Sc. 
(Liverp.); JNliss Helena Bandulska, M.Sc; Kobert Edward 
Cliapn)an, ]\l.Sc.( Leeds) ; (ieorge Allan Frost, F.G.S. ; Frederick 
Tom Brooks, 31. A. (Cantab.) ; Bobert McGillivray ; George 
Norman Bunyard ; and Montagu Charles Alhvood, were elected 

Prof. PouMoN, F.B.S., introduced an exhibition of coloured 
lantern-slides, showing a new discovery in Mimiciy of South 
American Butterflies. 


Mr. W. J. K:iye (visitor), Sir Sidney F. Hariner, nncl Lt.-Col. 
J. H. Tiill Walsh took part in the discussion wliich followed. 

Mr. AV. O. HowARTH then gave his paper " On the occurrence 
of Festuca rubra in J3ritain," illustrating it with dried specimens. 

Mr. H. W. PuGSLEY exhibited a series o£ specimens of; British 
species of Calaniintha, including a species new to this countiy. 

The involved nomenclature of the true Calaminthas, which were 
placed in the genus Melissa by Linnwus, ^Aas iirst alluded to, and 
reasons given for treating the three recognised British species as 
CaJamintha ascendens, Jord., C. Ne/ieta, Savi, and C. sijlvatica, 
Bromfield. The new form, first found near Swanage, in Dorset, 
in 1900, and again in 1912, was identified with C. btetka, Boiss. 
& Reut., although showing differences in minor features, "which 
were attributed to climatic influence. The salient characters of 
C. hcHica were pointed out, and contrasted with those of the other 
British species, and the geographical distribution of the new plant 
indicated, with special reference to its interest as an additional 
unit, in the Lusitanian element in the British l^'lora. 

In the discussion which ensued, Mr. H. S. Thompson, Mr. T. A. 
Dymes, Mr. E. G. Baker, Mr. A. H. Maude, Mr. C. E. Salmon, 
and. Mr. F. N. AVilliams engaged, and Mr. Pugsley replied. 

Dr. Lily Battex then gave a condensed account of her paper: — 
" The Genus Poliisiphonia ; a critical I'evision of the British species, 
based upon anatomy." (Communicated by Prof. Dame Helen 
Gwynne-Vaughan, D.B.E., D.Sc, F.L.S.) 

Dr. Marion Delf and Prof. Neilson Joues contributed additional 
remarks, and the author replied. 

January 18th, 1923. 

Dr. A. Smith Woobwabd, F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 14th December, 
1922, were read and confirmed. 

Frederick Tom Brooks, M.A. (Cantab.) ; George Norman 
Bunyard ; Miss Helena Bandulska,|M.Sc. ; Frederick Berry-Lewis 
Butler ; George Allan IVost ; and Joseph Bunny, were admitted 

Certificates in favour of .John Eoxbrough Norman and Major 
Eobert Beresford Seymour Sewell were read for the second time. 

Edward Arthur Wilson was proposed as a Fellow. 

Charles Chubb w as elected an dissociate. 

3 I'jtot i;i;i)i.\(..s (H- TltK 

'J'lie J'resKleiit aniioiincecl the death of Prol'. (Iaston I'AGkxe 
Maiuk iioNMKU. a i'oreip;!! INIenibpr: also that IJallots lor Fellows 
will be taken on the 1st .Alareli and '.\\-d May. 

Capt. (t. JI, AVilkixs, inti-oduoed bv Dr. A. 13. Hkndle, F.E.S., 
8ee.L.8., exhibited a dried vegetable mass made from a variety of 
wiUl plants, Chenopodium and others, which are now an important 
element in the food-supply of the lliissian peasantry; the jilants 
are dried, pounded to a line Hour, and mixed Avitb rye to make 
coarse cakes. 

Jle then gave an account of the IShackleton-liowett Expedition 
in the ' Quest ' to the Antarctic ]iegions. On St. Paul's liocks 
no [)lants save a few Alg:e were found, but at South (jieorgia, an 
island about 100 miles long and 20 miles broad, a considerable 
collei'tion was made, though the flora is fairly well known, and 
reindeer thri\e. Ijicbens and mosses only were observed on 
Elephant Island ; Tristan da Cunha was visited and 16 species 
gathered. Gough Island is known from the ' Scotia ' reports ; the 
most conspicuous member of the flora is Fhi/liat arhorea, growing 
to 20 feet ; a variety of Sopliora tetraptera is now described. 
Tussock- grass, ferns and Empdrum grow luxuriantly, and an 
Apium, hitherto confused with cong<^ners, is novv described. The 
specimens have been presented to the British Museum by Mr. J. Q. 
Kowett. The lecture ^^■as illu-trated by a series of fine lantern- 

A discussion followed in wliich the following engaged: — 
The President, ]\[r. II. X. Dixon, j\lr. T. A. Dynies, Dr. A. 13. 
Kendle, and Mr. C. C. Lacaita ; Capt. Wilkins replying. 

]Mr. E. G. Baker then followed with a resume of the flora of 
Gough Island, 2() flowering plants and 10 ferns being now known 
from it. Amongst these may be named the endemic Coftda 
(/oa(fhe)if<ls Kud. Br., J{i/drocoti/le lencocephala Cham. & Schlecht., 
GnaphaVnan pyramidaJe Thouars, Rume.v fridescens Thouars, and 
Ein]>etram nii/rum L., var. ruhrum ilemsl. The only small trees 
on the island are the Fhi/Uca and Sopliora previously mentioned. 
There is also a new species of Apium allied to A. rti(4'<r«/e Thouars, 
but having broad cuneiform segments to the leaves. The widely- 
spread fern Lomnria Boyi/ana NVilld. reaches a height of from 2 to 
3 feet. 

Miss ]lEr.i::.VA 1>,vn, M.Sc, read her ])aper " The Cuticular 
Structure of certain Dicotyledonous and Ctniiferous Leaves from 
the Middle Ejcene Flora of Bournemouth," illustrated by lantern- 

The President, Dr. Marie Stopes, iMr. W. X.Edwards (visitor), 
Dr. D. II. Scott, and Mr. II. AV. Monckton contributed further 
observations, and the author replied. 


Mr. \V. K. biiEUHix showed a small volume containing small 
specimens of the entire moss-flora ol' Britain, as a meinoria tech- 
nica; also a similar volume, with species and varieties of 
SphcKjnum. Dr. A. B. Ret^dle nnd Mr. H, N. Dixox spoke on 
these exhibits, the latter producing a copy of W. G. Maclvor's 
'KepaticcB Britannicae; or pocket Herbarium of British Hepaticte,' 
jS^ew Brentford, 1847, co)itainin<i 18 folios of specimens. The 
copy shown was remarkable for nn inserted sheet of the alga 
Thorea ramosissima Bory : possibly the only British specimen 

February 1st, 1923. 

Dr. A. SiiiTii AV'ooDWAiu), F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 18th January, 
1923, were read and confirmed. 

The certificate in favour of Edward Arthur Wilsou was read 
for the second time. 

The following were proposed as Fellows : — 

Seevaratnam Arunachalam ; Miss Ethel Katherine Pearce, 
F.E.S. ; Edward W vllie Fenton, M.A., B.Sc.(Aberd.), F.E.S. ; and 
Prof. Robert Scott Troup, CLE., M.A. 

Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S., Sec.L.S., exhibited a pocket dis- 
secting microscope, which formerly belonged to Robert Brown, 
and gave its history. The General Secretary showed the larger 
instrument which had been presented to the Society twelve 
months previously ; both instruments were pro\ ided with single 
lenses of high power. 

Dr. Abtiilk AV. Hill, F.R.S., t,hen showed lantern-slides of 
photographs taken in the Tropical Fern House at J\ew, exhibiting 
the specud adaptation of certain species for their lower fronds 
intercepting debris washed down by rain, which was utilized by 
the plants. 

Sir Sii)>EY F. Harmeu, K.B.E., F.R.S., F.L.S., then read his 
paper " On Cellularine and other Polyzoa," illustiated by drawings 
and lantern-slides. A discussion followed, the participants being 
the President, Dr. W. D. J^ang (visitor). Prof. E. S. Goodrich, 
Prof. Garstang, and Dr. G. P. Bitlder, the author briefly 

•o Proceedings or the 

8ir Nicolas YekiMoloit, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., T.L.S., read his 
" Notes on Cliivloceros iiiiil iillied generii, living: and fossil," witli 
laiiteni-slides, of which the t'ollo\viij<r is an abstract : — 

The J)iat()in i^enus CJidtoceros sliows sevenil pecuHar features. 
Jt has been hi;;lily differentiated for pelagic life. It occurs in the 
planktons of ihe colder seas, sonietinies, es|)ecia]ly in spring, in 
colossal nunihers. Wonie 100 living sjx'cies have been described, 
but only (! or 7 are coninion in the ]ilanktons. 

'I'he parent ceils, each consisting of two valves with a hoop 
between I hem, form colonies, holding together by means of long 
setsB. The \\ hole structure of the colony endow s it with great 
floating capacity. 

Two features of the genus are especially puzzling: one is that 
several of the species, though not all, have the capacity to develop 
inside the mother-cells peculiar internal organs, covered with a 
thick siliceous wall. These organs, rightly or wrongly, are called 
slntojiores. No one has ever seen tliem germinate, and whether 
they ai'e organs of I'eproduction, or something like endocysts, or 
something else, is not known. 

The other strange feature of the genus is, that although it is so 
infinitely numerous in the planktons, nevertheless the mother- 
cells, or colonies, as such, never appear in any fossil marine 
deposits. On the other hand, the spores do appear fairly often 
as fossil remains. Why it is that the vegetative form cannot 
stand fossilization whilst the spore can do so, is not known. 

Although the spores of Cha'toceros are all built on very similar 
lines, yet the elder authors, since Ehrenberg, have taken them for 
separate Diatom genera, and have classified and named them as 
such. Thus some five new Diatom genera have been created. Of 
them, three (Synch)} drium Ehr., Dicladia Ehr., and Hercotheca Ehr.) 
are undoubtedly spores of Ohcetoceros. Two other genera (Gonio- 
thecinm Ehr. and Xanthiopyxis Ehr.) may or may not be spores of 
Ohcetoceros, or of some other form yec unknown. 

Fossil spores of Chcetovet-os are to be found frequently enough in 
Miocene Diatomaceous earths. The most common form is Si/nclen- 
clrium Ehr., which is the spore of Chcelocn'os cUadema Gran, very 
common in the planktons. 

Dr. Clarence Tierney (visitor) contributed further remarks, and 
the author replied. 

Mr. HuBEifT Ltman Clapjc's paper, "Some Echinoderms from 
West Australia," commuiiicated by Prof. W. J. Dakin, F.L.S., was, 
in the absence of the author, read in title. 

Miss K.AT11BONE, F.L.S., brought for exhibition W. Gardiner's 
' Musci britannici,' Glasgow, 1836, 8", with specimens of the 
mosses ; this seems to have been the earliest issue, followed after- 
wards by the Dundee and London editions. 


Mr. Charles Tuexkr, F.L.iS., sent a supply of microscope slides 
of Desmids from Wales, and Chcetoceros from IS^aples plankton, for 

February IStli, 192:1 

Dr. A. Smith Woodwaud, F.E.S., President, 
in tlie Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 1st February, 
1 923, were read and confirmed. 

Miss Elizabeth Marianne Bhickwell, M.Sc. (Liverp.), was 
admitted a Fellow. 

The certificates in favour of 8eevaratnam Arunachalam, Miss 
Ethel Katheriue Pearce, F.E.8., Edward Wylhe Fenton, M.A., 
E.8c.( Aberd.), F.E.S., and Prof. Kobert Scott Troup, CLE., M.A., 
were read for the second time. 

Francis Miranda was proposed as a Fellow. 

Dr. A. D. Imms communicated and explained by the help of 
lantern-slides a paper by Mr. A. M. Altson, "On the method 
of oviposition and the egg of the Beetle Lyctus brunueus, Stepli." 

Prof. E. S. Goodrich, Sec.L.S., made a few additional remarks 
and Dr. Imms replied. 

Mr. R. Paulson exhibited 68 species in 27 genera of Lichens 
collected by Mr. V. S. Summerhayes, of the Oxford University 
Expedition to Spitsbergen in 1921. They were derived chiefly 
from Bear Island, a mass of limestone rock, and Prince Charles 
Foreland, of siliceous rock. The Gulf Stream influences both 
islands ; most of the Lichens were thoroughly healthy, and had 
been carefully dried. 

Miss A. Lorrain Smith and Dr. Eendle, Sec.L.S., contributed 
fm'ther remarks, and Mr. Paulson replied. 

Mr. F. lIoWARu Laxcum followed with the following account 
of curious oviposition by a specimen of the Clouded Yellow 
Butterfly, CoUas edusa : — " I do not know that these few notes 
have any particular scientific value, but I think that the incident 
which they desci'ibe is sufflcieutly remarkable to be placed on 

"In early September of last year I had seven captured female 
specimens of Colias edusa, which I kept for the purpose of 
obtaining ova. Of these, six duly deposited ova in fair numbers. 

12 I'lc II ii.niM.s or TTtK 

I liad the seventh in coiirtiiemeiit for a I'urtni^'lit without resuU, 
the insect stijad lastly relusing to lay, althou<;li 1 was convinced 
tiiat it was tertile. As it also declined to I'eed, 1 liad recourse to 
the usual practice in refractory cases of liolding the insect by the 
wings, running out its proboscis on a tine needle, and allowing 
the end of the org:in to rest on a pad of cotton wool which had 
previously been soaked in sugar water. 

" Frefjuent repetition of this had the effect of rendering the 
insect quite tame. On the fifteenth day I was demonstrating this 
fact to a friend by introducing the tip of a finger, to which the insect 
would immediately cling. After one such occurrence I trans- 
ferred the insect to a leaf of a potted plant of white clover, when 
to my surprise it laid an egg. I allowed it to remain for some 
minute-!, and as nothing further hap|)ened 1 decided to repeat the 
experiment. I transferred the insect to another leaf of the same 
plant, and it again laid an egg. To cut the story short, I moved 
it seventeen times and obtained seventeen eggs, after which it 
refused to lay. So far as I am aware, this butterfly had not 
previously laid an egg, and never afterwards laid another. It died 
the following day. 

" T can offer no explanation of this butterfly's refusal or 
inability to lay for tlie first fortnight. As a reason for its sub- 
sequent behaviour, I formed the opinion that, by the end of the 
fortnight, the insect was in a weak condition and rapidly failing, 
and having an instinctive knowledge of its approaching end was 
impelled to deposit its ova while there was yet time; no doubt 
the hustling it received assisted materially in this direction. 
I was assisted to this conclusion by the fact that, in one instance, 
the insect did not wait to be transferred to a leaf but actually 
attached an egs; to my finger. A curious fact was that it would 
not deposit an egg until it was n)oved." 

Tlie llev. Canon Gr. E. Edllock-AVebstek showed a collection 
of thirty varieties of Chara hisplda, explaining that in that genus 
varietal names are discarded, as the variation is so great and so 
frequent, that confusion would be the result, were it attempted. 

The President and Dr. A. B. Kendle spoke on the interest of 
the exhibition, and Canon Bullock-Webster replied to questions. 

The General Secretary exhibited a small volume, for which he 
had been searching for thirty-eight years, namely C. A. Agardh's 
' Aphorismi botanici,' Luudse, 1817-20, 8^ as conKrming, in a 
striking degree, the practice prevalent in Scandinavia down to 
the middle of the previous centur}', the Prajses being the actual 
author, and the Respondentes being little better than dummies. 
In this volume the text runs on, with 10 title-pages, having the 
names of as many graduates, interposed between each sheet of 
10 pages, in no fewer than in twelve instances cutting a word in 
two and sharing it between two Kespondentes. 

The woi'k is not in the librarv of the Linnean Societv. 


]\rarch 1st, 1923. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodwai!D, F.R.S., President, 
in the Cliair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the loth Fehruary, 
1923, were read and confirmed. 

Major Charles lluuter was admitted a Fellow. 

The certificate in favour of Francis Miranda was read a second 

The following were proposed as Fellows : — 

Clarence Tierney, D.Se. ; The Rev. Francis Eosslyn Courtenay 
T3race, D.D. ; and Hemy Harwood Smith; as Foreign Member, 
l)v. John Isaac Briquet, of Geneva; and as Associate, AVilliam 

The following were severally balloted for and elected Fellows : — 
John Eoxbrough Xorman ; Major Robert Beresford Seymour 

Sewell, I. M.S., B.A. (Cantab.) ; Edward Arthur AVilson ; Seevar- 

atnam Arunaclialam ; Miss Ethel Ivatherine Pearce, F.E.S. ; 

Edu ard AVvllie Fenton, U.A., B.Sc. (Aberd.), F.E.S. ; and Prof. 

Robert Scott Troup, CLE., M.A. 

Mr. AsiiLKY H. Maude gave an exhibition of about 300 speci- 
mens gathered from the South Tirol and the Dolomites, explaining 
those regions by various maps and photographs shown by the 

Mr. J. N. Halbert, M.R.I. A., contributed a paper, entitled 
" Notes on the Acari, with descriptions of new species,'' communi- 
cated by Dr. W. T. Caiman, F.R.S., F.L.S., which was read in title. 

Mr. C. F. M. SwYNNERTON exiiibited a series of about sixty 
lantern-slides, illustrating various aspects of African woodland 
formations, displaying rain-forest, coppice, and thicket due to 
grass-fires, the means of prevention from injury by such fires, 
and the preservation of the forests by careful nurture. 

The President stated that the lecture on '• Botanic Illustratioa 
in Colour"' announced for that evening had been postponed by the 
lecturer, to permit of the display of the series of slides just 
exhibited, as the author was starting on the 9th instant for East 
Africa to rtisume his duties as Game-warden. 


March loth, 1923. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodwaiid, F.R.S., President, 
in the Cliiiir. 

The Minutes oi" the General INIeeting of the 1st March, 1923, 
were read and eoiifirnied. 

Mr. Edward Wyllie Fenton, M.A., B.Sc. (Aberd.), i^lr. John 
Koxbrouf^h Nor:iinn, Miss Annie Dixon, and Mr. Kobert Edward 
Cliapiiian, M.Sc, were admitted Fellows. 

The following cerlificates were read for the second time: as 
Fellows, Dr. Clarence Tierney, The liev. Francis Kossl yn Courtenay 
liruce, D.D., and Mr. Henry Harwood Smith ; as Associate, 
William Jjarelay ; and as Foreign Member, Dr. Juhn Isaac 

The following were proposed as Fellows: — 
]\lr. liobert JJarr, Mr. Henry Charles Abraham, and Mr. "William 
Plane Pycraft. 

Mr. Gr. Allan Frost exhibited a large collection of the otoliths 
of recent fishes. The President remarked upon tlie extent and 
interest of the collection. 

]\rr. JoHX Pakkix brought forward a paper on " The Strobilus 
Theory of Angiospernious Descent." (See Abstract, p. 51.) 

Tiie discussion was carried on by Dr. D. H. Scott, Mr. H. H. 
Thomas (visitor). Prof. F. W. Oliver, and Dr. A. B. Kendle : 
reported in the Abstracts. 

Mr. Parkin briefly replied to the observations contributed by 
the speakers. 

Dr. Fraxcisco Ferrer (visitor) showed under the microscope 
slides illustrating the histology of Cade'iiterates and Sponges, and 
drew attention to points of special interest. 

Professor A. Dendy and Dr. G. P. Bidder contributed further 

Mr. W. E. Hollows sent from Exmouth specimens of Ramin- 
culus Ficaria showing unusually bleached flowers. 

April 19th, 1923. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.K.S., President, 
in tlie Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the loth March, 1923, 
were read and confirmed. 

linxea:^ society of londox. 15 

Mr. Robert MeGillivriiy, Mr. Cecil Victor Boley Marquaiul, 
M.A. (Cantab.), Mr. Edward Arthur AN'ilson, Miss Ethel Katheriue 
Pearce, F.E.S., and Mr. Frederick Albert Mitchell-Hedges, 
F. E.G. S., were admitted Fellows; aud Mr. Charles Chubb, an 

Certificates in favour of Eobert Barr, Henry Charles Abraham, 
aud William Plane Pycraft as Fellows were read for the second 

The fir>;t communication appointed to be read was by Mr. 
Edward Heeox- Allen, F.R.S., F.L.S., and Mr. Arthur Eak- 
LAND, ]"\E.M.S., on '• The Furaniiuifera of Lord Howe Island, 
South Pacific," but in the absence of botli authors reading w:is 
postponed until June 21. 

Dr. Eendle, F.R.S., Sec.L.S., with the aid of a lantern-slide, 
demonstrated the structure of the fruit of the Mare's-tail {Hippuris 
vulgaris Linn.). The figures and description of the fruit of this 
well-known British plant in the text-books and floras were unsatis- 
factory, and overlooked points of detail in structure associated 
with the germination of the seed. The fruit is a drupe, the upper 
portion of which around the persistent base of the style, with the 
seedcoat, is developed in the form of a stopper which is easily 
withdrawn on soaking the ripe fruit. The emhryo ultimately fills 
the seed, and has the large radicle and hypoeotyl so often found in 
water-plants. The speaker been unable to get fruits of 
herbarium specimens several years old to germinate, and suggested 
that Fellows interested in British botany might look out for 
seedlings during the next season. The radicle was placed directly 
beneath the stopper which provided a place of exit on germination. 

Dr. Eekdle also showed a three-ilowered head of Dafi^odil, sent 
by Mr. Ernest Dixon, of Putney. Mr. Dixon mentioned that he 
was familiar with a double head but had never seen a triplet. 
Dr. Eendle pointed out that it was an instance of fasciation ; 
the scape showing the characteristic broadejied form. The three 
flowers were of slightly different age, and perfect. 

Dr. B. Datdon Jacksox, Gen. Sec, stated that rather more 
than three years ago he had given an account before the 
Society of the Histoiy of Botanic Illustration during Four 
Centuries, but in consequence of tfie difficulties of illustrating 
coloured plates by lantern-slides he had expressly excluded that 
section from his remarks. However, at the close of his lecture, 
he had been requested by more than one of the audience, to 
supplement his discourse by such account of colour api)lied to 
botanic plates as could be done without lautern-slides, to which he 
gladly assented, but until now he had been hirnlered from com- 
plying with the request. 


Alluding to the methods of produciiifj; by printers' ink repre- 
sentations of phmts in general, the speaker grouped the main 
methods into llu-ec: (1 ) u here the design was in rtdief, and received 
the ink, which by |>ressure was transferred to paper, as in wood- 
engraving; {'J) when; the design was cut or l)itten into a plate of 
metal, as copper-plate engraving, etching, mezzotint, etc. ; (3) where 
the design did not differ much in level from the stone on which it 
was drawn, but de[)ended upon the antagonism of grease and 
water, the stone receiving either and then refusing to receive the 
other. Exam|)les were then shown of early herbals with artless 
colouring, most of tliem apparently due to the work of private 
possessors, but with later years, as in a copy of Fuchs's ' Stirpium 
instoria,' 1542, printed at Easel, the character of the work 
pointed to a trained colourist, such as Plantin of Antwerp 
employed at a later period. 

During the prevalence of woodcuts in the early years of 
printing, copper-plate engraving began to make its way, and was 
employed in providing outlines for hand-colouring until the last 
century, when it was ousted by lithography. The method of 
printing from engraved plates was briefly described, and the 
application of mezzotint restricted to leaves and stems was 
pointed out, also ]{edoute's method of semi-stip])le for coloured 
prints, each colour beirig separately applied to the plate and 
cleaned off, before finally heating the plate and pulling the print. 
A simpler method was also shown, wliere an ordinary engraving 
was printed in green ink, and otlu;r colours, as red or yellow, 
applied m water-colour. 

After ex[)laiuing how artistic use of pigments varied, and 
always must v:iry from theoretic statements as to prinnuy 
colours, clu'omo-lithography was touched upon, and its greater 
permanence (if lasting colours are employed) to hand-coloured 
plates, some showing deterioration in less than a century, which 
was startling. 

Next the three-colour ])rocess was touched upon, and the pre- 
paration of three (or four) half-tone blocks to print its own colour 
to be combined by the eye into a couijilete colour scheme. The 
weakness of the process lay in this, that it almost demanded a 
paper coated with baryta or china-clay, which could not be 
guaranteed as permanent : in addition was the temptation to use 
inks made from aniline dyes, which were fugitive. 

Mr. EiXDOX asked if colour printing from wood blocks had been 
employed; the answer was the display of a Japanese catalogue of 
Tris Ka'mpferi in which that method was emplo3'ed. 

Mr. L. J. Skdgwick inquired whether the three-coloured prints 
in Britton and liose's "Cacteje" were produced by the "wavy 
line" process. The lecturer thought that the special effect was 
due to the use of miller's silk as a screen. 


Mr. C. E. Salmon referred lo Gerard's " Herball,'" of wliic-h 
certain copies Mere known to be coloured by hand, and it' pro- 
fessional service was employed, the reply being in the negative. 

Sit' David Pkain instanced the case of Mr. Pantling in pre- 
paring coloured plates for his " Orchids of Sikkim,'' by training 
eiglit native boys to colour bis special portion of each plate, the 
last touches being put in by the last boy, completing the colouring. 

Mr. Baker asked how Curtis's " Tlora Londinensis" was 
coloured, the answer being it was like the ' Botanical JNfagazine,' 
done by hand. 

Dr. Eejtdlk inquired whether entire editions, as of "Tragus" 
(shown), were coloured or only a few copies : the answer was that 
the larger number of copies known to the lecturer were un- 

Several questions were put during the discourse b}' Lord Roth- 
schild, Mr. Lester Garland, and Mr. A. "\V. Sheppard, which were 
replied to as they arose. 

May 3rd, 1923. 

Dr. A. Smitii Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 19th April, 1923, 
were read and confirmed. 

Miss jNlargery Knight, Miss Joan Beauchamp Procter, F.Z.S., 
Rev. William Charles Tippett, William Fawcett, B.Sc, Charles 
Carniichael Arthur JNIonro, and Thomas Francis Egan were pro- 
posed as Fellows. 

The following were elected by ballot : as Fellows : Francis 
Miranda, Clarence Tierney, D.Sc, The Rev, Francis Rosslyn 
Courtenay ]iruce, D.D., Henry Harwood Smith, Robert Barr, 
F.R.H.S., Henry Charles Abraham, and William Plane Pycraft ; 
as a Foreign INIember, Dr. John Isaac Briquet; as an Associate, 
AVilliam Barclay. 

The following were elected by show of hands Auditors for the 
Society's Accounts for the financial year which ended on April 30 : — 
For the Council: jNIr. E. T. Browne and Dr. W. T. Caiman ; for 
the Fellows: INIr. S, Edwards and Mr. L. V. Lester-Garland. 

The President announced that a Ballot would take place on 
June 21st next. 

Dr. A. B. Rendle, F.R.S., Sec. L.S., showed a seedling oak, 
three years old, with a tap-root over thirty inches in length, which 
he had dug up from his garden on heavy clay. The unusual 
length was ascribed to tlie drought of 192L 

lin:s^. soc. proceebi>-gs. — sessiox 1922-1923. c 


After Mr. R. I'aulson had contributed some observations, Dr. 
C. E. Moss reniariied that at the Cape ot Good Hope Quorum 
j>f(hniciil((tn. pntiluced roots as sliort as its congener, Q. sessilijhra, 
in |)hice of tiie h)ngpr root-system noticeable in llie fornKn- species 
in Jiritain. 

Professor W. T. (ionnoN, F.G.S., introduced bv Dr. J). Jl. Hcott, 
i'\K.S., ]'\L. 8., exhibited an extensive series of lantern-slides illus- 
trating recently obtained s[)eciniens of the fossil coniferous genus 
J'ifi/!^, obtained from beds of siliceous volcanic ash, at Gullane, 
17 miles east of Edinburgh. These comprised a new species, 
showing cortex and leaves ; hitherto nothing was known of the 
genus, except pith and wood. 'J"he most interesting point is th(? 
discovery of the leaves. 

Dr. l). II. Scott pointed out tliat the leaves showed merely 
petiolar structure; was there a lamina present? He emphasized 
the great degree of anatomical development attained by these early 

Lieut. -Col. J. H. Tull Walsh said as regards the relation of 
silica to plants, certain moulds are stated to reduce the silica in 
laterite. In miners' tuberculosis we know that the presence of 
colloidal silica encoui'ages the growth of BacUlvs tuhercidosis -^ 
and this effect is demonstrated by Prof. Cummins of the Bristol 
University in the " Tropical Diseases Bulletin " for last March. 
In the Mogadow creek, N.E. of the Chundion river, tree stumps 
are found in which silica has displaced the lime of petrifaction. 

Mr. S. L. Ghose (visitor) also spoke, and Prof. Gordon answered 
the questions raised. 

The next paper, " The Crustacean Plankton of the English Lake 
District" by Mr. Eobert Gurney, F.L.S., was read in title. 

Mr. S. L. Ghose briefly explained the paper he contributed on 
"A Systematic and Ecological Account of a Collection of Blue- 
green Algae from Lahore." pointing out that while much work had 
been done in India on phanerogamic botany, tlie lower crypto- 
gams had been almost entirely neglected. The paper was com- 
municated by Prof. F. E. Fritch. 

Mr. Ja-MES Groves, F.L.S., presented a short paper entitled 
"Notes on Indian Charophyta." 

Mr. J. G. II. Frew deuionstrated the chief points of his paper, 
"On the Morphology of the Head-capsule and Mouth-parts of 
Chlorops imiiajms Meig. (Diptera)" (communicated by Dr. A. D. 
Imms, F.L.S.); whilst tiie last paper — also communicated by 
Dr. Imms — was by Mr. A. M. Altson, "On the Genital System 
of the Wood-boring Beetle, Lijctiis hruDvcKS Steph.,'" in continu- 
ation of a former paper, but now dwelling upon the extratirdinarv 
length both of the ovipositor and the rectum. 


]\ray lOtl), 192:5. 

Dr. A. Smith AVoodwaeu, E.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meetinj? of the 3rd May, 1923, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. William Plane Pycraft was admitted a Fellow. 

Certificates in favour of Miss Margery Knight, Miss Joan 
Beauchamp Procter, F.Z.S., Eev. William Charles 'I'ippett, William 
Fawcett, B.iSc., Charles Carmichael Arthur INIonro, and Thomas 
Francis Egan were read for the second time. 

Prof. Naliui Mohan Mukerjee, M.Sc, Mr. Basaut Lai Gupta, 
M.Sc, and Lilian Alice Mabel, Lady Eichraond-Brown were pro- 
posed as Fellows. 

The President announced that a vacancy in the list of Associates 
was created by the death of William Henry Pearson. 

Letters were read from Dr. John Isaac Briquet and Mr. 
William Barclay thanking the Society for their election as 
Foreign Member and Associate respectively. 

Dr. Paul Kammeber, of Vienna, delivered a lecture on " Breed- 
ing Experiments on the Inheritance of Acquired Characters," of 
which the following is an abstract; it was illustrated b}^ lantern- 
slides, specimens, and preparations under the microscope. [Note. — 
The same lecture was printed in extenso in 'Nature,' 12 May, 
1923, pp. 037-40.] 

In 19U9 Dr. Kammerer ascertained that Sala-mandra atrn and 
S. maculosa can be bred to interchange their accustomed repro- 
ductive cliaracters. If young specimens of S. maculosa are kept 
on a black background they lose much of their yellow markings 
and appear mainly black ; their offspring if similarly treated show 
a row of small spots in the middle line of the back; if however, 
these last are reared on a yellow background, these spots fuse to 
a longitudinal stripe. 

The yellow markings of the parent generation reared in yellow 
surroundings increase at the expense of the black colour ; and their 
descendants, kept in like manner, show yellow in wide bilateral 
stripes. In the Vienna woods whence he procured his Salamanders, 
only typically marked specimens occurred, though the striped form 
(forma tceniata) is also found in the open. In later experiments 


20 PnOCF.EDTNnS OF 'inE 

^alainaiulers from the ITartz JNToiinlains were used, and they 
showed iiiuiiediatcly after m('tainoi'{)hosiH, tlunr striped marking; 
those ohtaiiK'd i'fom llt!i(k;ll)(,'rg were irreguhirly spotted, hut 
arranged IhiMr luarUiiigs (hiring growth into iaiiiata. This 
development is also revcrsihle ; Mr. E. (). Boulenger has confirmed 
this, and has ohtained results i'ar more heautifui and significant 
than those now under j-eview. 

If spotted and naturally striped Salamanders are crossed, Men- 
delian characters are shown, tlie spots are dominant, the stripes 
recessive. If one crosses naturally spotted Salamanders with 
experimentally striped individuals, the hyhrids are intermediate in 

If ovaries of si)olted females are fransplanted into naturally 
striped ones, (he appearance of the young is determined hy the 
true mother, not the foster-mother, and are irregularly spotted. 
If on the other hand ovaries of spotted females are transplanted 
into artificially striped ones, then, if tlie father is spotted, the 
voung are line-spotted; if the father is striped, the young are 
wholly striped. 

Success has heen obtained in developing the rudimentary eye of 
Proteus into a full-sized functioning eye, by means of red light for 
live years from birth. Exposure to ordinary daylight is not 
effective, the skin which covers the rudimentary eye is tilled with 
dark pigment sufficient to arrest the development of the eye, but 
red light causes no ])igmeutation in the skin, and only under the 
influence of this chemically inactive light is regression overcome. 

The develo])ment of the nuptial pad in the male Ahjtes, midwife 
toad, which passes its mating period in water, is not found on 
those individuals which mate on land, where no trace of a pad is 
discernible, yet it can be made to appear by compelling them to 
mate in water like other European batrachians. This is done by 
raising tlie temperature, when the mating animnls stay longer in 
the water than usual, otherwise they would be dried up ; later in 
life compulsion is unnecessary, they take to water of their own 
accord when desirous of mating. 

In 1914 experiments were carried out on the Ascidian, C'loua 
■i nf est i nails; if the siphons, the inhalent and exhalent tubes, are 
cut oir, they grow larger than before; repeated amputations 
produce specimens in which the siphons ju'esent a jointed appear- 
ance. Tlie offspring of these individuals have longer siphons, but 
the jointed appearance has been smoothed out; that is, the 
regeneration is not transferred to the i)rogeny, l)ut the locally 
increased intensity of growth is so. 

During tlie war the experimental animals whose peiligree was 
known, and had been followed for fifteen years, were lost. 

Tiie President having opened the discussion, Prof. E. AV. 
.MacBride, F.Jt.S. (visitoi-) explained that, as Prof. Ivammerer 
would reply to any criticisms in (lermaii, he uould gladly act as 
his interpreter. 


Dr. AV. Batesox, F.E.S., having couipliineuted the lecturer on 
liis entliusiastic devotion to liis subject, dissented from several of 
liis conclusions. 

Mr. J. T. CL'JS■^•l^GIIA^r (visitor) said that he was not altogether 
in agreement with Dv. Kam merer, nor with the criticisms made 
by Dr. Bateson. He maintained that adaptive characters have 
nothing to do with speciilc characters, and that species are not 
distinguished b}' adaptations. He thought that Dr. Kammerer's 
evidence was not presented with sufficient precision, and the 
relation between the exteriuil stiuiuli and the results described 
has been left too vague, as in the case of Al;/tes. In Proteus and 
Salamaadra that is not the case, but the evidence of heredity in 
the latter case is somewhat vague. In Proteus the increase of the 
eye under the action of light is evidence that the reduction of the 
eye in evolution was due to the absence of light. 

Prof. E. S. GooBHicii, F.B..S., Sec.L.iS., while admiring the 
interesting results of Dr. Kainmerer, was not satisfied as to his 
interpretations. For instance, the reappearance of the large eye 
in Proteus on the application of red light seems to prove that the 
factors of inlieritance necessary for their production remained 
unchanged during the long period in which Proteus has lived in 
the dark since its large-eyed ancestor first entered the caves. 

The lecturer replied, Prof. JNIacBride acting as interpreter. He 
submitted that the criticisms of Dr. Bateson and Mr. Cunningliam 
were irrelevant, and remarked that control experiments would be 
carried out in Cambridge. The number of individuals subjected 
to his experiments varied from as few as twenty to as many as a 
hundred in different cases. 

May 24th, 1923. 

Anniversanj Meeting. 

Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.E.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of tlie General Meeting of the 10th May, 1023, 
wore read and confirmed. 

Mr. AViUiam Henry Wilkiiis, Hr. Clarence Tierney, and the 
Rev. Kosslyn Bruce, JJ.D., were adnntted Fellows. 

Mrs. Nora Lilian Alcock was proposed as a Fellow. 

The Treasurer made his Annual Report on the Accounts of the 
Society, and the Statement (see pp. 24-26), duly audited, was 
received and adopted. 


The Geuenil Secretary repo 
the following had died or their 

Sir Isaac Bavlev IJalfour. 
Arthur AVt-lls Bawlree. 
•lohii r.ew is .lames IJoiihote. 
Dr. William C'arruthers. 
Sir Hniest Clarke. 
AVilliam Edward de Wiiiton. 
llemy John Elwes. 
Thomas Benm-tt Goodall. 
Dr. Ralph Gooding. 

rted that since the last Anniversary 
deaths been ascertained, namely : — 


John Henry Gurney. 

Lawrence Jjewton-Brain. 

Dr. James Charles McAValter. 

Most Kev. Samnel Tarratt de 
Terrofc Xevill, D.D., Jjishop 
of Dunedin & Primate of 
New Zealand. 

Frederic Newton Williams. 

3 Associates. 
William Cole. William Henry Pearson. William Barclay 

1 Foreign Member. 
Prof. Gaston Eugene Marie Bonnier. 

That the following 16 Fellows 

Charles Alfred Barber. 

Dr. Paul Andries van der Bijl, 

lUiW Alfred John Campbell. 

Mrs. ]\laud Hands {nee Samuel). 

Dr. Marcus Manuel Hartog. 

Stuart Hogg. 

Sir Frederick John Jackson, 

K.C.M.G., C.B. 
Edmund Gustavus J31oomfield 

Meade- Waldo. 

had withdrawn : — 

Harold AVan-en Moningtou. 

Phra Vanpruk Pictiarn. 

Mrs. Mary Eoss Hall Pole- 
Evans {nt'e Thomson). 

Jesse Keeves. 

Charles Francis Massey Swyn- 

Harold Stuart Thompson. 
! Prof. Kobert Wallace. 
' Dr. Richard Xorris AVolfenden. 

During the same period .'31 Fellows have been elected, of whom 
'2i> have qualified up to the present. Also 1 Foreign Member 
and - Associates have been elected. 

The Librarian's report was read, showing that donations from 
private individuals and editors amounted to U29 volumes and 
483 pamphlets and parts, by exchange 197 volumes and 6S3 de- 
tached parts, by purchase 183 volumes and 23o parts ; in all, the 
accessions amounted to (509 volumes and 140i pamphlets and 
separate parts. Books bound amounted to 685 : 75 in buckram, 
245 in half-buckram, 198 in cloth, and 1()7 rebacked. 

The (leneral Secretary having read the Bye-laws governing the 
Elections, the Presiilent opened the business of the day, and the 
Fellows present proceeded to vote for the Council. 


The Ballot for the Couiu-il having been closed, the President 
appointed Mr. H. N. Ridley, Mr. W. 8. Kowutree, and Mr. li. 
Paulson, Scrutineers, who, having e.xan)ined the ballot papers and 
cast up the votes, reported to the President, who declared the 
result as follows : — 

*Dr. A\'. Bateso.v, P.E.S. ; Dr. George P. Biddee, M.A.; 
*R. H. BuBNE, Esq.; Dr. \Vm. Tiios. CALMAjf, F.E.S. ; Prof. Felix 
E. Fritch, D.Sc. ; Prof. E. S. Goodrich, F.R.S. ; Prof. Dame 
Helex GwyN>E-VAUGHA.>', D.B.E. : Sir Sidney F. Haumer, 
K.B.E., F.E.S. ; Dr. Arthur Wm. Hill, F.E.S. ; Dr. B. Daydon 
Jackson; *L. Y. Lester-Garland, M.A. ; Horace W. Monck- 
TON, F.G.S.; John Ramsbottom, M.A.; Dr. A. B. Eendle, F.R.S. ; 
The Rt. Hon. Lionel Walter, Baron Rothschild, F.E.S. ; Dr. 
E. J. Salisbury ; Thomas Archibald Sprague, B.Sc. ; *E. J, 
Tabor, B.Sc. ; *Prof. F. E. Weiss, F.E.S. ; and Dr. A. Smith 
AVoodward, F.E.S. 

(New Councillors are shown by an asterisk. The retiring Coun- 
cillors were : Prof. Margaret Benson, D.Sc. ; E. T. Broavne, 
M.A.; G.W. E. Loder, M.A. ; Frank A. Potts, M.A. ; and 
C. E. Salmon, Esq.) 

The Ballot for the Officers having been closed, the President 
appointed the same Scrutineers, who, having examined the 
ballot papers and cast up the votes, reported to the President, 
who declared the result as follows : — 

President. Dr. Alfred Barton Eendle, F.E.S. 
Treasurer. Horace W. Monckton, F.G.S. 
Secretaries. Dr. B. Daydon Jackson. 

Dr. ^V. T. Calman, F.E.S. 

John Ramsbottom, M.A. 

The President then delivered an Address, which was illustrated 
with lantern-slides (see p. 27). 

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-a D. 



A HUNDRED years ago yesterday a i'ew Fellows oE the Liuneau 
Society met to tliscuss and adopt a series of rules for a Zoological 
Club which it had been decided to t'orin within the Society. It 
was apparently thought that some ot" the more technical com- 
municatious on comparative anatomy and on British zoology 
could be received and discussed more satisfactorily by a small 
body of specialists than by a general meeting of the Society. 
The question of zoological nomenclature even then was also 
agitating tlie Fellows, and this subject was relegated to the select 
small circle so early as 1825. The Club, however, with its 
separate meetings, never received much support. The minute 
book records that on several occasions there was no quorum to 
form a meeting; and in 1827 when the Honorary Secretary, 
Mr. N. A. Vigors, left to become Secretary of the newly formed 
" Zoological Institution" (as it was then termed), the Club gradu- 
ally declined until in November 1829 it came suddenly to an end 
without any formal closing. From that time onwards those who 
wished to pursue zoology separately and intently joined the 
" Scientific Committee'* of the then chartered Zoological Society, 
and the Linnean was left to pursue its old course. During the 
past century our Society has been actively engaged in biology in 
its widest sense ; and while publishing purely technical papers on 
both botany and zoology, it has always fostered discussions in 
which the devotees of both these branches of biological science 
could effectively take part. With a larger Fellowship than at any 
])revious time, and with more numerously attended meetings, the 
Society still takes the broad view which it inherits from the 
illustrious Linnanis, and the modern problems of heredity and 
mendelism — indeed all the factors and phenomena of organic 
evolution — can best be treated here. During the past session, to 
name only two examples, we have published Prof. Garstang's 
examination of tlie theory of recapitulation (or Haeckel's bio- 
generic law ), and we have received and discussed Dr. Kammerer's 
nnisterly account of his experiments which he considers to prove 
the inheritance of acquired characters. 

These comprehensive discussions particularly interest a palaion- 
tologist because he tries to recover the actual documentary 
evidence of the history of the world of life and is thus concerned 
in tracing lineages, lie still adopts the Linnean plan of nomen- 
clature as a matter of convenience. His use of specific, generic, 
and family names approximates indeed more closely to the broad 
conception of Liniueus than to the narrower sense in which they 
are now usually applied to the classiticalion of existing plants and 
animals. Sometimes, however, he feels that this nomenclature 
scarcely expresses his meaning. Many of his so-called genera 
include species derived from more than one lineage ; many of his 


eo-calletl fiiiuilii's aiv also |)ol}i)li}'li-ti(; ; and it would he more 
convenient iF lie could devise a nonienclature which would not 
011I3' indicate the lineage hut also the stage of evolution therein. 
He deals in fact with slowly changing grades w hicli are approxi- 
mately the same in each parallel lineage of a group as it is traced 
tlirougli successive periods of time. Jlis ideal delinilion of any 
category inclutles not merely the usual diagnostic characters, hut 
also a statement of tendencies in evolution. He has already 
api)lied this method of classification to certain ammonitts anil 
bracliiopods with much success; and, where each individual retains 
the whole of its siveleton from early youth to old age, the method 
is often easily applicable. 

As concrete instances of these lineages, which have now been 
well studied, may be mentioned those of the ammonites, grapto- 
lites, Cretaceous ])olyzoans, and Palaeozoic corals. Equally 
important are the parallel lineages which have been recognised 
among several groups of Tertiary mammals. On the whole, 
perhaps, the case of the graptolites is the simplest illustration lo 
begin wiih and may be most concisely stated*, 

in the earliest known graptolites tlie polyps are arranged on an 
irregularly branching skeleton, often forming a hard network. 
The thecte, or cells which lodged the polyps, are varied in shape 
and eviilently show that these primitive skeletons belong to 
Several genera or species. {Somewhat later, graptolites with many 
synnnetrically arranged branches make their appearance ; and it is 
10 be noted that the symmetry of tlie arrangement would be 
advantageous in tending to ensure an equal supply of food to 
each branch. Xext, there appear succeissively eight- branched, 
four-branched, and two-branclaed forms. Eventually, just before 
the race becomes extinct, nearly all the graptolites are simple 
rods. In each of these grades the variety in the shapes of the 
thecae is at least as great as in the primitive ancestors. Presum- 
ably therefore each of the original types has independently 
followed the same trend of evolution, successively producing 
colonies of the same simplified shape. The Tetrngraptids, Diplo- 
graptids, and Monograptids, therelore, are not respectively true 
genera as was originally supposed when they were named ; they 
are merely cjrresponding stages in the evolution of several 
parallel groups, which were all striving towards a more effective 
and uniform distribution of food to the colony. 

The case of the Pakeozoic corals has lately been illustratetl Ijv 
an instructive diagram by Dr. A\\ D. Lang f. In each lineage, as 
distinguished by the characters of its septa, tabulae, etc., the 
initial simple coral lirst begins to form a loose cluster. iSomewhat 

* H. A. Nicholson &, J. E. Mnrr, " Notes on tiie PJiylogeny of the Qrapto- 
htes," Geol. .Mag. [4] vol. ii. (ISll.")), pp. .")-20-r)3'.t. Also Gertrude L. Eiie^ 
"The Gra))l(iiite Fuuiias of tlie Britisli I^iu.*." Proc. Geol. Assoc, vol. xxxiii. 
(r.)22), pp. HJS-lioU. 

t W. J). Lang, " Trends in Biili.sli Carboniferous Coral?," I'roc. Geol. Assoc, 
vol. xxxiv. (1023). p. 122. 


later tlie cluster becomes compacted, so that, the corallites are 
elongated and in close contact. Next tlie colony is compressed, 
so that they become hexagonal in section. Einally, the walls 
between the individual corallites disappear, and the septa of one 
are continuous with some of those of its six neighbours. When- 
ever the complete lineage can be traced this is proved to be the 
inevitable succession of skeletal forms. 

The iirst lineages to be studied in detail were those of the 
ammonites, described by the late Alpheus Hyatt. He recognised 
that as each lineage progressed, and as the successive shells 
acquired new characters, they invariably passed through the stages 
represented by their predecessors before they reaclRnl this higher 
plane. The earlier stages might be abbreviated — some might even 
be omitted — still there was evidence of them, and they were 
merely slurred over so that the later adult characters might be 
hurried on. Subsequent studies of lineages of ammonites by 
other authors have entirely confirmed Hyatt's conclusions, and 
the same results have been obtained more recently b}- the 
examination of many other groups of fossils. 

The tracing of lineages among vertebrates, especially mannnals, 
lias afforded repeated examples of the recapitulation of ancestral 
characters in the immature stages of organisms. Sometimes they 
can only be detected by close observation, but they are neverthe- 
less evident when poiaited out. Even among tlie scanty fossils 
representing the lineage of man, there seems tome to be one dis- 
covery definitely proving a case of recapitulation in the modern, 
human skeleton, and as this has not hitherto been sufficiently 
appreciated, I wish to emphasise it by a new diagram (fig. 1). 
jNIany years ago the late Joseph Leidy pointed out that among the 
extinct ancestral horses the milk or temporary dentition of a 
genus always more closely resembled the permanent dentition of 
its predecessor in the lineage than did the permanent dentition of 
the same genus. In other words, the temporary dentition of the 
later and more advanced genus repeated some of the features of 
the final dentition of the immediately preceding genus. The 
later type retained the old pattern in its temporary dentition, but 
progressed forwards in having a more effective grinding dentition 
for its adult career. If the jjrimitive human skull found at Pilt- 
down, Sussex, be regarded as belonging to the innnediate 
predecessor of modern man, exactly the same phenomenon is 
(ibservable in him. The tem[)orar3" lower canine tooth of modern 
man very closely resembles in sliape the pern)anent lower canine 
tooth of the fossil Piltdown man ; and to retain its apex at the 
level of the crown of the adjacent teeth in the innnature modern 
jaw it is never completely extruded (fig. 1 a). If tlie base of its 
crown were raised to the same level as that of the adjacent teeth 
(fig. 1 b), it would be pronn'nent and interlock with the upper 
canine to the same degree as in Piltdown man (fig. 1 c) and 
equally approach the ape-pattern (fig. 1 d). ^Modern man is thus 


j)roveil to have advanced bryoiul his iiniiiediato prodcHossor in at 
least one iini)ortant cbaracter, bnt in liis iniinatnro state he 
rtHains that character in a slij^litly nioditied form. 

The paheontolot^ist, therefore, is convinced that whenevei* he is 
able to trace lineai^es he finds evidence of the recapittdation of 
ancestral cliaracters in eacli life history; and he fails to appreciate 
the snbtleties of logic of those who argue the question from the 
comparatively narrow standpoint of the study of existing life. 
lie is oqnally convinced that the phenomena he observt'S wiien 
tracing lineages can only be explained by assuming that acquired 
characters are inherited, lie finds a gradual advance towards 
complete harmony \\ith the enviromnent in successive forms — 
adaptations to snillciency of feeding, to effectiveness in locomotion, 

rig. 1. 
A B 

ccam OoDcoO 


Dia<jrainiriatic front views of the lower incisors and eaniiie teeth, sliowing tliat 
if the milk dentition of modern Man (a) were modified by the complete 
extrusion of the caniiips (n), this would resemble tiie permanent dentition 
of Piltdown fossil Man (c) more closely than does tiie permanent 
dentition of any Ape, such as the Chimpanzee (d); three-quarters nat. 

and so forth ; and it is difficult to believe that these steps forward 
are not influenced by the struggle of successive generations with 
the conditions under whicli the}' live. Kanimerer'.s experiments 
on living animals are said to prove tliat newly acquired characters 
are not always inheriled in the same manner as more deeply 
ingrained characters — that, in fact, they differ in not fulfilling the 
^lendelian (expectation. A pahTontologist, studving lineages, will 
welcome this result if it can he sid)stantiated, for he often notes 
rhythm in evolution — uneciual rates of progress — which mav 
imply that under certain circumstances some characters may need 
repeated acquisition in a longer series of generations than others 
before they become part of the permanent inheritance. 


The greatest difficulties are met with in (liscoveriiif;; the 
beginnings of any lineage and the fundaiuental points of diver- 
genee. 1 have already alhided to some of these difficulties in 
previous addresses when referring to certain fossil tishes, and I 
wish now to mention three other striking instances which have 
lately been studied. 

The Ichthyosauria, or fish-shaped reptiles, Avhich seem to have 
lived in all seas thronghout the Mesozoic era or " age of reptiles," 
appear suddenly in the Trias of both Europe and North America 
ami Spitzbergen with their adaptations to strictly aquatic life 
almost complete. These early forms only ditTer from later 
Iciithyosauria in retaining more traces of their land ancestry, 
such as the less deep overlapping of the bones in the skull, the 
less uniform shape of the teelh, and the greater elongation of the 
humerus, radius, and ulna in the fore limb. It must also be noted 
that they are all of comparatively small size. (Some have the fore 
limb or paddle rather elongated (longipinnate), others have it 
rather broad (latipinnate), and in his recent monograph of the 
Ichthyosauria * Baron von Huene points out that each of these 
types begins a lineage \\ hich can be traced throughout the life 
history of the group until its end at the close of the Cretaceous 
period. The progressive changes in these two lineages are com- 
paratively small. The bones of the slaiU soon become very deeply 
overlapping, as in fishes and cetaceans, the teeth attain uniformity 
and are implanted in a groove, and the vertical tail fin acquires 
maximum effectiveness. It can only be observed that towards 
the end of the Jurassic period the jaws sometimes become tooth- 
less in the adult, the fore limbs are changed into more flexible 
])addles by the persistence of much cartilage round the bones in 
the digits, and the lower lobe of the tail becomes more flexible by 
the attenuation of the end of the vertebral axis which supports it. 
Ichthyosaurs are, indeed, in all essentials the same from the 
beginning to the end, and although Baron von Huene supposes 
that the small Mesosaurians of the Permian period mav perhaps 
represent their semi-aquatic ancestors, there is oiilj' slight basis 
of fact for this hypothesis. AVith our present knowledge their 
origin remains a mystery. 

The Pterosauria, or flying reptiles, have the same range in time 
as the Ichthyosauria, and also exhibit remarkable uniformity. 
Only a single skeleton has hitherto been found in the Trias, the 
so-called Trihclesodon from northern Italy, so that the earliest 
member of the grouj) is imperfectly known. The sj)ecimeii has 
been studied lately by Baron F. Nopcsaf, who finds that in every 
character which can be observed it is a well-formed Pterosauriaii. 
Its fore limbs are already efficient wings, and the hind limbs only 

* F. von Hueue, " Die lehthvosiuirier des Lias und ilne Zus;uiiuieiili;ino-e " 
Berlin, 1922. 

t F. Nopcsa, " Neubesclireibiing des Trias-Pteposaiiriers Tribelesoilon." 
Pal^ont. Zeitschr. vol. v. (lt»22), pp. lGl-181, pi. ii. 


appear to diHer from lliose of tlie hitr-r llyiiif;; reptiles in being 
relativ el}' larg*^. As the group is Iraceil iipwiirils in time some of 
its nu'nil)ers are progressively larger, until just before its extinc- 
tion at the end of the Cretaceous period it is represented by 
I'tcranodoii, with a \\ing-span of '20 feet or more, the largest 
Hying animal wiiidi ever existed. In the course of tbis evolution 
S'jme of the I'terosauria become toothless, like Pteranodon itself, 
but the only essential change is a firmer tixatio)i of the wings 
and a reduction of the clawed digits to mere splints on the wing 
finger. From its very b( ginning, so far as our present knowledge 
extends, the Pttrosanrian was an eliicient glider or flier, and no 
real due to its ancestry has hitlierto been fonnd. 

Finally, consider the origin of tbo Maiuinalia. Palieontologists 
pride tliemselves on baving found during recent years almost 
every gradation between certain skelt-tons of the Permian and 
Triassic Tlieroniorph reptiles of Soutb Africa and the skeleton of 
the monotrenie mammals. The series is, indeed, now remarkably 
com|)lete and convincing. There can be no doubt, from the dis- 
covery of a few isolated jaws and limb bones both in Europe and 
North America, that representatives both of these lowly mammals 
and even of n)arsupials were widely spread during the latter bait" 
of the Mesozoic era. They are still better known by compara- 
tively specialised forms in deposits dating back to the very 
beginning of the Tertiary era both in Europe and in North 
Auierica. Nearly all of them then sudilenly disappear in both 
countries, and they are replaced by typical placental mammals, 
already differentiated into several modern groups, wbiih seeni to 
have no connection with the primitive n;ammals which immediately 
])receded them in the same regions. At tbis stage, therefore, 
there is a complete gap in the series ; and even if the earliest 
mannnals can be clearly traced back to antecedent reptiles in 
South Africa, the bigl)er mammals characteristic of the present 
world still appear without any recognisable ancestors. 

A possil)le explanation is that each new lineage began as a 
rapid development in one community in a locality of restricted 
extent. In this case its initial stages would be represented by 
comparatively few fossils in a small area, or none of them may 
have been preserved owing to local unfavourable circumstances. 

It is already known that there were such rapid local develop- 
ments. The earliest stages of the elephants, for example, are 
found only in Egypt, and they are represented by so variable a 
series of forms that it is dillk-ult to classify them. They are also 
accompanied by strange mammals more or less related to ancestral 
elephants. The region of which modern Egypt is now a part 
seems, therefore, to have been the place of origin of the ele])hant- 
lineage. Another strange and rapid development occurs in the 
^fiddle Eocene rocks of Wyoming, where the small-brained Diiio- 
cerata suddenly arose in many forms, but as suddenly died out 
without ever spreading. The local development and sudden end 


of tlie gigantic rhinoceros like Bahichithcrinm and its allies in 
central Asia are also notew ortliy in the same connection. 

If, however, there seems to be some hope of discovering the 
beginning of the various lineages when exploration has proceeded 
further, the difficulty of explaining tlieir end appears to be as 
great as ever. As soon as they have attained their widest 
geographical range, have become perfectly well adapted to their 
environment, and are represented by the largest individuals, they 
begin to show signs of decline and disappear at least as rapidly as 
they originated. Indeed, in a moditied sense, Cuvier's early 
tlieory of the successive " revolutions of the globe," which have 
culminated in the world of life as it now exists, is still distinctly 
plausible. The ancestors of the crustaceans and arachnids, for 
example, when tiiey held the foremost place at the beginning of 
the Devonian period, attained their largest size — some with a body 
six feet in lengtli — just before the dominance of fishes, which 
at first were comparative dwarfs. Many of the reptiles, too, 
immediately before they lost their dominant position at the end 
of the Cretaceous period, were among the largest animals that 
ever lived ; and when these disappeared, there was for a long 
period among the mammals which replaced I hem no animal larger 
than a sheep. The alternating hixuriance and poverty in tlie 
development of life in successive phases is indeed striking, and at 
present baffles explanation. 

Most remarkable, perhaps, is the fact that we rarely find any 
evidence of direct competition between the flourishing type that 
is doomed and the incipient higher type that is destined to 
replace it. Tor example, so far as we know, the Ichthyosaurians, 
Mosasaurians, and other giant sea-reptiles, which ranged in 
abundance through all seas from the Arctic regions to New 
Zealand, never came in contact with the whales and porpoises 
which were eventually to take their place. Fossils already dis- 
covered in Egypt suggest that the toothed whales originated from 
primitive land-carnivores after the old sea-reptiles had tlisappeared. 
When, however, this new race passed into the vacant seas, it soon 
nuiltiplied and spread widely ; and by the end of the Eocene 
period there were toothed whales {ZevyJodon) some 70 feet in 

Tlie solution of the problems suggested by these various facts 
is delayed and rendered all the more difliciilt by the astonishing 
uniformity in the geographical distribution of life in past ages. 
AVhen the corresponding fossil-bearing rocks in different parts of 
the world are explored, there is as a general rule very little difter- 
ence in their contained faunas and floras. When Ameghino, for 
instance, first found reptiles and fishes in a Jurassic stratum in 
Patagonia, he sent me a skull of a sea-crocodile {Metriorhynchvs) 
and a skull of a predaceous ganoid fish (Bi/psoconmis), such as 
might have been found similarly associated in the Middle Jurassic 
Oxford Clay at Peterborough in England. When I received the 


34 rnocEEDixGS of the 

lirst Triassic fishes from New Snutli "Wales, Australia, and from 
ISpilzbergen, 1 found tlie peculiar ganoid Bclonorhyvchus con- 
spicuous in both these localities. AVlien the 'Discovery' 
expedition met «itli fish-reniains in the Devonian rocks of 
Antarctica, tliey collected very little wliicli niif^dit not have heen 
found in the corresponding formations in Scotland. During 
recent years tlie discoveries of fossil vertebrates in the west of 
North Ameriea, w hich yielded so many novelties at the end of the 
last century, have become comparatively monotonous. They are 
merely perfecting our knowledge of known types and revealing 
endless variants of the same. Even the preliminary reports on 
tlie fossil vertebrates lately discovered bj^ the Kussians and 
Americans in Central Asia do not promise the rich harvest of 
novelties which it was ho])ed to obtain from that interesting 
region. It is necessary, indeed, still to dejiend for real progress 
on finding the records of local accidents — oases in the dreary 
desert of uniformity. Dr. C. 1). Walcott added a whole chapter 
to our knowledge of the earliest marine fauna by his discovery of 
a de|)osit of greasj' shale which could preserve soft-bodied animals 
among the Cambrian formations in the Kocky Mountains of 
Canada. The prospectois for oil, now visiting and studying 
the remotest corners of the globe, are also giving valuable help 
in discovering exceptional formations and localities which pal.T- 
ontologists may protitably explore further. We have to depend 
on accidental help of this kind from many sources when we are 
looking for fossils of the most fundamental import. 

In ending now my term of office, it only remains for me 1o 
thank the I'ellows of the Liiniean Society for the great honour 
they did me four years ago when they first elected me to be their 
President. I also wish especially to express my appreciation of 
the kind help and forbearance of my fellow Othcers, the Council, 
and Permanent Staff for the ])eriod during which I have served. 
It was just over forty years ago that I began to attend the 
meetings of the Society, and since I became a Fellow it has been 
OIK? of my greatest pleasures to be closeh' associiited with its work. 
After holding the higliest office for the full term, 1 have the final 
gratification of handing it over to an old friend and valued 
colleague, the distinguished botanist whom you have chosen to be 
your President to-day. 1 not only wish him all success, but hope 
that he too will carry away happy meuiories such as those wbicii 
I shall retain for the rest of my life. 

Canon G. E. Bullock- Webstek then moved : "That the Presi- 
dent be thanked for his excellent address, and that he be requested 
to allow it to be printed and circulated amongst the Fellows," 
which, after being seconded by JMr. A. H. Maude, he put to the 
meeting and reported carried. 


The President having acknowledged the A'ote of Tlianlcs, pio- 
ceeded to address Sir Ja:\ies Allkn, — 

The Council of:' tlie Linnean Society lins this yeai- awarded the 
Linaean Gold Medal to Mr. Thomas Frederic Ciieksemax, to 
express its high appreciation of the valuahle services rendered by 
him to botanical science through his life-long study of the vege- 
tation of tlie most distant portion of our overseas dominions. 

When Mr. Thomas Kirk died in 1897, botanists learned with 
regret that he had made very little progress with the " Students' 
Flora of New Zealand," on w'hich he had been engaged. They 
felt, however, that it was a matter for congratulation when they 
received tlie news that the Government of Xew Zealand, realising 
the importance of preparing a complete Flora of the Dominion, 
had commissioned Mr. Cheeseman to continue and complete the 
work, and relieved him of his olUcial duties as Curator of the 
Auckland Museum to enable him to do so. Mr. Cheeseman's 
arduous preparation for his task is modestly summed up by himself 
in the Introduction to his '^ Manual of the New Zealand Flora," 
wdiere he states that he began his original researches in 1870, and 
personally examined almost the whole country from the Kermadec 
Islands and the North Cape to Otago. Mr. Cheeseman's com- 
pleted work, published in 1906, is regarded by all who have used 
it as one of the best manuals of its kind. His two large volumes 
of " Illustrations," published in England in 1914, with the editorial 
help of another of our Fellows, Dr. W. B. Ilemsley, are also of 
great assistance to the student of the New Zealand Flora. 

Mr. Cheeseman has further devoted attention to the Flora of 
the Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand, and he contributed a 
systematic account of the Flowering Plants and Ferns to the 
publication on these Islands edited by Dr. Chilton. I'o his recent 
description of the Vascular Flora of Macquarie Island, which 
forms one of the Reports of the Australian Antarctic Expedition 
(1911-14), he has added an interesting and suggestive discussion 
of the origin and affinities of the Antarctic Flora. 

Mr. Cheeseman's services to science, however, are not limited 
to botany. As Curator of the Auckland Museum for many years, 
he has not only covered a wide field in Natural History, but has 
also made important contributions to Ethnology. He has brought 
together a unique collection illustrating the past history and 
customs of the disappearing Maori civilization, and has become a 
leading authority on the subject. 

In asking you to convey to Mr. Cheeseman this token of 
our admiration and esteem, I think it is interesting to note 
that on the 19th of next month, before the medal can reach 
him, he will have completed his fiftieth year of Fellowship of 
our Society. 



Tlio Hip;h Oommissioner suitably acknow ledf^ed tlip award, which 
he felt would he greatly appreciated throughout Ihe Douiiiiiou 
oF New Zealand, and undertook to transmit the medal to 
Mr. Cheesenuui. 

The General Secretary having placed on the table the obituaries 
of deceased Fellows, the proceedings teriniuated. 


After several months of illness consequent upon an overstrained 
heart, the result of unremitting labour in his Edinburgh position, 
Sir Isaac Bayley Balfour, K.BJ*]., passed away at Courts Hill, 
llaslemere, on the 30th November, 1922. The son of John 
Hutton Jialfour, Professor of Botany at Edinburgh from 1845 to 
1870 (known to generations of students as ' AVoody Fibre'), he 
was born in that city on the 31st of March, 1853, was educated at 
Edinburgli Academy, in turn jiassing through the Universities of 
Edinburgh, Strasshurg, and AViirzburg — liis inherited tendency 
to botany being thus thoroughly called forth and trained ; and 
besides taking D.Sc. at Edinburgh, he matriculated also in the 
faculty of medicine. 

In 1874, whilst still an undergraduate, he was attached to the 
party which in 1874 proceeded to liodriguez to observe a ti'ansit 
of Venus, and brought home his first foreign botanical collections. 
Resuming his medical studies, he graduated M.B. in 1877, pro- 
ceeding to M.D. in due course in 1883 ; for botanic purposes he 
studied abroad as already mentioned. 

He was appointed Professor of Botany at Glasgow in 1879, at the 
early age of 26; the next year he \\ent to Socotra, there making 
ample collections, which took several years to work out. When 
practically complete, he offered his results for publication in our 
Transactions, but stipulated that they should not be published in 
successive parts, but in a volume. This could not be done as 
demanded, but the author succeeded in inducing the Eoyal Society 
of Edinburgh to publish the well-known substantial volume in 
1888, of 44(3 pages and 100 quarto plates, forming vol. xxxi. of the 
Transactions of the Edinburgh Society. 

Before this volume appeared, he was appointed Sherardian 
Professor of Botany at Oxford, and soon made his presence felt. 
The old connection of the Baxters was ended, the younger Baxter 
leaving. The arrangement of the beds was altered, and other 
changes were rapidly made, as for instance, in the herbarium, 
where the volumes of the Du Bois collection were cut up, ami the 
sheets distributed amongst their congeners in the general her- 
bariinu. Happily the Morisonian and Dillenian collections were 
spared the like fate, but his presence was a stimulus after the 
tranquil reign of Pruf. M. A. Law son. 


After four years in Oxford he iiiigrated to Edinburgh, iu suc- 
cession to Alexander Dickson, becoming also Queen's Botanist for 
Scotland, and liegius Keeper of tlie Jioyal Botanic Garden in 
Inverleith Row, wliich he retained for 34 years. 

During liis active professorial life he added to his previous 
writings, but chiefly throwing his energies into the improvement 
of the gardens at Inverleith liow, and in working up such genera 
as Primula and Rliododendron, in which he became facile prmceps. 
His earliest publication in our issues was an extract from a letter 
on the Rodriguez flora (Journ, Bot. xv. (1875)), followed by a new 
genus of Turneraceee, Mathurina, in the same volume (1876). 
After describing some new plants from the same locality in the 
subsequent volume, he issued an excellent monograph of tlie genus 
Ilalophila in the Transactions of the Edinburgh Botanical Society, 
and then in our 17th volume of the Journal (Bot.) brougiit out a 
complete monograph of the Screw-pines, Fandanns. Smaller 
papers followed from time to time, during the period when he 
was in Socotra and working u|) its flora ; latterly his chief contri- 
butions have been in the 'Notes' of the Edinburgh Botanic 

Elected Fellow of our Society, 16th December, 1875, he served 
on our Council during 1884-85 ; Fellow of the Royal Society in 
1884, and on its Council 181)2-94. He formed part of the Depart- 
mental Committee of H.M. Treasury, which s;it from 1900 to 1901, 
reporting H.C. 1901, no. 205. He did important work in editing 
certain German works, translated by the Rev. H. E. F. Garnsey, 
suci) as De Bary's 'Fungi, Mycetozoa and Bacteria' (1887); 
Sachs's ' History of Botany' (1890), and Goebel's 'Outlines of 
Classification and Special Morphology of Plants' (1887); and his 
labours in the establishment and early share in the editorship 
of the ' Annals of Botany ' were notable. 

Last year, finding the climate of Edinburgh trying to his health, 
he quitted Inverleitli House, in the Jjotanic Garden, and came 
south to the milder climate of the Surrey hills, establisiung him- 
self on Courts Hill, above the town of Hasleraere, and hoping to 
enjoy the scientific society of London. But that project was not 
to be realized ; hardly had he arrived, when he was confined to his 
bed by medical orders, and although he rallied so much as to be 
taken out in a bath-chair, there remained no hope of a real cure, 
and he passed hence on the last day of November, 1922. [B. D. J.] 

Gaston Eugene INIaeie Bonniek, Professor at the Sorbonne, 
Paris, was born in the year 1855, in Paris, where he passed his 
early years and received his education. For 14 years he remained 
in the Ecole Normale, rue d'Ulm, as pupil pre[)arer, assistant 
lecturer, and finally lecturer. \\\ the laboratory attached to this 
school, Bonnier carried out his first experiments. l\\ 1887, at the 
age of 32, he was summoned to succeed Duchartre in the chair of 
botany in the l'\aculty of Science, and there he displayed the same 


powers of or;^:iiiizatio)i as in \\w school. \\ hen he ciitorcd upon 
ills duties, liis only materials wero dried or ])rescrved plnnls ; but 
ultinialel)' he siicieeded in f^ellinfj possession of some {;roiind lor 
the cultivation oF plants and the building of a laboratory ou the 
borders of l''onlainel)lean. 

The year 18Sfl witnessed the i'onndatioii of the ' Itevue generate 
de JJotani(pie,' which is now in its li-ith volume; from I.S79 he 
issued a m\dtitude of articles, together with some in collaboration 
with li. iNIangin or C. Flahault. Perhaps the most striking item 
in his >trenu()us laliours is his ' Flore complele illustree en couleurs 
de l''rance, tSuisse, et lielgique,' of which six (juriito aoIuiiics have 
been issued, t'r(Mn Jianuiiculacea^ to Coniposittr. 

He was elected on the ('.th JNJay, 191^0, a I'oreign iMember, hut 
his connection with our Society was short: he died in J'aris on 
the 20th December, 1H22, and was buried on tiie 12nd of .lanuarv 
last. [B. D. J.] 

Dr. William CABia'TiiEiis,, Past-J'resident of the Linnean 
Society during; 18Sn-'.'0, and a Fellow since 7th February, 1861, 
passpcl away a few days after the completion of his 92iid year. 

Born at JMofTat on the 29th ]\I:iy. 183u, he was intended by his 
father, Samuel Carruthers, a retiiil ti-adesmau, for the Presby- 
terian ministrj', and received his education at Moffat Academy, and 
]"]dinburgh University, which he entered in ]84o and wa>; still a 
student in 1854, when he passed into ]S'ew College, P^dinhurgh, 
for training to the pastoral oflice. By that time he must have 
shown special aptitude for natural science, as Professor John 
Fleming, who taught natural science iji that institution, advised 
him to specialise in science. One of the early recollections of our 
late Fellow w as, that this professor had a Great Auk.AJca impennis, 
in captivity, probablv one of the last specimens so kept. Other 
teachers were iJolui Hutton Balfour, Ceoi-ge J. Allman, and John 
Goodsir, and his prospects of succeeding Fleming in 1858 were 
good, when John Anderson was a]jpointcd to the vacant chair. 
Forty-five years afterwards Mr. Carruthers discharged those 
functions at New College during liJ()3-04. 

A short ])eriod as bo:anical lecturer at the New Yeterinaiy 
College, l*]dinburgli, and Assistant Secretary to the l^oyal Society 
of Edinhurgh, w;is followed by his appointment to the Botanical 
Department, British Museum, as assistant to J. J. Bennett, 
recently confirmed as Keej^er, after the enquiry in I860 into the 
department conseijuent upon the death of Bobert Brown. He 
remained in this em])loyment until his retirement in 1895, altliough 
in 1879 he was ai; applicant forthe Chaimf Botany in Edinburgh, 
Avlien Alexander Dickson was apjiointed. 

An energetic ])ersonality was iiatnrally bound to be vigorous, and 
Mr. Ciirrutbers took his fidl sliare in an acti\e and stirring period. 
He was a pioneer in fossil botany, jiublished discoveries of Grapto- 
iites as early as 1858, and the Geology of Mofl'at in 1859, both 

Ll^'^"EAX SOCIETY or londox. 39 

by the Physical Society ot Edinburgh, to uhich he belonged 
all his life, lie published an important paper on Lepidodendron 
and Calamltes in the Transactions ol: the Jiotauical Society of 
Edinburgh, and tlie present writer well remembers the presentation 
of a still more important paper in the oUl quarters of the Linnean 
Society at Burlington House, on the IStli of June, LSGb, " On 
fossil Cycadean Stems from the Secondary llocks of Britain," 
witii its establishment of the genus Benneitites in the memoir 
in our Transactions, with 10 plates, in 1870. 

As administrator in the British Museum his work was im- 
])ortant, and absorbed his energies previously devoted to research. 
in 1871 he was a[)pointed Keeper, at a period when the Koyal 
Commission, presided over by the seventh Didce of Devonshire, 
was enquu'iug into the position of scientific instruction in Britain, 
and botany at the British Museuni came under severe criticism 
from two sides : Ivew claiunng a monopoly of collections, and from 
the teaching colleges of London. lu the end, the Botanical 
Department of the British Museum remained, and the new keeper 
proceeded to develo|) its powers. In the years 1881-3, tlie collec- 
tions from the botanical, zoological, and geological departments 
were removed from the overcrowded galleries at Bloomsbury, to 
the new building facing Cromwell Road, South Kensington, and 
thereby the exhibits were more adequately displayed. A special 
library had to be formed, as the Ba,nksian liibrary was tenaciously 
held by the Printed Book Department at Bloomsbury, only certain 
duplicates being allowed to go westward. Our late Eeilow threw 
himself whole-heartedly into the acquisition of new libraries, 
namely, a general library common to all the departments from 
which they could draw, or refer to, consisting of series of volumes 
of societies' issues which embraced more sciences than one; the 
other libraries being those required in constant use by the 
respective departments, and specially relating to their own branch. 
Mr. Carrutliers employed outside assistance to copy the press- 
marks of the Banksian and later volumes in the Printed Book 
Department, into a special copy of Pritzel's ' Thesaurus,' ed. II., 
which he then handed to Mr. Justen, of Dulau & Co., then in 
Soho Square, who took u[) the work of getting as many books as 
possible from home and foreign booksellers; the result being a 
library of the most extensive and valuable kind, which is still 
maintained by the Trustees. 

Besides his activities in remodelling the Department, J\[r. 
Carrutliers in 1871 began his reports to the Royal Agricultural 
Society as their consulting botanist, on the germiuative quality of 
seeds, plant pests, diseases, and the like, which he continued for 
38 years, till 1909. 

Elected a Pellow of the Linnean Society on the 7th Februar}^, 
1861, he lived to be the senior Fellow but one, and was energetic 
in his services to the Society. He served repeatedly on the 
Council, 20 years in all, 12 of them as a Vice-President, and 
the period of I88G-90 as President, his term of office falling 

40 rUdCKKDINfiS (tl- TllK 

iluring the limulredtli anniversary ol" the foundation of tlie 
Society, and entailing much extra hibour for its adequate 
celebralion, which may be read in our Proceedings, 1888-80; on 
leaving the chair, lie was a Vice-President for one year, the last 
time he served on the Council. Previous to this Ihere was an 
uni)leasant misuuderslanding about certain ])roposais for altering 
certain Jiye-laws, which ]\lr. Carrutliers and others thoiight would 
be detrimental to the Society, wiiich led to the then President, 
Mr. Heiitham, abruptly (]uitting the chair on the 5th J'Ydjruary, 
187-1; at a later meeting matters were adjusted amicably. 

In 1889 Mr. Carruthers related his investigations into the por- 
traits of Linnaeus ; two years later he visited tiie places where 
these portraits are ])reserved, his observations, as he himself said, 
" after too long an interval " were brought forward at the General 
Meeting of the 21st June, l'J06, printed in our Proceedings, 
1905-(?, pp. 59-69, pis. 1-8, possibly hastened by the bicentenary 
festival in Sweden which tot)U |)lace in May 1907. I'Or this 
]\Ir. Carruthers was the accredited representative of the Linnean 
Society, and the veteran of 77 was accompanied by the present 
writer, who had the gratification of being invited as a personal 
compliment. During this festival, the degree " honoris causa " 
of Doctor in the Faculty of Philosophy was bestowed upon Dr. "W. 
Carruthers ; he gave an account of his visit to a subsequent meeting 
of the Society. 

After this his liking for science seems to have waned, but he still 
retained his affection for matters connected with the Presbyterian 
Church, and for which be edited the ' Childrens' Messenger' for 
forty-two years. Another subject was his keen interest in the 
likenesses of eminent Scottish scholars and theologians, especially 
George Buchanan and John Knox, upon which he published some 

The last years of his life he spent in the house of his elder son, 
Dr. William Carruthers, at Central Hill, ^"orwood ; he died a few 
days after com|)leting his 9l*nd year; and it was with keen regret 
that the writer only received an invitation to pay the last respects 
to his lifelong friend one day too late, owing to ai)sence irom home. 

Dr. Carrutliers married Jeanie, the eldest daughter of Wm. 
Moffatt, architect, in Edinburgh. He had two sons and one 
daughter by this marriage. The younger son died in Kuala 
Lunipor, and the elder one only survived his father. 

In addition to the offices above recited, may be mentioned as 
borne by our late Fellow, F.R.S. in 1871, F.G.S. in 1867; Presi- 
dent of the Geologists' Association in 1875-76, President of the 
Biological Section of the British Association in 1886, President of 
the lioyal Microscoi)ical Society in 1900-01. [B. D. J.] 

By the death of AVilltam Cole on the 27th June, 1922, the 
Society lost a notable Associate, and the Essex F^ield Club a 
dexoled Secretary. He was born at Islington on the lltli of 


February, 1844, the sixth son of Julius William Cole, of Kim- 
berton, Huutingdonsliire, a Trinity House oilicial, and his wife 
Frances, granddaughter of Jolm Love, of Ci'ostwick Hall, INorth 
Walshani, Norfolk. His education was gained at various private 
schools, and from evening classes at King's College, Htrand. In 
1861, when 17, he entered the ollice of a sliipbroker in Mark 
Lane. His father dying in 1865, the family moved, first to 
Islington froiu Tottenham, and next to Clapton, and William 
entered a barrister's chambers as shorthand writer, and remained 
five years, and then joined the staff of a newspaper in the same 

Another removal in 1877 to Ruckhurst Hill brought him into 
touch \Aith Epping Forest, and in the beginning of 1880, the Essex 
Field Club was started. He had been elected member of the 
Entomological Society in 1S73, which he retained to the end of 
liis life ; and F.L 8. on the 16th January, 1896, till loth December, 
I'JlO, when he witlidrew, and was elected an Associate on that date ; 
this was following a nervous breakdown earlier in the year. A 
grant from the Koyal Society, obtained through his old friend 
liaphael Meldola, enabled him to travel abroad, and produced an 
improvement in his health, but he aged perceptibly, and a return of 
his iUness in 1916 was not to be shaken off, and he had to give up 
mucii of his activity. In 1919, by favour of some powerful friends, 
he was granted a Civil List Pension of ^50 per annum, and with 
a further pension of =£75 raised by friends, he was able to retire to 
St. Osyth. The Essex Field Club owes him a debt of gratitude for 
the unstinted service he gave during a long series of years to its 
interest ; he seemed the personilication of the Club. 

AN^e are indebted to a sympathetic obituary in the 'Essex 
Naturalist ' for much of the information in the foregoing sketch, 
and in the same Journal, Oct. 1922-Mar. 1923, will be found a 
portrait of our late Associate. [B. D. J.] 

Henry Joiix Elwes, F.L.S., F.E.S. — Henry John Elwes was 
born on May 16th, 1846. He was educated at Elon, served five 
years in the Scots Guards, and thereafter devoted himself to horti- 
culture, arboriculture, ornithology, entomology, travel, and sport. 

In 1891 he succeeded to the estate of Colesborne in Gloucester- 
shire, and there cultivated a great diversity of plants and trees. 
He had, in 1880, published a fine monogiaph on Lilies, and 
became a recognised authority on the genus, but he also cultivated 
tulips, crocuses, Nerines, and many species of succulents, some of 
which he had himself introduced. 

A very active member, aiul at one time President, of the Royal 
English Arboricultural Society, he was responsible for the intro- 
duction of several trees into this country, amongst tliem two of 
the South American beeches — Xotliofagus (nitarctica and Notho- 
fagus ohliqua, whilst of the Western American larch (Lari.v occi- 
dentalis) he was the Mrst to obtain seed of any (juantity. 

42 rnocKKDiNos OF irii: 

Upwards of bO plates in the ' iiotaiiioal Magazine" represent 
plants introduced or cultivated by hiiii, the volume for 1877 was 
dedicated to him hy Sir Joseph Hooker, the Editor, "as a tribute 
to the zeal, intelligence, and success with which you have pursued 
Jlorticidtural Botany'"; and it was chiefly to his initiative ihat 
the JNlagazine owes the li'esh lease of lite on which it has recently 

His great work ' The Trees of Gre;it Britain and Ireland,' in 
seven volumes, j)uhlished in collaboration with Prof. Augustine 
Jleiiry, between J!)U() and 1913, was the result of much patient 
research at home and of many journeys to various parts of the 
world, undertaken with indefatigable zeal to study the trees in their 
natural habitats. It is the most comprehejisive couipilation of its 
kind, and his name will probably be best remembered as its joint 

But Elwes also won distinction in the iieUls of ornithology and 
entomology, becoming President of the Ornithologists' Union and 
of the Entomological Society. On both subjects he published 
many papers, and to the Natural Histor}^ Museum he presented a 
line collection of Lepidoptera. At one time he made a study of 
primitive breeds of sheep, and acx-omplished some valuable work 
in tracing the origin of \arious breeds. On this subject he ])ub- 
lislied papers in the ' Scottish JS^aturalist " and other journals. At 
Colesborne he experimented with as many kinds as he could 
obtain. To the ' Proceedings' of the Zoological Society, of which 
he was a Fellow for 56 years, he contributed some iifteen papers 
on zoological and allii^d subjects. 

He was elected a Eellow of the Linnean Society in 1874, and 
of the Koyal Society in 1896. He w as a member of Mr. M;»caulay"s 
Mission to Tibet ui 18S6, and after the Mission had been with- 
drawn, he explored a new route to that country in company with 
Mr. Prestage. These experiences drew him into association with 
Sir Joseph Hooker, with whom he formed a warm friendshi|>, it 
was therefore fitting that he should be chosen to deliver the first 
Hooker Memorial Lecture at the Linnean Society in 1913. Much 
of the country he traversed was described in Hooker"s ' Himalayan 
Journals,' and had not been visited since Hooker's time, though 
they have been since Ehves journeyed there. 

It will be seen that Elwes was a man of very wide interests; 
the long list of papers under his name in the Royal Society Cata- 
logue of Scientific Literature testifies to this ; he was gifted with 
keen powers of observation, and great energy and tenacity of 
purpose. He maintained his activities until within a very short 
time of his death, which occurred at Colesborne on JVovember 26th, 
1922, in the 77th year of his age. 

I'judowed with a sjdendid jjhysique and a commanding presence, 
Elwes made his mark wherever he went. He was a good linguist, 
always ready to conununicate information and to assist those 
engaged in kindred pursuits. A man of strong feelings and 


convictions, but willi a character sucli tliat even those who differed 
i'roiii him most, could not but love and adiinre liini. 

Few have been alile to command the opportunities ortlie means 
he enjoyed, fewer still iiave put tliem to better use He was in 
the true sense an English gentleman, a sportsman, and a traveller, 
devoted to the pursuit of jN'atural Science. 

[Gerald W. E. Loder.] 

The following came before the Linnean Society : — 

1881, 2 June. Indian-made Quinine shown " for" H. J. Elwes. 

18i)8. 15 Dec. " Sketch of the Zoology and J3otany of the Altai Moun- 
tains."" J. liinn. Soc, Zool. x.\vii. 1899, pp. 2.'3-4(), o fjo-s. 

1902. Nov. " Notes on a Natural History Journey in Cliile." 

1913. 4 Dec. Lecture: "The Travels of Sir Joseph Hooker in the 
Sik'kim Himalaya," with specimens, drawings, maps, and lantern 
slides. [1st Hooker Lecture.] 

The MS. was delivered years later, ■when the second and 
third Hooker Lectures had been delivered and printed ; it was 
then considered too late to print it. ' [B. D. J.] 

Joiix Henry Gurnev, styled "The Younger," to distinguish him 
from his father of the same nanie, was born at jS^orwich on the 31st 
of July, lb48, a nati\e of that county which since the days of Sir 
Thomas Hrowne has contributed so many to the ranks of natura- 
lists ; to name a few — the founders of the Linnean Society, 
Sir James Edward Smith was a JN^orwich man, John Lindley, Sir 
AVilliam Jackson Hooker, Dawson Turner, Alfred Newton, Henry 
Stevenson, and Thomas Southwell, shed lustre upon East Anglia. 
He joined the Zoological Society in 18t58, two years later, the 
British Ornithologists' Union, and on the 3rd of JJecember, 18S5, 
he was elected a Eellow of our Society. Begininng in 1867 with 
an account of the Grey Phalarope in Great Britain during the 
autumn of the previous year, he published 'Eambles of a jN'atu- 
ralist in Egypt and other Countries' in 1876, followed by a 
'Catalogue of the Birds of Norfolk' in 1884, reprinted from 
Mason's History of that county; and a 'Catalogue of the Birds 
of Prey in the Norwich Museum ' 1894, a continuation of his 
father's volume in 18(>4. In local reports he was indefatigable, 
more than a hundred contributions to the county avifauna being 
credited to him. The year 1913 witnessed the production of his 
volume on ' The Gannet: a bird with a history,' with many illus- 
trations and maps, which must remain a classic. 

He was an original member of the Norfolk and Norwich 
Naturalists' Society, which was founded in 1869, and was its 
President for four terms, the last being in 1919-20. In 1876 he 
married Margaret Jane, daughter of Henry Edmund Gurney, a 
member of another branch of the family ; at his death at Keswick 
Mall, near Norwich, after a short illness, on the 9th November, 
1922, he left one son and three daughters. [B. D. J.] 


The Ili^'Iit licv. Dr. Samuel TAituAiT dk 'J'kuuot Nkvill, the first 
Bisliop of Dmiediii atul Primate of Kew Zealand from 191)4 to 
1911), wad horn at Jieiitoii, near Xottinj^hani, on tlie KJLh of May, 
18;j7, the third son of Jonathan Nevill, lace and hosiery \\aro- 
honsonian, a house which afterwards hecame J. and li. IMorley. 
The family descended from Hugh de IS'evill, named the Lion, a 
lu'nefactt)r of Leiiton Abbey and owner of the land now forming 
the site of Nottingham. After leaving school our late Fellow- 
entered his father's business, but feeling drawn to holy orders, 
entered 8t. Aidau's College, near Birkenhead, and in 18G0, he was 
offered the curacy of IScarisbrick, Lancashire, where he sta) ed some 
years, and during that period married Mary Susan Cook Penny, 
daughter of James Penny, merchant, of Ileavitree, near Exeter. 
One year later he became rector of 8helton, Staffordshire, where 
he found the church in ruins, and the parish in a most deplorable 
state of neglect, without schools or organizations of any sort, with 
the people sunk in moral degradation. During his tenure of the 
living he effected a remai-kable change in the parish; he repaired 
the cliurch, tilled it with a congregation in ])lace of the former 
half-dozen worship]iers, and greatly in)proved the general state of 
things. While at Slielton, where he had four curates working 
under him, he went up to Magdalene College, Cambridge, where 
he took his B.A. in second class honours in the Natural Science 
Tripos in 1865, proceeding M.A. in 1868. Upon his election as 
Bishop of Dunedin he received the honorary degree of D.D. at 
Cambridge, and in 1906 became nn Honorary IVllow of his old 

He was elected Pellow of the Linnean Society on the 7th 
December, 1865, having in juirsuit of palaeontology dug in the 
coprolite beds of the Lower Greensand near Cambridge, where 
Saurian remains were plentiful ; his other subjects for his degree 
^vere : — Physics, Comparative Anatomy, with Mineralogy and 
Crystallography as branches of Geology. L'nfortunately for him, 
the Geological paper set had next to no questions on Palaeontology, 
resulting in a second class only as stated above. 

In 1870 he left Sheltou Church in charge of his senior curate, 
and the Bishop of Lichfield (Selwyn) having granted him a year's 
leave of absence, Nevill and his wife paid a visit to New Zealand. 
During this visit the Bev. S. T. Nevill was unanimously elected 
Bishop of Dunedin, and was consecrated in the province, which 
was followed by a return to England in 1871, returning to his 
dioce?e in 1873, wlum strenuous labour became the usual 

The constant exertions of the Bishop led to developments in 
organization, and amongst them to the buikling of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, the foundation stone being laid 8th June, 1915, ami conse- 
cration took ])lace on the I'Jth J''ebruary, 1919, and shortly 
afterwards BisIiop Nevill laid down his functions, after 48 years 
as Bishop, and 15 years as Primate of New Zealand. 


After his retirement lie spent liis time iu writing, especially his 
Diar}^ published after his death by his nephew, the Kev. Canon 
E. R. iS'evill, M.A., Vicar of the Cathedral at Dunedin, in VJ22. 
He died in the last week of October, 1921, and was buried on the 
1st November. 

The writer gratefully acknowledges the help in the above 
account of a singularly able and resourceful ecclesiastic, derived 
from Canon Nevill previously mentioned. [B, D. J.] 

William Henry Peaesox, of Withington, near Manchester, was 
born in 1850, and was for nearly fifty years a yarn agent on the 
Manchester 1-ioyal Exchange, having the reputation of a sound 
man of business, but delighting in his hobby of studying He|)atica?, 
in which he became an expert of wide fame. Hr. Carrington 
(1827-93) directed his attention to this group of plants and with 
him he issued in 1878-90, a set of specimens, and in 1902, his 
sumptuous work on British Hepaticse saw the h'ght. Continuing his 
researches, he extended his observations to exotic species, working 
u]), amongst other collections, those gathered by Miss Eleonora 
Armitage in the West Indies, and those by Prof. K. II. Compton in 
1914 in New Caledonia and the Isle of Pines. The latter was 
published in our Jouriuil (Botany), vol. xlvi. (1922), pp. 13-44, 
plates 2-4. 

He received the Hon M.Sc. from the University of Manchester, 
for whose department of botiiny he had strenuously laboured ; his 
election as an Associate of the Liiniean Society dated from the 
17th of January, 1907 ; he died on Thursday, 19th of April, 1923, 
and was buried in the Manchester Southern Cemetery. [B. D. J.] 

Ekederic Newton Williams was born at Brentford, Middlesex, 
on the 19th March, 1862. After his schooldays he studied 
medicine at University College and St. Thomas's Hospital, and 
after qualifying in 1883-1885, he settled in his native town as a 
medical practitioner. His nearness to Ivew induced him to carry 
on his researches in systematic botany, and the writer's earliest 
i-emembiance of our late Fellow, was the sight of him with his 
head buried in a cabinet at Kew, containing herbai-ium specimens 
of Dianthns, a genus to which he was always partial. His early 
studies resulted in his little work ' Enumeratio speciennn variefa- 
tumque generis DitoitJms' [Brentse Vadum, 1885] ; followed in 
1889 by Ills ' Notes on the Pinks of AVestern PiUrope,' London ; 
and then by his ambitious pa])er in the Journal of this Society, 
" A Monograph of the genus Dianthns,^'' issued in 1893. Two years 
later he printed his 'Provisional and tentative List of the Orders 
and Eamilies of British Flowering Plants,' Brentford; a second 
edition appearing in 1898. That year he issued "A Revision of the 
genus Arcnaria" in our Journal, and with the pecuniary help of 
the Royal Society, he produced 10 parts of his ' Prodromus Florae 
Britannica?,' Brentford, 1901-12. He then transferred his acti- 
vities to a Swiss publication, the 'Bulletin de I'llerbier Boissier,' 


tluMv publisliirifr " T.istc des pliiiitcs comiiu's (hi Siam '' (1904-5), 
and his " Flonila (iambica" (15»07). These constitute his chief 
contributions to botany. A frequent attendant at our nieetinpts 
and a dili<;(Mit fr.Minentcr o\' our library, the news of his death 
caint" with startling; suddenness to those who never expected a 
sudden end to his activities. [B. D. J.] 

June 7th, 191^3. 

Dr. A. 15. Eendle, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The ^Minutes of the Anniversary ^Meeting of the 2Jth Mav, 
1923, were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Noriiian Douglas 8im])son and Prof, liobert Scott Troup, 
C.I.E., were admitted Fellows. 

The President announced that he had appointed Dr. A. Smith 
Woodward, Prof. E. 8. Goodkicii, ^Ir. 11. W. Monckton, and 
Dr. A. W. Hill, Vice-Presidents for the ensuing year. 

Certificates in favour of Prof. Nalini Mohan Mukerjee, M.Sc, 
Basaiit Lai Gupta, M.Sc, and Lilian Alice Mabel, Lady Kicinnond- 
Browii were read for the second tiuie. 

Laurence Delaney Cleare, jun., jManaranjam Mitra, M.Sc, and 
Hans Theodor Giissow were proposed as Fellows, 

The first paper was by INIr. H. Sandois^ : " Some Protozoa from 
the Soils and Mosses of Spitsbergen obtained by the Oxford 
University Expedition," (Communicated bv D, Ward Cutler, 

Sir S. F. Harmer, K.B.E., E.R.S., inquired how the species 
were demonstrated; Lieut.-Col. J, If, TuU Walsh ronarked on 
the food of the Protozoa, and Dr, G, P. Bidder spoke on tlie 
direction of movement of the Flagellates ; the author replying to 
the questions put. 

The second paper, by Dr. J. D. F. Gilchrist on "A form of 
dimorphism and asexual reproduction in Pti/chodera cajJcnsis," was 
explained by Sir S. F. Harmer, K.B.E., and Dr, G, P, Bidder 
atlded further observations. 

Prof, C. E, Moss spoke on tlie species and forms of Salicornia 
in South .Africa, illustrated by a series of dried specimens. 


The President commented on the difficidty of studyinf^ siiccnlent 
plants excej)t when preserved in fluid, instancing Masson's spirit 
specimens oi" MesemhryanlJiemiim, \Ahi('h were in the British 
Mnseum (Xatural History) from the tiuK^ of Sir Joseph Banks, Bt. 

Mr. James Biiitten reft-rred to the j^reat amount of woi'k done 
by Daniel Solander in tlie Banksian herbarium, but as most of the 
new names he gave to plants were not accompanied by any pub- 
lislied description, they had been superseded by later authors. 

Mr. J. Burtt-Davy then gave his paper on the " Geographical 
Distribution of some Transvaal Leguminosa?," of which an abstract 
is given on p. 66. 

Prof, Moss supported tlie abolition of the Kalahari Region as a 
botanicnl province. Mr. H. IN". Ridley pointed out two sorts of 
endemics — the first, as in the case of Bidipnocarjms, a genus of 
sixty species in Malaya, with only one outlying species, each 
having been evolved in its proper region ; and the second, endemics 
which were simply survivals of a lost flora. Mr. J. Burtt-Davy 
briefly replied. 

Prof. Moss gave an account of the presence of velaminous roots 
in terrestrial orchids, especially noticeable in the orchid genus 
Eidopliia, abundant at the Cape. Mr. II. ]Nr. Ridley and Mr. J. 
Ramsbottom. Sec.L.S,, also spoke on the subject, and Prof. Moss 

Mr. J. R.v:msi50Ttom exhibited specimens of Cliolromyces mean- 
dri/onnis, White Truffle, from Chelmsford. 

June 21st, 1923. 

Dr. A. B. Rexdi.e, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the General Meeting of the 7th June, 1923, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. Robert Barr was admitted a Pellow. 

Certificates in favour of Laurence Delaney Cleare, jun., F.E.S., 
Manaranpim ^lilra, M.Sc. (Panj.), and Hans Theodor Glissow, 
were read ior the second time. 

Dr. Arthiu' Prancis George Kerr and Ralph Teience St. John- 
Brooks, M.D., D.P.II., were proposed as Fellows. 


'riio folhnviiiy; were severally elected by ballot as Fellows : — 
Miss Margery Kniglit, M.Sc. (Livcrp,), Prof. Nalini Mohan 
IMiilierjee, M.So., JJasaiit Lai (iupla, M.lSc, Miss Joan JJcaucbamp 
Procter, F.Z.S., tlie Jiev. William Charles Tippelt, William Fawcett, 
B.Sc. Lonil., Charles Carmiebael Arthur Monro, Ji.A. Oxon., 
Tlionias Francis l'i<j;an, Lilian Alice Mabel, Lady Richmond-Brown, 
and Mrs. Nora Lilian Alcock. 

Messrs, E. Herox-Ai-lex, F.R.S., F.L.S., and A. Earlaxd,, presented a paper entitled "The Foraminit'era ot" Lord 
Howe Island, South Pacific." 

Mr. A. E.VRLAND contributed a few supplementary remarks on 
the allinities of the new genera described in the |)aper and on the 
problems sugi;ested by tlie occurrence of so many novel forms in 
a single locality. l)r. CahnaTi commented on the exceptional 
beauty of the lantern-slides; Mr. Heron-Allen briefly replied. 

Mr. T. A. Dtmes spoke upon the " Seeds of tlie Marsh Orchids," 
with lantern shdes, coloured drawings by Mrs. Godfery, and living 
])lants. He stated that the Marsh Orchids are classified in two 
main groups: (1) " Maculata? " ; (l?) " Latit'oliaj." 

The chief forms are: — Maculatne: (a) macnlatn T,. = FncJisii 
Druce ; {h) ericetonnn Lint.=^)r(/'coa' Webst. ; (c) O'Jvelli/i Dnice ; 
and Latifoliaj: (a) j^nHernussa Druce; (b) incarnata L. ; (c) j)Hr- 
inireUa Stepli. p. & f. 

As all of these are described by characters taken from parts 
other than the seeds, it seemed advisable to examine tlieir ripe 
seeds also. 

The two main groups are easily separable by a single feature of 
the testal cells: — Maculatre : testal cells sculptured {i.e., with 
internal coils of thickening) ; LatifoliiE: testal cells not sculptured. 

Other distinctions he in the form of the testal cells and the 
breadth and thickness of their common walls. 

Similarlv the forms within each group are readily distinguishable 
bv their seeds: — Maculata; : (a) macnlatit Ij. = Fachsii. Druce, apex 
of testa curved and pointed, coils loose; (b) ericctorum Lint.= 
pneco.v Webst., kernel about 30 per cent, laiger than in either of 
the other two forms, coils loose, less developed than in (a); 
(c) 0' KeUiji Druce, a long, almost straight, narrow seed, with the 
coils close and pronounced. Ijatifolia): {a.) pratermissa Dvwce, s. 
long straight seed, not nuich dilated above the kernel, which is 
about the same breadth as the adjacent portion of the testa ; 
(b) ■incarnata L., a much shorter and broader seed than (a), 
greatly dilated above the kernel which is distinctly narrower than 
the adjacent portion of the testa, the mesh of the testa smaller 
tlian in (a) ; (c) jmrpnreUa Steph. p. & f., the smallest of the 
three, testa ilusky, indented on one or both sides above the 
kernel and tapering to a point, mesh small. 


With regard to Orchis latifolla L., it is doubtful whetlier there 
is in this country anytliing so-called that is not a liybrid or a 
mongrel dei'ived from two or more of the six forms already dealt 

In striking contrast with the other forms, seeds from different 
or even from the same 0. latifolia vary greatly in all the points which 
have been noted. 

On tlie continent there is a form believed also to be Erilish, 
referable to Orchis majalis Eeichb., \vhose seeds appear to be 
uniform. They combine some of the characters of each group, 
but this does not necessarily spell hybridity, nor does their 
appearance suggest it. 

It is possible that this form may be a now well-established 
hybrid-species of one of the Maculatte with one of the Latifolise, 
or it may be the parent of both these groups. 

That question, along with all those connected with the so-called 
0. latifolia L. in this country can, in the opinion of the author, be 
settled only by careful and extensive experiments in breeding. 

Colonel GoDFERT gave an account of the occurrence of certain 
of these forms abroad, especially in the case of those which did 
not grow associated with allied forms. The exhibitor replied. 

Prof. A. Denuy, F.R.S., F.L.S., and Miss Leslie M. Freoeiiick 
presented a joint paper " Ou a Collection of Sponges from the 
Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia," Miss Frederick commenting 
oil the forms by the aid of lantern-slides. 

Dr. Gr. P. Bidder congratulated Miss Frederick on her joining 
the somewhat restricted number of students of sponges, and upon 
the result of the work shown. 

Dr. Ethel N. Miles Thomas followed with her " Observations 
on the Seedling Anatomy of the Grenus Bichiusy 

The interest of this communication lies in the discovery of a 
widespread feature of seedling anatomy, in conjunction with 
anatomical arrangements very diverse from those with which it is 
usually associated. 

Tiie passage from root to hypocotyl was briefly described in 
1900 by Miss Edith Chick for liicinus communis (Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Edin. xxii. (1900) pp. 117-129). She states that transition takes 
place entirely in the "root" as defined by the position of the 
collet, and that above the collet only stem structure is met with. 

The present investigation establishes the presence of alternate 
or root xylem in the hypocotyl and cotyledons of several species of 
Bicimis, including li. communis. Moreover, it demonstrates that 
at an early stage the alternate or radial elements alotie are lignified. 

In spite of these new facts, however, Miss Chick's account 
remains substantially true in that the tissue groupings associated 
with root structure are only found low in the axis, while above the 

LINN. soc. PROCEEDINGS. — SESSION 1922-23. e 


collet eight stem biiiulles are to be found which are eontiiiued 
uiiwiirils as the four equally spaced bundles of the cotvledous. 
In addition, however, are to be found alternate xyleni elements in 
tlie cot^ledonary plane, i. t"., that passing through the centre of 
each cotyledon. 

The existence, as well as the resor|)tion, of tliese elements which 
are usually in direct contiiuiity with the cotyledonary root poles, 
has now been established in a large number of dicotyledonary 
s|)ecies, and was observed by Chauveaud so early as 1901, and by 
the writer independently in 1902. The extent of development 
and the amount of resorption varies with age, region, and species. 
In Jiicimis very few elements are formed and much resorption 
occurs, so that their observation is didicult. The rapid elongation 
of the hopocotyl no doubt accounts for their frequent absence in 
the basal region of the hypocotyl. 

The discovery of alternate xylein elements between the central 
bundles of the cotyledon of liiciuns proves the homology of these 
w ith the double bundle of Mento-ialis and other forms as suggested 
by the writer in 1907 ("A Theory of the Double Leaf-trace 
founded on Seedling Structure" — ' Xew Piiytologist,' vi. (1907) 
]<p. 77-91). It also negatives the view that the presence of 
alternate or centripetal xylem in the cotyledons is necessarily 
associated with " high " transition. 

A long eeries of lantern-slides were shown in exemplification of 
the details described. 

Dr. D. H. Scott, F.K.S., spoke, explaining that an error in his 
description of the early anatomy of the wallflower, CJuiraiiiJins 
CJiein, was due to the fact that the observations were fonnded 
upon material which had lost the structm'e now pointed out bv 
Dr. Thomas. 

The last paper ^vas read in title; it was by Dr. C. II. 
O'DoxoCfHUE on Opisthobranchiala collected in the Abrolhos 
Islands, and was communicated by Professor W. J. Dakix, F.L.8, 

Two exhibitions followed, the lirst of some abnormal specimens 
of Ranunc^dus acris with small flowers and aborted stamens, sent 
by -Mr. Jonx Parkin from Cumberland, where they have been 
abundant this year. The second, by the President, of Fasciations 
of a Crejiis, Ox-eye Daisy, and two states of the Foxglove, one 
havins: a terminal regular flower. 



Tlie Strobilus Tlieor}' of Angiospermous Descent. 
By Jonx Parkix, M.A., F.L.S. ' 

[Bead 15tli Marel), 1923.] 

The author sees at present no sufficient reasons for abandoning or 
seriously modifying the theory of the origin of Angiospernis 
(Flowering Plants) brought before the Society in 1907 by the late 
Dr, Newell Arber and himself (5). 

After this lapse of time it may not be without interest and one 
trusts profitable to re-state shortly the tlieory, to further elaborate 
ir, and to review it in the light of work since accomplished 
bearing on it. 

lie-Ktaiement. In the first place the theory is based on the idea 
that the Angiospernis constitute a monophyletic group. In the 
second place the cohort, Ranales, is lield to contain families with 
the least modified flowers. In a genei'al way, from such a type 
of flower as is, for example, possessed by some of the Magnoliactoe 
all other flowers are consid(M'ed to be derivable by reduction and 
modification. A hermaphrodite flower, in short, with its membei's 
indefinite in number, free from one another, borne spirally on a 
long axis and arranged in a definite sequence on this axis, viz., 
proceeding from below upwards first perianth members with no 
clear separation into sepals and petals, then stamens, and finally 
car[)els. We may speak of such a derivation of all Angiospermous 
flowers as the Eanalinn Jn/pothesis — a hypothesis in the writer's 
opinion almost amounting to a generalisation. 

A flo.ver sucli as the above is to all intents and purposes a 
strobilus, but a strobilus of a special type to which we gave the 
name of antliostrohllus on account of its being characteristic of 
flowering ])hints. Such a strobihis is distinguished not onlv by 
being bisexual, but also by having its microspoiophylls (stamens) 
invariably placed on the axis below (morphoh)gically spealcing) 
the megasporophylls (carpels), and further by having the whole 
of these fertile organs subtended by a number of sterile members 
constituting the perianth. 

With the exception of the Angiosperms the only known plants 
which obviously possessed such a type of strobilus were the 
extinct Bennettitales. We therefore definitely put forward the 
view — Wieland and others had hinted at it — that of all known 
fossil plants this group was the most closely related to the 
Angios|)erms. The peculiar and very reduced nature of the 
female part of the Beinieltitean cone debarred tracing any direct 


connection between it and the Angiospennous gynoocium, so we 
postnlatc'd a liypotlicticiil group, tlie lleiiHangiosperuis, as the 
ilirt'ct ani't'stors, chaiactcrised l)y having open instead of closed 
carpels with llie ovules marginally borne. We introduced the 
prefixes jxv) and fit to distinguish respectively tlie anthostrobilus 
with open cari)els and that with closed carpels. The Angiosperins, 
then, as a wliole, possess eu-anthostrobili and the Hemiangiosperius 

In a second joint paper (6) reasons were brought forward for 
regariling the individual "flowers" of the Giietales as very 
reduced pro-anthoslrobili, and we theorised to the effect that the 
existing members of this puzzling group might be held to be 
verv aberrant survivors of tiie lI(>miangios[)erms. 

It is important to distinguish clearly between the two sides of 
the Strobilus Tlieorv, viz. : what may be termed respectively the 
]}ennetlitalean and Kanalian sides. The Ilanalian hypothesis can 
stand alone, even if the supposed J5ennettitalean relationship 
were disproved. Some botanists apparently have failed to grasj) 
this. To clinch my point 1 had myself discarded Eiigler's theory 
and embraced a Eanalian origin of^\ngiosperms some time before 
I was aware of the existence of the Bennettitean fructification. 

Possibly some botanists have been converted to the idea of a 
Kanalian derivation of Angiosperms by seeing in this view a 
|)lausibl9 origin of Flowering Plants from ancestors akin to the 
Pennettitales. Kealising the possibilities of the strobilus theory 
of the Hower, thev are not likely to return to the idea of the 
primitiveness of one consisting only of a single stamen or carpel, 
even if the supposed Bennettitalean relationship may have to be 

Tlie BeimettltaJean side. The crux of the strobilus theory as 
regards its Bennettitalean side centres round the antliostrobilus, 
tluit is to say, the sequence in which the sporophylls are borne on 
the axis of the cone. Invariably both in Angiosperms and 
Bennettitales the megasporophylls are borne on the axis above the 
microsporophylls. AVitli the exception of the Gnetales {]]ehrit- 
schm)—o. case of especial significance— no other group of plants, 
fossil or recent, is known characterised by such a strobilus. All 
other Gymnosperms when cones are present have these unisexual. 
In heferosnorom forms of the Lycopnda, however, bisexual cones 
apiiear to be the rule; but here we find that the relative position 
of the two kinds of sporophylls on the axis is the reverse of that 
in the anthostrobilus— the basal part of ihe cone being female 
and the upper male, e. .g, CalamostacJnjs, Lepidostrohus,SclaiitneUu. 
Prom the foregoing it becomes manifest that the type of cone 
possessed by the Bennettitales, and named by us the anthostro- 
bilus, is at present unique among fossil plants. On the assumption 
that the Bennettitales have descended from Pteridospermous stock 
the question arises :-Has the anthostrobilus arisen from this 
i)lexus at more points than one? It may have, but m the 
existing state of our knowledge it is permissible to imagine that 


it has evolved ouly once, and from it on the one hand diverged 
the Beunettitales and on the other the direct ancestors of tlie 

Let me now consider shortly the manner in which cones may 
have arisen from the loosely-arranged sporophylls met with in the 
J:*terido,-iperms. Without speculating as to how originally the two 
kinds of sporangia were borne relative to one another on the 
Pteridospermous frond, it is safe to assume that eventually two 
kinds of spore-bearing fronds were evolved, viz., the mega- and 
miorosporophyll. The massing together of such sporophylls into 
cones (strobili) can be conceived of as taking place in two ways. 
Either both kinds of sporo]ihylls were aggregated into one and 
the same cone, producing the bisexual condition; or each kind 
was segregated apart, forming liistinct male and female strobili. 
The Beunettitales evidently took the former course, and the 
Cycadales probabi}'- the latter. The ari-angement of the aiega- 
sporophylls in Cycas is dillicult to reconcile with the view that the. 
diclinism of the Cycads arose from an earlier hermaphrodite state 
through reduction. 

Adopting the view of a Pteridospermous origin of all Gymno- 
sperms, one may hazard the 0[)inion that the ancestors of the 
Conifers were evolved from the Pteridosperms at a very early 
period by segregating their sporophylls into unisexual strobili. 
Ou this supposition the uuisexual nature of their cone has not 
been due to reduction from a previous bisexual condition. There 
is no evidence to show tliat any of the Coniferales, including their 
forerunners, tlie Cordaitales, were ever other than unisexual. The 
(xinkgoales were probably another evolution from the same plexus 
which counnenced on unisexual lines. Consequently, of all 
known Gymnosperms, extinct and extant, tlie Bennettitales and 
the Gnetales would a[)pear to be the only groups to ha\ e possessed 
primitively bisexual cones. 

In our joint paper we advanced the view that the rise of the 
Angiospermous type of anthostrobilus — the one with the closed 
carpel — was bound up with the substitution of entomophily for 
anemophily (5. p. 73). The writer is now inclined to extend this 
idea and to suggest that the antlioslrobilus may have owed its 
origin to insect-visitation. Adopting the view that cross-fertili- 
sation is of paramount importance in evolution, it follows that in 
the case of wind-pollinated plants it is an advantage in their 
passage to the stri)l)ilate condition to segi'egate the two kinds of 
s[)orophvlls. The chances fur cross-pollination will thereby be 
increased. Possibly this may have been the general trend in 
cone-formation among seed-plants in Palteozoic times before 
pollen-seeking insects appeared. Such a nutritive i)abuluiii as 
pollen, one can imagine, would early attract primitive insects. In 
seeking it from the primitively unisexual Gymnosperms no advan- 
tage in the way of cross-fertilisation would accrue, as the female 
cones would not be visited. The Pteridosperms would on this 
supposition also be visited for pollen. They would potentially be 

54 PnOCEEDlNfiS OF Tiir, 

able to evulve in a diivciioii ca|)al)le ot usiii;; insect -aji;ency ior 
the purpose oF cross-pollination. This could he and may have 
heen brought about by the aggregation of both kinds of sporo- 
phylls into one and the same cone. 

It is not dithcult to advance a reason why the anthostrobilus — 
the su|)po-;ed insect-pollinated strobiius — has invariably the male 
s|)orophylls situated on the axis below the female. JJy this 
arrangement there would be less likelihood of self-pollination. 
In the reverse sequence pollen would be apt to fall on the ovules 
below. Further, it may be conjectured that a pollen-seeking 
insect would alight on the apex of the cone and, in the event of 
the microsporopliylls being on the upper part of tlie strobdus, 
the niegaspdrophylls below would not be traversed and no cross- 
pollination would ensue. 

As regards the evolution of the anthostrobilus from the 
Pteridospern)ous arrangement of sporophylls, probably on a 
given axis a series of one kind of s|)oropliyll (prelerably male) 
was followed by a series of the other kind. A primitive antho- 
strobilus woulil result from such an axis ceasing further growth 
apically. Each batch of sporophylls may be imagined to have 
been protected by a series of bracts. The lower series became 
the perianth of the anthostrobilus. The upper series aborted as 
the two sets of sporophylls drew closer together on the axis, 
allowing the lower series to take on the protective function of 
both. The length of bare axis which separated the male and 
female parts of the cone in some Bennettitales may signify that 
the two kinds of sporophylls were originally some distance apart. 
It is tempting in this connection to see some ancestral significance 
in the gyncphore of Michdla, a genus separated from MiujaoUa 
on account of possessing this feature. 

At the time of the publication of our paper perhaps the 
weakest point in our theory lay in the lack of any similarity 
between the vegetative features of Bemuttitcs and the Dicotyle- 
donous tree. The former was so Cycadean in leaf and stem as to 
bear no resemblance to the latter, and had besides apparently 
axillary fructitications. AVe postulated a solitary Hower as a 
jirimitive Angiospermous character, and the writer has shown 
since (38) that this was probably borne terminally to a leafy 
shoot. Now a striking feature brought to the front in recent 
years respecting Bennettitalean genera other than Bennettites 
(Cycadeoidea) itself resides in the fact that tlie strobili were 
borne terminally. Such cones occurred in Willidmsoiiia, Wii'Iand- 
iella, and WiUlanisonidla. Further, the vegetative features of the 
above three genera had other points in common with the Dicoty- 
ledonous tree. The following may be mentioned: — (1) Marked 
internodes : (2) slender stems ; (3) free branching; and (4) small 
foliage leaves. The evolution of the Dicotyledonous tree-habit 
from that of the Pteridosjierm is thus rendered less impr()babl<,\ 
The Bennettitales went jxirfc of the way only, the llemiangio- 
spertns on parallel lines the full way. 

LI^'^'■EA^' socinxv or loxjjon. 55 

When our theory was proinulgafed it no douhL appeared a hig 
step to assume that th(3 Angiosi)ernious staineu was derived hy 
means ot" extreme redaction from a pinnate frond-like microsporo- 
phyll, such as occurred in BennHtites. JXow we know that in the 
iieunettitalean line great reduction has ajiparently taken phice 
in this raemb.-'r. Attention is directed especially to tlie micro- 
sporophyll of Willlamsomtlla cor>iuta, which may carry only two 
pairs of synangia (53. p. 119). Using this as a parallelism, it is 
not an improbable assumption tliat the reduction has been carried 
a stage or two further in the Angiospermous line, resulting in 
the stereotyped stamen with its pair of bilocular synangia. 

In our paper attention was drawn to the importance of the fact 
that in the Magnoliacea^ the connective is prolonged beyond the 
anther as a sterile ti]) (5. p. 48). This vestige, as we believed it 
to be, suggests comparison with the sterile pointed extremity^ of 
the Beniiettitean microsporophyll. At any rate this protrusion 
of the connective beyond the anther may point to the fact that in 
the Angiospermous line of descent the anther had not originally 
a!i apical position, but that in the course of evolution it has been 
left so through the sterile terminal portion of the stamen 

The additional knowledge acquired in recent years anent the 
Bennettitalean fructifications has not enlightened us in the least 
as to the true nature of the female part of the cone. Tliis 
structure is built up essentially the same in all forms. The 
simplest view to take is to regard the interserainal scale and seed- 
pedicel as liomologous, and this is .the one tiie writer at present is 
inclined to favour (45, & 53. p. 139). It is a " far cry " from the 
seed-bearing frond of the Pceridosperm to the seed- pedicel of 
Bennettltcs ; but keeping in mind the great reduction which has 
apparently taken place in the corresponding male frond, it is not 
im[)ossible that this pedicel may represent the female frond 
reduced to its lowest term, viz., to a single stalked ovule. 

Gnetahs. One of the merits of the strobilus theory is apparent 
in the fact that it finds provisionally a resting-place for this 
puzzling group. We regarded them as a much niodiiied remnant 
of an assemblage of plants which left the main stem before this 
had reached the Angiospermous level. A number of pai)ers 
dealing with the Grnetales have appeared since, notably from the- 
pen of the late Prof. Pearson. After a careful perusal of these 
1 fail to find any new facts which render our standpoint untenable, 
liecent work tends rather to accentuate iheir relationshij) to the 
IJennettitales, and to bring them lu^arer to this fossil group than 
we were inclined to do (c/. 11, 43, 52). 

The male Hovver — morphologically hcrmajihroilite — of IVehvit- 
scJiia seriously interferes with the endeavour to derive the 
Gnetales directly from the Conifers. Thompson (55) tries this 
once t.iore, but limls this flower inconveniently in the way. 
Likewise attempts to connect the (Inetales witli the Amentales 
through riroal structure or with the Piperales through sujjposod 


gaineto|tli\iic similarities fiiii to be fouviiiciiijj;. Ilcrc, I lliiuk, 
we nu'rely have superficial reseniblances of no phyletic si<;iiificance. 

Both Poarsoii (39. pp. 334 & 340) and Thompson (55. p. 150) 
are inclinetl to regard the terminal (cauline) ovule as primitive 
and raise anew what we had hoped was an out-of-date controversy. 
On the stro])ilus theory the cauline ovule presents no puzzle. 
Primitively from Pteridosperms onwards the ovule was leaf-borne. 
In the case of a pro-anthostrobilus in which both carpels and 
ovules have been reduced to unity and the carpellary-leaf to 
vanishing point, then through stress of circumstances the solitary 
ovule becomes pressed into the terminal position and may for 
descriptive ]iurposes he termed cauline. It occuiiies the place of a 
terminal hud, but it cannot be considered as such, nor can it be 
regariled phyletically as of cauline origin. Such reasoning applies 
to the solitary terminal ovule of the Gnetales. ]n the Angio- 
spermous flower a terminal cauline ovule can result from a 
syncarpous gyncecium becoming reduced to a single ovule, but in 
this case naturally some carpellary structure remairis to enclose 
the developing seed. 

T/ie Anr/iospfrms a nwnophi/letic nroiip. The writer is under the 
impression that at the present time the majority of botanists 
regard the Angiosperms as a natiu'al, that is to say a nionophyletic, 
group. This view has only become ])revalent in recent years. 
As late as I'Jll Prof. Weiss favoured a polyphyletic origin 
(57. p. o5()). 

Notwithstanding the wide differences in floral structure the 
two following sti'iliing features render to my mind the monophy- 
letic standpoint w eil-nigh unassailable : — 

(1) The stereotyped nature of the embryo-sac. 

(2) The same type of microsporopliyll throughout the group. 
Even admitting the possibility of the Angiosi)ermous embryo- 
sac as having arisen indejjendently more than once, the chance of 
its being associated each time with the same kind of microsporo- 
phyll would be extremely unlikely. 

The monophyletic view could be based on other grounds, such 
as vascular anatomy. ]{especting those touching the flower, 
the acceptance of the Eanalian hypothesis would be involved. 
Let the monophyletic origin be conceded, then the only 
rational way of explaining the evolution of the flower is by this 

Amentifero-. Those botanists who reject the application of the 
reduction theory to the flower of the Amentiferaj appear to be on 
the horns of a dilemma. They must either accept a polyphyletic 
(or at least a iliphyletic) origin for Angiosperms, or else must 
show how to derive the bisexual from the unisexual flower. 

What evidence is there for the view that the hermaphrodite 
flower has evolved from the unisexual one? Professor Weiss 
rejects the application of the reduction idea to the Amentnles 
on account of this grouj) possessing " certain characters w hich 
npi)ear to mo to be undou!)tedly primitive '' (57. p. oo^:). The 


characters be mentions eitlier liad then or have since been shown 
to be not peculiar to the Auientales ; but the point 1 here 
especially to criticise concerns the origin of the berniaphrodite 
Hower. Evidently he is of the opinion that in the phylogenetic 
sense a unisexual strobilus can revert to the bisexual state, and 
lie cites in his support the occurrence of androgynous cones in 
the Couiferae. These in my estimation have merely a teratological 
significance. This may seem to be begging the question, so I 
state my argument as follows. Until a new species of (say) Pinus 
be discovered, which normally bears androgynous cones and which 
is except for this peculiarity a true pine, 1 decline to attach any 
phylogenetic importance to these freakish cones. Evidence has 
yet to be produced to show that a species with berniaphrodite cones 
or flowers has ever arisen from one bearing unisexual fructifi- 
cations. Eor the converse, the evidence is overwhelming. 

Viewed in the light of our theory the origin of the hermaphro- 
dite flower or cone presents no difficulty. The two kinds of 
sporophylls are regarded as caught up together into one and 
the same strobilus from the lax I'teridospermous arrangement. 
The unisexual condition has resulted from the abortion of one 
kind of sporophyll in the strobilus. The Englerian can, of 
course, maintain that the Amejitifera? have been unisexual from 
the beginning ; but then he must confess to at least a diphyletic 
origin for Angiosperms, and must refrain from formulating any 
direct relationshi|) between the catkin-families and hermaphrodite 
flowering plants. But this he declines to do. Engler's system, 
in fact, is based on a kind of general and hazy idea that naked 
unisexual flowers of few parts are primitive, and that from these 
have gradually emerged by a series of steps the fullv-equipped 
hermaphrodite flower with both calyx and corolla. JVo attempt 
is made to trace by means of examples how this evolution has 
come about. 

Let us briefly glance at the families which may now be 
considered to compose the Amentiferiv. The Salicales can no 
longer be included. The group then is narrowed down to the 
Englerian cohorts, Juglandales, and Eagales, with the addition of 
Casuarlna. There is a general consensus of opinion that 
Casuarina is fairly closely related to the Betulacece (12, 25). 
There are also reasons for regarding the Juelandales as having 
aflinities with the Eagales. Hemsley's new family, the Julianiacea) 
(23), was looked upon for a time as a link between the Juglanda- 
cea8 and the Anacardiacese; but probably the Jnlianiace;c should 
more correctly be considered as merely reduced Anacardiaceoas 
forms with no real relationship to the Juglandales (19). A 
Eosalian origin for the Amentifera? as a whole would appear to be 
the more |)lausible view. There maybe some element of truth in 
Hallier's original suggestion of deriving the catkiii-families from 
the TrocliO(lendrace;e through the Jlainamelidacea^ 

In recent years perhaps most stress has been laid on the 
structure of the wood as pointing to the primitiveness of the 


Ameiitiferae. ProF. Jt-HVey (28. p. 1384) makes iiur-Ii capital of 
this in opposing tiie llatiaiiaii standpoint. Tliu two characters ot 
the wood cliieHy concerned bear on the nature ot" the ])erforatioii.s 
of the vessels and on the composition ol' tlie medullary rays, lie 
is carel'ul to dwell on the tacL that sc-alarifonu |)erlorations 
characterise the wood of CusHctrina and the i'agales ; but refrains 
fnnn laying stress also on tlu-ir abundance 111 the arborescL-nt 
Kanales ! iiailey and 8iniiott (7) have advanced serious objections 
to Jeffrey's aggregate ray theory, upon which the supposed 
primitiveness of the medullary ray in tlie Aujcntit'erie rests. 

The view that of all Dicotyledons certain of tin; Ameiiti ferae 
liave the least evolved type of wood is weakened by the fact that 
some of the llunales, viz., Drimys, Zijr/oijifuiuu, Trochodendron, and 
Tetracentron, are lacking in true vessels. Jeffrey dismisses the 
matter in rather an arbitrary fashion by imagining that the vessels 
have disappeared (28). These forms are woody plants, and if 
vessels had once been present one wonders what can have led to 
their sup|)ression. 

Monocoti/ledons. It is now tlieprevailing opinion that Monocoty- 
ledons have descended from Dicoiyledons, that is to say that llieir 
ancestors had two cotyledons. Except the cotyledonary distinction 
there is no fundamental feature of difference between the two 
groups. Some years ago the absence of cambium in Mouocoty- 
ledons might have been held as fundamental, but in the light of 
recent work (2) this deficiency has no or slight pliyletic value. 
The geophytic or aquatic origin of Monocotyledons explains the 
loss of tliis cambium, and the arborescent types, such as palms, 
can he regarded in the light of new evolutions, in which the tree- 
iiabit has been regained by the adoption of fresh means of 
attaining stem-rigidity. This habit, broadly vie\\ed, is primitive 
to the herbaceous in Dicotyledons, but the reverse may be con- 
sidered to liold in tlie case of the Monoc-otyledons. 

It must be conceded on geological evidence that the Monocoty- 
ledons are an old assemblage of flowering plants, and they must 
])tn"force have left the Dicotyledonous line of descent at an early 
period. The question naturally arises, are they mono- or polyphy- 
letic respecting their dfrivation froni Dicotyledons? Though no 
satisfying answer can yet be given to this question, the writer 
sees no cogent reason for regarding the group as other than niono- 
phyletic and of possible Kanalian extraction. The tloral features 
lu common between the lltdobieje on the one hand and the 
Kanales (especially certain of the Nymphaeacete) on the other 
hanil sug'^est something dee|)er than mere [)arallelism. The sup- 
posed connection between the Piperacea^" and the Araceio, based 
oriiritially by Campbell on gan.etophytic resemblances and later by 
A. W . llili on the presence of hetcrocotyly in Pepcrooua, does not 
appeal to the writer, because in both cases it is forcing an allinity 
between highly evolved ratlier than between primitive members of 
these families. 


The problem of the true r.a(iir(> of the single colyledon of 
Moiiocotvledou.s is still unsolved, but Coidter and Land's eoiitri- 
butioii to tlie (juesliou (17) may go some way towards the solution. 
They conclude from :i study of Ar/apanthas that cotyledons are 
always lateral structures and that the single one is due to the 
growth being concentrated into one rather than two priniordia. 

Kespecting the relative merits of an aquatic or geophilous 
aucestry for Monocotyledons, the two views may be somewhnt 
reconciled by regarding the earliest ones as neither markedly 
aquatic or extremely geophilous — in fact, marsh plants witli stout 
rliizomes. Some of thtir descendants have become completely 
liydrophytic, others sharply geophytic, while others again have 
retaken to the arborescent habit by fresh means. 

Ovale. The absencti of the orthotro])Ous o\uleiu Ihe lianales 
nn'ght be advanced as an objection to our theory, especially as it 
occurs in families considered primitive by the Englerians. This, of 
course, is ou the assumption that orthotropy is primitive for 
Angiosperuis. There iq nou reason to doubt this. It has been 
shown for example in the case of Juglans (10. p. G28) and Uhnus 
(9) that their ovules commence their development as anatropous 
ones and gradually assume tlie orthotropous torm. Olher cases 
of orlliotropy among Angiosperms deserve investigation from tliis 
point of view. 

Embri/o-sac. On account of the meagre variation in the embryo- 
sac of flowering plants, little, if an)', use can be made of it in 
determining relationships within the group. That of Peperomia 
was taken for a time as showing primitiveiiess, but this can hardly 
any longer be maintaisied. The writer is inclineil t(; regard the 
8-iiucleate sac as |)rimitive for Angios])erins and any departures 
therefrom as derived (47. p. oSd). Thei'e is little hope of finding 
among existing flowering plants a sac less reduced. 

.Since Welwitsclthi wwiX Gnetum i\,ve the only Gymnosperms which 
do not form definite archegonia in their embryo-sacs, it is 
tempting to compare their sacs with that of the Angiosperm. 
That they form an interesting parallelism to that of the Howering 
plant and are suggestive of the way the latter lias evolved from 
the (xymnospermous sac nuiv be conceded; but that these 
Gnetalean embryo-sacs are ])hyletically connected with that of the 
Angiosperm is to me improbable. Pearson (39. p. 378) attempted 
to connect them so, using that of Peperomia as a link. As 
already mentioned this sac can no lon^i r be upheld as primitive. 
Besides there are i;rave diiliculties in the wav of conneeling 
])hyleticall\^ the Gnetales with the I'iperales by using the highly 
evolved genus, Peperomia, as an intermediary. 

Ewjlers Si/stem. Bugler's system, an elaboration of that of 
Eichler's, which ousted largely but not wholly Bentham and 
Hooker's founded on that of the Pronch school of taxonomy, has 
had a considerable reign, and it is high tiuie for the sake of jjro- 
gress in the study of the flower that it sliould no longer be blindly 
followed, but critically examined with the view of the adoption of 


a new system of L-Iassificalion einhracing tlie best features of both 
scliools. Tliere is no ;^airisaviiig tlie fact lliat Bentliaiu and 
Hooker's system, which was modelled on that of De Candoile, is 
out of (Uite, but two or three of its main features may justify 
ujaiutenance. These are: — (1) The retention of the lianalian 
families at the cuiumencement of the Angiosperms ; (2) the 
])hicing of the JJicoLyledons as a \\hole in front of the Monocoty- 
ledons; and perhaps (3) the retention of the time-honoured 
triple division of the Dicotyledons founded on the corolla. In 
the Kanales we not only have a preponderance of primitive 
floral features from the standpoint of the strobilus theory, but 
also indications of most of the main modifications of tiie tiower, 
which became characteristic for other groups. As the Monocoty- 
ledons are now generally considered to have sprung from 
Dicotyledonous ancestors, they should certainly follow, and not 
jn-ecede, as Engler has them, the Dicotyledons. The series, Poly- 
l)etala), Sympetaloe, and Apetahe or their equivalents, may not as 
yet have outlived their usefulness as convenient sub-divisions of 
the Dicotyledons, provided we guard against attributing to them 
any monophyletic signification. The Poiypetala) may be viewed 
as polyphyletic from tiie Kanales or Pro-Kanaies if preferred, and 
the kiympetahc are doubtless so from the Polypet:d;e. The 
retention of the Apetala; would only be justifiable on the grounds 
of our inability to connect such forms with Polypetalous cohorts. 
Instead of forcing relationships it might be convenient as a 
temporary measure to keep a third series for such families, 
whether it be called Apetahe, lnconi[)leta3, Monochlamydene, or by 
some other less committal name. 

De Candoile was the first; to commence a linear sequence with 
Kanalian families, and Jientham and Hooker followed suit. These 
systematists failed, however, to perceive in this any ])hylogeiietic 
significance*. Systematic botany was, and still is to someextent 
dominated by the idea of the 5-whorled ]ientanierous flower con- 
stituting the ground-plan of the majority of Dicotyledonous 
flowers ; and the principles of doubling, splitting, and branching 
have been too freely invoked to account for members in the 
whorls greater than five. By adopting the lianalian theory there 
is no need to press the matter in this fashion. Unless the balance 
of evidence is strongly ou the other side, it is more natural to 
assume a sign of primitiveness in many membered whorls. Let 
it. be clearly understood that there is uo desire to infer that there 
have been no cases of incrensein floral members by splitting and the 
like. I withliohl judgment, only emphasising the necessity of re- 
stud} ing all such apparent instances by tht^ help of the strobilus 
theory. Many obscure points in floral struciure, in my opinion 

* See in tliis fomu'ction a ieder dated May l.Sth, lUO". from Sir J. D. 
Hooker to ])r. Newell Arber, reproduced in 'l^ife and Letters of Sir J. 1). 
Hooker' by Leonard Hnxley, Lonilon, 1918, vol. ii. p. 22. 


will vanish. The Ranaliau families to the older systeniatists were 
somewhat of a stumbling block, as their flouers were difficult to 
harmonise with the formal flower of alternating whorls. To 
those who embrace the anthostrobilale theory of the flower, these 
families instead of mystifying supply the key to the whole. 
Indefiniteness in all parts of the flower is what we are on the 
watch for and requires no explaining away. 

Engler's system really owed its origin to a praiseworthy ett'ort 
initiated by Brongtiiart to abolish the Apetalse. The latter re- 
cognised that most apetalous flowers were reductions from 
polypetalous types, and should therefore be capable of being 
intercalated among the Polypetalje. Instead of keeping strictly 
to this progressive idea and at the same time retaining the Eanales 
at the commencement of the sequence, Engler and his school 
diverged on novel lines, postulating the prin)itiveness of the uni- 
sexual flower without, or with merely a sepaloid, perianth. He 
passes from such forms to families possessing a uniseriale petaloid 
perianth, and then to ones with a definite calyx an;l corolla. 
Superficially the system a])pears so far to run smoothly ; but now 
comes the \\eak link in the chain — the Ranalian families have to 
be inserted. They break the progressive nature of the sequence 
with their indotinite perianth, Without them the gradual 
perfecting of the biseriate perianth would have followed through 
the polypetalous faniilies up to the Sympetala?. The Kanales 
stand inconveniently in the way, just as they did with the old 
formalists. A linear arrangement of families is, of course, 
merely a makeshift, but at the same time an unavoidable one. As 
far as possible it shoidd follow evolutionary lines, and after that 
its pi-actical value should be consulted. Engler's system in the 
writer's opinion fails to fulfil the first condition, and granting this 
there is no reason in retaining it on the second account, for it is 
no improvement on Bentham and Hooker's arrangement from the 
practical point of view. It is a matter of regret that certain 
recent English systematic publications have been arranged on 
Englerian lines, thus departing from the long continued practice 
of commencing British floras with the Eanunculaceaj. 

It is interesting to note in the history of taxonomy that each 
big forward move has usually been accompanied by a step back- 
wards. Engler's system will prove no exception. The forward 
move consists in a better grouping of the families into cohorts 
(orders), and the backward step in allowing the catkin-families to 
usurp the place previously occupied by the lianales. 

The German school of taxonomy, associated with Tx'eub's 
classical work on Casiiarina, has had, however, this merit. 
Attention became focussed on the Amentiferous families with the 
hope of establishing their primitiveness, ol elucidating the nature 
of the Anglospermons embryo-sac and of connecting them 
phyletically with the Gnetales, thus affording a real clue as to the 
origin of tiowering plants. None of these expectations have been 


realised. Surely as ihe \n'.y to tli« ori<;iii ol" the llouer appears 
not to lie in this diroclion, it is time the atlack was 1 iinied else- 
w lu*re, viz., to the Hanaliaii laiiiilies and especially to the 
arhoresceiit ones. 

As a stiiiiidiis to research Ei)<i;ler's system may then be said to 
have oiitlivc'd its iisetidness and to have now a stultil'ying 
inllncnce on the study oF the llower (20). Tiie strohiliis theor)', 
on the otlier hand, provides a perfectly intelligible working hypo- 
thesis with which to approach this study. It baa never yet been 
put sufficiently to the test to see how Far it will carry us, though 
it is evident that a coiinnencement has now been made in this 
direction (27). 

In conclusion, I take this opportunity oF expressing my thanks 
to Dr. I). II. Scott, F.R.S., for much helpful criticism and for 
many kindly suggestions, especially in respect to the paL'eo- 
botanical side of this paper. 


(From 1907 onwards.) 

1. AiiBKit, A. (1918).— The Pliyllode Tlieory of the Monocotyletlonous Leaf, 

with Special Reference to Anatomical Evidence. Ann. Eot. xxxii. 
pp. 46.")-50l ; iilso to a series of papers since siippoi-ting the phyllode 

2. .\unKU, A. (U)l'J). — Studies on Intrafiiscienlar Caiiibiinn in Monocoty- 

ledons. Ann. Bot. xxxiii. pp. 4r)y-4()5, and (1922) Ann. Bot. xxxvi. 
pp. 2.">l-2;')(i. 

3. Arbeu. a. (1920). — Water Plants, Canibridj^e, pp. i-xvi and 1-436. 

4. AiiiJEii, the late E. A. N. (1919). — Remarks on the Organization of the 

Cones of ]\"dlia/nAoni(( giijas (L. & II.). Ann. Bot. xxxiii. pp. 17.'!- 

5. Auiu;r. E. a. N., and J. Bakkin. (1907). — On the Origin of .-Vngio^iperins. 

Jinirii. Linn. Soiv, Bot. xxxviii. pp. 29-80. Translated into Gerunin 
iu Oi'sterreich. Bot. Zeitschriit. Iviii. pp. 89. WVd, 184 (1908). 

6. Aui'.r.u, E. .v. N.. and J. P.vuKrN. (1908).— The Relationship of the Angio- 

sperms to the (inetales. Ami. Bot. xxii. ])]) 4<'^9-r)15. 

7. B.MLKY, 1. W., and E W. Sinnott. (1914). — Investigations on the Piiylo- 

geny of the Angiosperms, No. 2. Anatomical Evidence of Reduction 
in certain Ameiitifene. Bot. Gaz., iviii. pp. ^(i-oS. 

8. B.viLEv, I. W., and W. P. Tiiomi'sov. (1918). — Additional Notes upon the 

.\ngiosperms, Til race nt run, Trocliodendro)!, and JJrimi/.f, in which 
Vessels are absent from the \A'ood. Ann. But. xxxii. pp. .^03-.')12. 

9. Bkciitf.i., a. R. (1921). — The Floral Anatomy of the L'rticales. Amcr. 

Journ. Bot. viii. pp. 386-410. 

10. Benson, M., and If]. J. Wklsfori). (1909).— The Morphology of the Ovule 

and Female Flower of Juglans regia and of a few allied genera. 
• Ann. Bot xxiii. jip. 623-033. 

11. Beruidoe, E. M. (1911). — Oa some points of resemblance between 

Qnetalean and Bennettitean seeds. New l^hytologist, x. pp. 140-144. 

12. Bi;RRii)(iE, E. M. (1914). — The Structure of the l^'lower of Fagaceie, and 

ils bearing on the affinities of the Group. Ann. Bot. xxviii. pp. r)09- 


13. Ees.sey, C. E. (10ir>). — The Pliylogeny and Taxonomy of Angiospcnii?. 

Ann. Missouri Eot. Garcl. ii. pp. 1U'.)-164. 

14. Bliss, M. C. (11)21).— The Ve.ssel in Seed Phuits. Eol. Gaz. Ixxi. 

pp. 314-32(5. 

15. BowiiR, F. O. (1014).— The Presidential Address (Section K) British 

Association, Australia Meeting, Annual Report, see p. ;")(')'.). 

16. Ciiuiicii, A. H. (11)14).— On tlie Floral Mechanism of Wclicitsrhia 

mirabUis (Hooker). Phil. Trans. B. ccv. pp. lir>-ir)l. 

17. Coi'i.TEu, J. M., and \V. J. G. Lang. (1914).— The Orimn of ]\fonocoty- 

ledony. Bot. Gaz. Ivii. pp. 509-519. 

18. nv. Fu.UNE, E. (1910). — Tiie Seedling Structino of cerlain CactaceiE. 

Ann. Bot. xxiv. jip. li.'5-]75. 

19. Fritscii, F. E. (1908). — The Anatomy of tlie Juliauiacere considered 

from the Systematic Point of \'iew. Trans. Linn. Soc, Bot. vii. 
pp. 129-151. 

20. Gibson, R. J. II. (1919). — Outlines of the History of Botany, London, 

see p. 258. 

21. Hali.ier, H. (190S). — L^eber Jidiania u. d. waliren Stammeltern d. Dresden, pp. 1-210. 

22. Hallier. II. (1912). — L'origine et le systcnio phyletique des Angio- 

spermes exposes a I'aide de lenr arbre genealogique. Archives jSeer- 
land. Ser. 111. B (Sci. Nat.), T. i. pp. l4(i-234. 

23. ITemsley, W. B. (1907).— On tlie Julianiacea': A new Natural Order 

of Plants. Phil. Trans. B. cxcix. pp. 1()9-197. 

24. IIkxsi.ow, G. (191 1 ). — Tlie Origin of Monocotyledons from Dicotyledons, 

through Self-.l(laptation to a Moist or Aquatic Habit. Ann. Bot. 
XXV. pp. 717-744. 

25. IIoAii, C. S. (191G).— The Anatomy and Phylogenetic Position of the 

Betulaceaj. Amer. Journ. Eot. iii. pp. 415-534. 

26. IIouNE, A. S. (1914). — A Conti-ibution to the Study of the Evolution of 

the Flower, with special releience to the Haniamelidaee£E, Capri- 
foliace£e and Cornaceaj. Trans. Linn. Soc, Bot. viii. pp. 239-309. 

27. Hutchinson, J. (1923). — Contributions towards a Phylogenetic Classi- 

fication of Flowering Plants, I. Kevv Bulletin, no. 2, pp. 05-89. 

28. Jeffrey, E. C. (1917). — The Anatomy of Woody Plants, Chicago. 

29. KiRsiiAW, E. M. (1909).— Not(( on the Relationship of the Julianiacese. 

Ann. Bot. xxiii. jjp 33()-337. 

30. Kershaw, E. M. (1909). — The Structure and Development of the Ovule 

of Myrica Gale. Ann. Bot. xxiii. pp. 353-362. 

31. Kkrsh.\w, E. M. (1909). — Further Observations ori the Structure of the 

Ovules of Myricaceas and allied groups. Ann. Bot. xxiii. p. 692. 

32. Lee, E. (1912). — Observations on the Seedling Anatomy of certain 

Sympetalaj. Ann. Bot. xxvi. pp. 727-746. 

33. Ligniek. O., et A. Tison. (1912). — Les Gnetales : leurs Fleura et leur 

Position Systeniatique. Ann. d. Sci. Nat., Bot. (9) xvi p]). 55-185. 

34. Ligniek. O., et A. TisoN. (1913). — L'ovulc tritegumente de Gnefura est 

probableineut an axe d'inflorescenoe. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. x. pp. 64-72. 

35. MAcDuri-iE, R. C. il921). — Vessels of the Gnetalean typo in Angio- 

sperms. Bot. Gaz. Ixxi. pp. 438-445. 

36. Mankval, W. E. (1914). — The Development of Magnolia and Lirio- 

dendron, including a discussion of the primitiveness of the Magno- 
liaceas. Eot. Gaz. Ivii. pp. 1-31. 

37. M[oss], C. E. (1912).— Modern Systems of Classifications of the jingio- 

sperms. New Phytologist, xi. pp. 206-213. 

38. Parkin, J. (1914). — The Evolution of the Infioresccnce. Journ. Linn. 

Soc, Bot. xlii. pp. 511-.563. 

39. Pearson, H. II. W. (1909). — Further observations ou Welwitschia. Phil. 

Trans. B. cc. pp. 331-402. 

40. Pearson, II. H. W. (191.'»). — Notes on the Morphology of certain 

Structures concerned in Reproduction in the genus Gndum. Trans. 
Linn. Soc, Bot. viii. pp. 311-332. 


41. SAUCiKNT, E. (1IH)8).— Reconsfrucli' n of iiEacc of rriiintiveADciosperms. 

Ann. ]}(.!. xxii. pp. 121 -hSG. 

42. S((.rr, 1). 11. (I'.O'.t). — I'resiileiitial Ad.lress, Proc. Linn. Soc. pp. 21-31. 

43. Scott. I). II. (IDOK).— Studies in Fossil IJolany, 2n(l Kdit. vol. ii. Lor.doii 

44. Sn.TT, D. II. (19:i0).- ., „ 3rd Edit. vol. i. London. 

45. Sewaki*, a. C. (1913).— a Petrified WiUiamsmtia from Seotlund. Pbil. 

Tnuis. P. cciii. pp. 1()1-1l':j. 

46. Si.NxoTT, K. W., and I. W. Baii.ev. (1014;.— Tlie Origin and Dispei-sal of 

Herbaceous An<;io.spornis. Ann. Bof. xxviii. pp. MT-HOO. 

47. STEI-I1K.VS, E. L. (I'JU'J). — lleccnL Progress in 1 lie Study of tlie Einbryo- 

sao ol tlic Anginspcnns. New Pli^tologist, viii. pp! 'Si'J-'iHl. 

48. Sykk.s. M. O. (P.tll).— The Anatomy and Morphology of the Leaves and 

Inflorescences of Welwitschia miruhilis. Phil. Trans. B. cci dd 17'J- 
226. ■ ' ^ ■ 

49. TXcKnoLM, G., n. E. Sodeuburo. (11)18).— Ueber die PoUeuentuicklung 

bei Ciiinumomitm. Arkiv Bot. xv., Stockholm, n. 8. 

50. TiiODAY (SvKEs), M. G. (li)ll).— The Female Inflorescence and Ovules 

of Gne/iim africanum, with notes on Gncluni scandciis. Ann. Bot. 
XXV. pp. 1101-1135. 

51. TiioDAv («YKEs), M. G., and E. M. Bekridoe. (1912).— The Anatomy and 

Morphology of ilie Inlloroscence and Flowers of Kjihedrn. Aun. Bot. 
xxvi. pp. 9.1-t 98,"). 

52. TiioDAV, M. G. (19J1).— Anatomy of the Ovule and Seed in Gnetum 

Gnemon, with notes on Gnetum funiciilure. Ann. Bot. xxxv no 37- 
53. ' ■ ' ^ ■ ' 

53. Thomas, II. Jl. (1910).— On Wimamsoniella, a New Type of Bennettitalean 

Flower. Phil. Trans. B. ecvii. pp. 113-148. 

54. Thomas, II. II., and N. BA.vcnoFT. (1913).— On the Cuticles of some 

reeent and fossil Oycadean Fronds. Trans. Linn. Soc, Bot. viii 
pp. luo-204. 

55., W. P. (19ir>).— Tiio Morphology and Affinities of Guefiim. 

Amer. Journ. Bot. iv. pp. 135-184. 

56., W. P. (Itil8).— Independent Evolution of Vessels inGnetales 

and Angiosperms. Bot. Gaz. Ixv. pp. 83-90. 

57. \Veis.s, F. E. (1911).— Presidential Address (Section K) British Associ- 

ation, Portsmouth i\IeetiMg, Annual Report, pp. .'i.'iO 562. 

58. Wi:itNiiAM, II. F. ( 1 913 j.— Floral Evolution; witli Particular Reference 

t.i tlie Sympetalous Dicotyledon.^, Cambridge. (Reprinted from New 
Phytologi:^!, vols. xi. and'xii. 1911 and 1912.) 

59. WiELAxn. G. R. (1914).— Was the TterophtiUum Foliage transformed 

into the Leafy Blades of Dicotyls? 'Amer. Journ. Sc. xxxviii 
pp. 451-4fi0. 

60. WiEi.ANi), G. R. (1914).— La Flora Lia.sica de la Mixteca Alta. Boletin 

31 del Instituto Geologico de Mexico. 

61. Wncr.A.Ni), G. R. (191(i).--American Fossil Cycads, vol. ii. Carnegie 

Institution of Washington. 

62. WiEi.ANP. G. R. (1919).— Classification of the Cycadophyta A.mer 

Journ. Sc. xlvii. pp. 391-40G. 

63. WiEr.ANi), G. R. (1920) -Distribution and Relationsliips of the C.vca- 

deoids. Amer. Journ. Bot. vii. pp. 154-171. 

64. WiELAXD, G. li. (1921).— Monocarpy and Pseudouionocarpy in the 

Oycadeoids. Amer. Journ. Bot. viii. pp. 218-230. 

To face p. 64. 

Puoc. Li.NN, Soc, Pr. 1. 






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1 — 

Tlie above table reproduces in graphic form the views expressed in the fore- 
going paper. The unbroken vertical lines represent a])proxiinately the 
geological records of the plant-groups in question, and the broken lines the 
suggested phylogenetic connections between these groups. The distance apart 
of the vertical lines from one another indicates roughly the supposed degree of 
lateral relationsliip between the groups, wiiich are all supposed to have 
originated from the Piei-idospernis. To the left of tiie Pteridospernious line are 
siiown those (lymnospcrnis which are considered to have their cones primitively 
nnisesual and aiieniopliilous, and to the right those wliich evolved on bisexual 
(antiiostrobilale) lines and were primitively eutonio|)liilous. 



Dr. D. IT. tScoTT congratulated Mr. Parkin on Iiis pa|)er, wliicli 
in addition to its great scientific interest, was an act of loyalty to 
the iiieiiiory of an old friend, whose loss we all lamented. 

The speaker began by sliowing slides of the famous Hermosa 
Cycud (C'l/cculeoidea Dartoni),o\ie of the finest fossil plants known. 
On the part of tlie stem preserved, no less than 50i) ripe fruits 
were present, indicating that these plants may have fruited once 
for all and then died down, like some ]ialms and bamboos at the 
present day. 

Dr. Wieland had pointed out that the Bennettitean Cycads 
were '' the stereotyped terminal forms of a side-branch from a 
great plastic and dominant precursor race." He added that the 
former were "exceptional to the point of abnormality." 

Thus Wieland, to whom, more than any other individual, our 
present knowledge of the Ijeunettiteans was due, liad himself 
warned us not to over-estimate their importance. 

What then, was the " great plastic and dominant precursor 
race," which formed the main stock of JNTesozoic Cycads V It was 
represented by the Williamsonian Tribe, a varied and extensive 
family, which included, broadly speaking, the more ancient 
members of the Cycadeoid class. 

Lantern-slides were shown, illustrating the flowers and vege- 
tative parts of WiUiamsonia itself, of Mr. Hamshaw Thomas's 
new genus WilliamsonieUa, and of Nathorst's Wiehmdiella. The 
latter genera, especially, departed widely from the Cycad type, as 
shown by their slender, much-branched stems and simpler leaves. 
If the origin of Angiosperms was to be sought among the ancient 
Cycadophyres, it was probably with the Williamsonian Tribe that 
the closer relation existed. 

In these days one had learnt greater caution in speculations on 
])hylogeny. Mr. Parkin hnd stated his case with becoming mode- 
ration and had shown that the derivation of the Flowering Plants 
from the great Cycadeoid plexus of the Mesozoic Age, was at 
least a tenable hypothesis. 

Mr. H. H.virsHAW THo:\rAS (visitor) contended that all evolu- 
tionary theories nuist be concordant with Pala^obotaiiical facts. 
Kecent work shows that in the JNIiddle Jurassic a group of plants 
existed as Angiosperms, though considerably different from those 
now existing. In some of the Jurassic Bennettitales are a few 
characters similar to those occurring in Angiosperms of to-day, 
but differing mai'kedly in the structure of the gyno'cium. 

In the same bed as Willi amsoniella, the speaker had unearthed 
female inflorescences and fruits of two genera which are un- 
doubtedly Angios])erms, though their microsporangia or male 
flowers have not been found. These genera are Orislhorpia and 
Caytonia and were dis])layed in a series of lantern-slides : they 
probably bore leaves of the type long known as SfKienoptens, 



formerly ranked unioiip;st the Marsileaceiic on account of their 
shape and reticidate venation. 

It is quite open to question wlietlier these Caytoniales had any 
rehitionship to modern Angiosj)erms. They sliow that the Angio- 
spernious type of gynoocium evolved at an early date, and that the 
plants which achieved this advance si ill had chanicters of a gymno- 
spermous type, especially as regards their seeds. 

Professor F. AV. Oliveii in(]uired what was the author's view 
as to tiie closing of the carpels frnm the 0])en state. 

Dr. A. B. l^ENnLE contended that the paper consisted of two 
subjects which were unconnected with each other: the origin of 
Angiosperms and JJennettitales. Jle deprecated tiie designation 
of the theory as the .Strobiliis theory ; that title would be equally 
applicable to other theories. He also protested against the 
attempt to derive the whole of the modern Angiosperms from the 
Ranalian plexus. The modern German system had done good 
service in indicating the atHnities of certain orders of Dicotyledons, 
which had been separated from their allies by the French system, 
develo])ed by Eentham and Hooker, on account of their apetalous 
character. ]5ut there were groups, sucli as the Amentifene, which 
might be regarded as descendants of older forms, contemporary 
with, or earlier than, the immediate ancestors of the Kanales. 
There were presumably many stages in the evolution of the modern 
Angiosperms, and it seemed more in accordance with facts to 
regard some of the modern apetalous groups as descendants from 
one or other of these. 

Mr. Parkin briefly replied to the observations contributed by 
the speakers. 

The Geographical Distribution of some Transvaal LeguminoscT. 
By J. Burtt-Dayy, F.L.S. 

[Read 7th Juno, 102.^.] 

As far as available data enable us to show, the Leguminosae 
form the largest family of Transvaal Spermatophyta, as regards 
numbers of species, having about lUO species more than the Com- 
positte, and comprising nearly 10 ])er cent, of the recorded species 
of the flora. The subfamily Papilionaceie includes fifty-eight 
genera and 428 species ; excluding tiie aliens, and the geinis 
Imluiofcra which is not yet fully worked out, we have fifty genera 
and ;525 species. Since the first Check-list of Transvaal Flowering 
Plants was ])ublished in 1911, the number of recorded species of 
Papilionacea) has been nearly doubled. A large number of the 
genera have very few s])ecies, and there are few genera w'wh many 
species, i. e., forty-flvt! species are distributed an)ong thirty genera, 
while 188 occur in four genera. As a general rule, the genera with 
few species have no endemics : the greatest number of endemics 
occur in genera with tlie greatest number of species ; but some of 


the large genera have a small projwrtioii of eudemics, e. g., Cro- 
talana, with thirty-three species, and Tephrosia, witli thirty-one, 
have only eight and nine endemics respectively. 

The species show great variation in range, even in the same 
genus; some range almost the length of the Continent ; others are 
restricted to very limited areas ; every possible variation of ranc^e 
between these two extremes is covered by the maiority of the 

Classified according to their geographical range of distribution, 
the 1 apdionacea) tall into five very distinct groups : (1) the South- 
western Cape Province Element, with only five species. AVhen 
we take into further consideration the fact that eleven endemic 
bouth-western Oupe genera of Papilionacete, with 270 species, do 
not occur at all in the Transvaal, it is clear tliat the connection 
between the floras of the Transvaal and the South-uest Cape 
Province is negligible. 

(2) The Kalahari Element. This comprises only nine species 
conhrming a much earlier- formed conclusion that the inclusion of 
the Iransvaal m the - Kalahari Region" of the later vohnnes of 
tlie IMora Capensis ' is quite misleading. 

(;}) The Rain-forest Element of the eastern higl, mountains 
witli only about five species. 

These three elements together comprise not more than 6 per 
cent, ot the total Papilionaceous flora. The remaining 94 per 
cent. (oO(! species) are divided between (4) the Tropical African 
Ele.nent with 1G7 species (51 per cent, of the total), and (5) the 
Warm lemperale Plateau or the high-veld grass stepi^e flora of 
the eastern Transvaal and Orange Eree State, and uplands of 
Natal, Gr.qualand East, Pasutoland and the eastern portion 
of the Cape Province. This Warm Temperate Plateau Element 
comprises i:^9 species or 43 per cent, of the total. 

Of these ;^0(i species comprising the two predominant elements, 
123 are endemic to the Transvaal. These endemics form 38 per 
cent, o tlie total; this proportion appears low when compared 
with the /2 per cent, endemics in New Zealand, or the 82 per 
cent ot the Hawah-an Islands. But if we add to the species which 
are strictly endemic within the political boundaries of the Trans- 
vaal, species which range into the Border States but not 
beyond them, the number of endemics in the thus enlarged area 
IS /8 per cent, of the population. In other words, if the Border 
S ates were to be submerged to-day, leaving the Transvaal as an 
island we should have 78 per cent, of its Papilionaceie as endemics, 
and 22 per cent, would be " wides " occurring also on the mainland. 
Ihus the only reason that we have such a small percentaoe of 
endemics ,n the Transvaal to-day is that some of them range 
across the political boundaries into Border States, while in the 
case ot islands, the oceans have formed an insuperabh. barrier 
either preventing the spivad of species evolved since the isolation 
occurred, or destroying the individuals which had spread before 
tlie submergence ot outlying territory. 

/2 • 


Tlw (Mulcmic goiiera of Africa are of two kinds : (a) those wliicli 
are obviously " reliets " as Taiisley terms tlieiii, e. i,'., h'nceji/tidartos, 
iStaiKjeria, Cnelitm, WelivitKcJiia, Adansonia, >Stercidi(t, etc., some 
of which are extremely local in their distribution, while others 
are Avide spread : and (6) those which are in a state of Jlnx, still 
developing; new species and varieties, e. g., reursonia, Pleiua/'ora, 
Lotononis, etc. 

Fifteen species (less than ') per cent.) are common to the 
Transvaal and India, and five species are found in Madagascar ; 
the Malagasy Element may be found to be larger when tlie scat- 
tered literature has been collected into accessible form, and the 
scattered herbarium material has been more critically studied. 

In connection with the view that, in some families at least, tiie 
arborescent forms arc the older types, it is instructive to liiid that, 
with one exception, possibly introduced, th(^ arborescent and 
shrubbv species of P:ipilionace;e (only about twenty in all) belong 
to the "Tropical African Element, and that about half of them 
belong to genera \\ ith few species, i'our of the genera being Uiono- 
typic. The Warm Temperate Plateau Element is made up, to an 
extraordinary degree, of sju'cies which have developed the suffru- 
tescent habit, there being very few herbs and scarcely any annuals 
among them. 



List iu accordance ivlth Bi/e-Laius, Chap. XVI I. Kicct. 1, of nil 
Donations of the amount or value of Ttuenii/ pounds and 
upwards, received daring the past I'wenttj years. 


Eoyal Society : Grant in aid uf third volume of the Chinese Tlora, 

Frank Crisp, Esq. (afterwards Sir Franlv Crisp, 13t.): Cost of 

Supplementary lioyal Charter. 
The same : BuUiard (J. B. F,). Herbier de la France ; Diction- 

naire ; Histoire des plantes voneneuses; Champignons, iu 

10 vols. Paris, 1750-1812. 


Koyal Society : first grant in aid of Dr. G. 11. Fowler's ' Biacayan 

Plankton,' £b(). 
Executors of the late G. B. Buckton, Esq. : Contribution for 

colouring plates of his paper, .£26. 


Royal Society : Second grant towards ' Biscayan Plankton,' X50. 
Subscription portrait of Prof. S. 11. Amines, by Hon. John Collier. 
Royal Swedish Academy of Science : Copies of portraits of C. von 

Linne, after Per Kratft the elder, and A. lioslin, both by 

Jean Haagen. 


Royal University of Up]>sala : Copy by Jean Haagen of portrait of 

C. V. Linnc, by J. H. Scheffel (1739). 
Royal Society : Third and final grant towards 'Biscayan Plankton, 

The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Pirst grant 

towards ])ublication of Mr. Stanley Gardiner's Researches 

iu the Indian Ocean in II. M.S. ' Sealark,' o£200. 


Prof. Gustaf Eetzius ; Plaster cast of bust of Carl von Liiino, 
modelled by Walther Ruueberg from the portrait by Scheffel 
(1739) at Linncs Hammarby : the bronze original designed 
for the facade of the new building for the Royal Academy of 
Science, Stockholm. 

Miss Sai-ah Marianne Silver (afterwards Mrs. Sinclair), F\L.S. : 
Cabinet formerly belonging to Mr. S, W. Silver, F.L.S. 



'riiB Tnistt'es of llie Pt'i-cv Sladeii Memorial Fimil : Second grant 
towards [jublicatioii of Mr. ISIanlt-y (JardiiiJ^r'.s Researches in 
the hulian Ocean in JI.:^I.S. ' Sealarlv,' £'20(.\ 

Pruf. .lames William Ileienus Trail, YAi.S., F.L.S. : (iift of £100 
in Trust, to encourage Research on the Nature of Proto- 


lloyal Society: Grant towards Dr. (i. Jl. Towler's paper on 

Biscayan Ostracodi, £50. 
Sir Joseph Hooker : Gold watch-chain worn by Robert Brown, 

and seal v\ith portrait of Carl von Linne by Tassie. 
Prof. J. S. Gardiner : Payment in aid of illustrations, £'io Os. (id. 
Sir Frank Crisp : Donation in Trust for Microscopical Research, 

The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Third grant 

towards publication of Prof. Stanley Gardiner's Researches 

in the Indian Ocean, £200. (For third volume.) 


The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund: Second 
Donation towards the publication of the thii'd volume on 
the Indian Ocean Researches, £70. 

The same: First Donation towards the fourth volume, .£130. 


Th» Indian Government: Contribution towards the illustration 

of Mr. E. P. Stebbing's paper on Himalayan Chenncs^ 

£46 15*. 2il. 
The late Mr. Francis Tagart, £500 free of Legacy Duty. 
The late Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker. O.M., G.C.S.I., £100 free of 

Legacy Duty. 
The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund : Second 

Donation towards the publication of the fourth volume on the 

Indian Ocean Researches, £140. 
The same: First Donation towards the fifth volume, £'J0. 


Royal Society : Grant towards Dr. R. R. Gates's papir on 

Mutating Oenotheras, £00. 
Sir F'rank Crisp, Jit. : Wallichian Cabinets, £50. 
The Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memorial l''und : Second 

Donation towards the publication of tlie iifth volume, £200. 



Eoyal Society : Grant towards Miss Gibbs's paper on the Flora of 

British North Borneo, =£50. 
]\riss Foot : Cost of ilhistration of her paper on Euschistns. 
The Trustees of the Percy Skden Memorial Fund : Third Donation 

towards the fifth vohnne, =£10. 
The same: First Donation towards the sixtli volume, =£190. 


The Trustees of the Percy Sladen JMemorial Fund : Second 

Donation towards the sixth volume, ^80. 
Miss Foot : Cost of second paper on Euschistns, .£32 lO.*;. 
Eoyal Society: Donations towards the cost of a i)aper by 

Mrs. Arber, D.Sc, £40. 
The same : towards paper on Utakwa Eiver plants by Mr. H. N. 

Eidley, C.M.G., F.E.S., .£50. 
Miss Marietta Pallis : Instalment of cost of her })aper on 

Plav, £30. 
Thomas Henry Eiehes, Es(|. : Dr. A. E. Wallace's library on 

Natural History. 
Sir Frank Crisp, Bt. : New shelving for "Wallace's Volumes. 


Mr. E. Heron-Allen : Contribution to cost of paper on Foramini- 

fera of N.W. Scotland, £U. 
Messrs. H. Takeda and C. AVesfc : Contribution towards the 

illusi ration of their paper, =£-10. 
Eoyal Society: Contribution towards the illustration of two 

papers by Prof. Dendy, =£40. 
The same: Contribution towards Mr. Swynnertou's paper on 

Form and Colouring, =£70. 
The High Commission for the Union of South Africa, per 

Dr. J. D. F'. Gilclu-ist, for the illustration of his paper on 

Jasus Lalandii, =£30. 
Miss Marietta Pallis : Balance of cost of her paper on Plav, 

=£90 16s. M. 
Sir Frank Crisp, Bt. : Phototyj^ed copy of Dioscorides from the 

' Codex Anicite Juliante ' at Vienna. 


British Ornithologists' Union, etc. : Contributioii towards cost of 

Mr. H. N. Ridley's paper, =£2o. 
The Eoyal Society : Second contril)ution towards the printing of 

Mr. C. F. M. Swynnertou's pajjcr on Form and Colouring, 

Sir Frank Crisp, Bt. : ' Lindenia,' Ghent, 1891-1901. 17 vols. 

sm. fol. 



Dr. li. Daydoii Jackson : MS. index to Limiean Society's Journal, 
JJotariy, vols. x.xi.-xl. ( 1884-10 lli) and the Hotanic entries 
in the ' Proceedings ' for the same period. 


The B-oyal Society : Third contribution to\vard.s the printing of 
Mr. C. F. M. Swynnerton's ])aper as above, £50. 

The High Commission for the Union of South Africa, for the 
printing of Dr. J. D. l'\ Gilchrist's paper on Jasus Lalandii, 
Part II., £60. 


The Percy Sladen Memorial Fund: Additional Grant in aid of 
publication of ' Transactions,' 2nd ser., Zoology, vol. xvii. 
part 4, i:72 10s. 

The san)e : Grant in aid of publication of four papers on the 
Houtnian Abrolhos Islands, .£100. 

The Royal Society ; Donation in aid of papers by Mr. ]S'. E. 
Jjrown and Mr. S. L. Moore, i.'90. 

Dr. W. Riisliton Parker: Donation of a large series of por- 
traits of Naturalists and Persons after whom Genera ha\e 
been named, and work on rearrangement and annotation of 
the entire collection. 

Prof. C. S. Sargent, ]'\M.L.S.: Eight volumes issued by the 
Arnold Arboretuu), including "The Bradley Dibliography." 


The late Sir Joseph Hooker: Donation of his Medals and 
Decorations. (Reversion to Linnean Society on Lady 
Hooker's decease.) 

Anonymous donation in aid of puldication of the late Dr. E. A. 
Newell Arber's paper, entitled "Critical Studies of Coal- 
Measure Plant-impressions," £60. 


Dr. W. liushton Parker: (1) Donation of Oxford New English 
Dictionary; \ols. i.-ix., vol. x. in parts, 4to, 1888- 10"^3-> 
CJ) Encyclopaedia Rritannica ; ed. XI. Cambridge, 1920-22. 
32 vols. 4to. 



J. 1 IJ 11 A U Y. 


Algers. Societe dMiisluire Xaturelle cle TAfrique du Xord. 
Bulletin. 1> S\o. Alger, \\)10^ 

Arber (E. A. Newell). Devouiau Eloras. A Study of the Origin 
of Connophyta. 

8vo. Cani/»id(ji\ 1021. Dr. A. Smith Woodward. 
Babingtou (Charles Cardale). Manual of Biilish Botany. Con- 
taining the Flowering Plants and Eerns arranged according to 
the Natural Orders. Ed. 10. Edited by A.J. Wilmutt. 

8vo. London, 1922. 
Bailey (L. H.). The Standard C\ elopedia of Horticulture. 6 vols. 

4to. New York, 1919. 
Baker (E. C. Stuart). See Blaiiford (W. T.). The Eauna of 

British India— Birds. Vol. I. 
Bevan (E. J.), See Cross (C. F.). 

Black (J. M.). Flora of South Australia. Part I. Cyatheaceae- 
Orcliidacea3. Svo. Adelaide, 1922. 

— — The Xaturalized Flora of South Australia. 

Svo. Adelaide, 1909. 

Blanford (W. T.). The Eauna of British India, including Cevlou 

and Burma. Birds. Vol. 1. (£d. 2). By E. C. Stuabt Bakeu. 

Svo. London, 1922. 
Botanisches Archiv. Zeitschrift fiir die gesauimte Botanik. 
llerausgegeben von Dr. Carl Mez. Bd. I.> 

4to. K'6ni(jsbi'rg, 1922> 
Bower (F. 0.). The Ferns (Eiiicales). A^ol. I. (Cambridge 
Botanical Handbooks.) 4to. Cambridijc, 1923. 

British Museum (Natural History). 

Catalogue of the Books, ]Manusciii)ts, Maps, and Drawings in 
tlie British Museum (Natural liistory). Vol. VI,, Supple- 
ment A-I. 4to. London, 1922. 


Catalogue of the Selous Collection of Big Game in the British 
Museum (Natural History). Svo. London, 1921. 


Monograph of the Lacertidte. Bv George Albert Boulenger. 
Vol. 11. ' Svo. London, 1921. 


British Museum (mnt.) : — 


Cataloijfue of the Fossil Bryozoa (Polyzoa) in the DepartiiMMit 
of Geology, British Museum (Natural History). The Cre- 
taeeous Bryozoa (Polvzoa). Vol. l^'. The Crihriniurphs. 
Part 11. Bv \V. I). L.vNG. :^vo. London, V.)22. 

Bromfield (William Arnold), b'lora Vectensis. 2 vols. (Anno- 
tations by A. G. Moi£e). bvo. London, lb5U. H. J. Jeffery. 

Supplement. ,See More (A. G.)- 

Brnnet (Jacques Charles). Manuel clu Lihraire. etc. 5 vols. 

>-v(). J'„ri)i, lb42-l«44. JJr. W. Rushton Parker. 
Buller (A. H. Reginald), liesearches on Fungi. Vol. 11. 

^8vo. London, 1022. 

Butler (Edward A.). A Biology of the British Hemiptera- 

lleteruptera. -Ito. London, 1923. 

Camus (A.). Les Cypres. Genre Cujrressus. 4to. Paris, l'J14. 

Carpenter (George H.). Insect Transformation. 

bvo. London [1921]. 
Chipp (T. F.). Tlie Forest ()llicer.s' Handbook of the Gold Coast, 
Ashaiiti, and the Northern Territories. 

8vo. London [1922]. Author. 
Clarke (J. Jackson). Protists and Disease. 

Svo. London, 1922. Author. 
Cockayne (L.). &ee Engler (A.) and Drude (0.). Die Vegetation 

der Erde. XI \'. 
Cross (C. F.) and Bevan (E. J.). Cellulose. 

8vo. London, 1895. Dr. W. Eushton Parker. 

dimming (Linnaeus). List of the Plants found in the country 

around Jiugi)y, Svo. liwjh;/, 1923. 

Davey (F. Hamilton). Flora of Cornwall. A ISuj^plement by 

J'^DfiAii TiiLiiSTON' and Ciiamdkk C. Vigurs. (Koyal Inst. 

L'ornuall .louni. xxi.) Svo. Truro, 1922. 

Dennistoun (James). 31emoirs of the Dukes of Urbino. 3 vol.s. 

>v(). Lin, 'Ion. 1851. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 

Engler (Adolf) and Drude (Oscar). Die Vegetation der l^ide. 

Svo. LeipzHj, 189tJ-1923. 
XI\'. Tlie \egctatio). of JsVw Zealand. Ey L. Cockayne. 11121. 
XV. Die Pllanzenwelt di-r holivisclieii Ancleii unci ilires o.stliclien 
Vorlandfs row Prof. Dr. Tit. Hkuzog. 1923. 

Gardner (George). Musci Britannici or Pocdctt lliM-bariuin of 
Bnti>li .Mosses. Svo. (/W/off, 1830. Ji/.v.v May Rathbone. 

Gueriu-Meneville (F. E.). Iconograpliie du Kegne Animal de 
(i. Cuvier, etc. 3 vols. 

Svo. Paris lO Lundres, 1829-44. Hugh Fiudon. 

Gunther (R. T.). Early British Botanists and their (hardens. 
Ba>>ed on unpnblislied writing.s of Goodyer, Tradescant, and 
i.thors. ' Svo. O.rford, 1922. 

Hall (Sir Alfred David). The Soil. 

S\d. L(>,i,/oii, lltii;;. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 

Herzos(Th.). Na Engler (A.) and Drude (0.). Die Vegetation 
der Erde. XV. 


[Hill (John). I Eden : or a compleat body of gardening, . . . from 
the papers of the hite Mr. Hale. I'olio. London, 1757. 

Hirmer (Max). Zur Losimg des Problems der Blattstellungen. 

Svo. Jena, 1922. 
Howard (H. Eliot). Territory in Bird Life. Svo. London, 1920. 
Howarth (0. J. R.). The* British iXssoi-iation for the Advance- 
ment of Science. A Ketrosi)ect. 1831-1921. 

Svo. London, 1922. 
Hutchinson {liec H. M.). Extinct Monsters. 

Svo. London, 1897. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 
Johansson (K.) and Samiielsson (G.). Dalarn*:'s Hieracia \n\- 
gatiformia. 8vo. Leipzig, 1923. Authors. 

Journal of Indian Botany. Edited by P. 1'. Fyson. Vol. J.> 

Svo. Madras, 191 9> 
Kanehera (Ryozo). Anatomical Characters and Identification of 
Formosan Woods. — Identification of the important Japanese 
Woods bv Anatomical Characters. (Supplement.) 

4to. Taihoka, 1921. 

Knoche (Herman). Flora Balearica. Etude Pliytogeograpliicpie 

sur les lies Baleares. I.> Svo. \_Montpellier'\ 1921. Author. 

Komai (Taku). Studies on Two Aberrant Ctenophorea, Cado/dana 

and Gastrodcs. 4to. Kyoto, 1922. Author. 

Le Maout (Emm.) et Decaisne (Jos.). Traite general de Botanique. 

Descriptive et Analytique. Ed. 2. 

4to. Paris, 1870. L. L. Belinfante. 

Liddle (Henry George) and Scott (Robert). A Greek-English 

Lexicon. Ed. 7. 4to. Oxford, 1SS3. JJr. W. Rushton Parker. 

Lubbock {Sir John, aftenvards First Baron Avebury). 'The Origin 

of Civilisation and the Primitive Condition of Man. 

Svo. London, 1889. Lr. W. Eushton Parker. 

Pre-historic Times as illustrated by Ancient lieaiains ami 

the Manners and Customs of Modern Savages. 

Svo. London, 19u0. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 
Lyell {Sir Charles). Principles of Geology. 

Svo. London, 1850. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 

The Geological Evidences of the Anti(|uity of Man. 

Svo. London, 18(33. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 
Macbride (Thomas H.). The North American Slime-moidds. 

Svo. New York, 1922. Miss G. Lister. 
McNicol (David H.). Dictionary of Natural History Terms. 

Svo. London, 18(j3. Ur. W. Rushton Parker. 
More (A. G.). A Supplement to the 'Flora Yecttmsis." 

Svo. Ijondon, 1871. H. J. Jeffery. 
Munro (Robert), llambles and Studies in Bosnia-Herzegovina 
and Halmatia. 

Svo. Kdin/jun/h ,{ London, 189.". Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 

Murray {Sir John) and Hjort {Dr. Johan). The Depths of the 

Ocean. Svo. Tendon, 1912. 

Oltmanns (Friedrich). Das IMlanzenleben des Schwarzwaldes. 

2 vols. Svo. [Freiburg i/Br.j, 1922. 


Osborn (Henry Fairfield). Men of tlie Old Stone Age: their 
(Mi\ ironiiitiit, lilt;, and art. 

bvo. London, 1916. Dr. W. Rushtou Parker. 

Palmer (T. S.). Index Generuin IShunnialiuin. ( L'..S. Uept, 

Aj^rit'., N. AuKT. Fauna, No. 23.) 8vo. Washmrjlou, 1!J04. 

Pearce (Ethel Katherine). Typical lilies. A Photographic Atlas 

oi Diptcra, including' Apliiini[)tera. 2 vols. 

4t(). Camhri'hje, 1 915-21. Author. 
Pritchard (Andrew). A History of Infusoria: Living and Fossil. 
8vo. London, 1845. J)r. W. Rushton Parker. 
Rangachari (K.). A Manual of Elementary liutany for India. 
Second Ivlitioii. 8vo. Madras, 1921. Author. 

Ridley (Henry Nicholas). The Flora of tlie Malay Peninsula. 
With ilhistratioiis by J. IIUTCUixsox. 
^'ol. I. Potvpetaliv. 
\ ol. II. Gaiiiopetalic. 

Svo. LutidoH, 1922-3. Government of the Straits Settlements. 
Roger (Alex.). A Handbook of the Forest Products of liui-ma. 

8vo. liancjoon, 1921. Author. 
Rohde (Eleanour Sinclair). The Old Englisli llerbals. 

8vo. London, 1922. 
Samuelsson (G.). ^ec Johansson (K.). 

Sargent (Charles Sprague). The Silva of North America. 
1 \ vols., iUui^t. 

Folio. Boston S,- New Yorl; 1S90-1902. Tagart Fund. 

Manual of the Trees of North America (exclusi\e of 

Mexico). Ed. 2. 8vo. London [1921J. 

Schlich(^V/-Wm.). Manual of Forestry. Ed. 4. Vol.1. Forest 

Policy in the British Empire. 8vo. London. 1922. Author. 

Sedgwick (Adam), A Discourse on the Studies of the I'nivcrsity 

of Caiiibritlge. Ed. 5. Svo. Low/ou, 1850. H. W. Monckton. 

Sherboi'n (Charles Davies). Index Animaliuni sive index noniinimi 

(]u;o ah ad. 1758 ncneribus et speciebus aninialium iniposita 

sunt Sectio secunda .... uscpie ad tiiuMU 185U. Pars 1. 

8vo. London, 1922. 
Spitta (Edmund J.). Microscopy. 

Svo. London,' \\i^~t. Dr. W. Rushton Parker. 

Stager (Walter). Tali Henrded iris (Fleur-de-Lis). A Flower 

of S(.)ig. Svo. Stcrlinij, III., 1922. Author. 

Stone (Herbert) and Cox (H. A.). A Gruido to the Identification 

of tlie MKire useful Timbt-rs of Nigeria. Svo. Loudon. [1922;. 

Struthers (John). ^Memoir on the Anatomy of the Humpback 

\\ hale [Mt</ai>tcra lonr/iinana). 

Svo. Edinhurijh, 1889. Dr. W. Rnshton Parker. 
Swann (H. Kirke). A SyMO[)tical List of the Accipitres. 

Svo. London, 1919-20. Author. 

A Svnopsis of the Accijiitrcs. YaI. H. 

Svo. London, 1921-22. 

Thomson (George Malcolm). The Naturalization of Animals aiul 

Plants ill New Zealand. Svo. Cambridye, 1922. 


Thurston (Edgar). See Davey (F. Hamilton). 

Turner (Fred). Australian (Jrasses and J'asture Plants, 

.svo. Mi'UioKnie n'.)'2lj. Author. 
Vijurs (Chambre C). See Davey (F. Hamilton). 
Walsh ( lA.-Coh J. H. Tull). Plasue : Kecent propji-ess in Etiology, 

I'atliology, and 'rrcatiiient. (Trop. Diseases Bull. xi\.) 

8vo. London, 1922. Author. 
Wilmott (Alfred James). S(c Babington (C. C). Manual of 

Bi'itish IJotany. Ed. 10. 
Wilson (Wm. F.). With Lord Byron at the S.indwich Ishmds in 

1823. Being exti-xcts from the MS. l)iary of James Macrae, 

Scottish Botanist. Svo. Honolulu, 1922. Author. 

Zahlbruckner (Alexander). Catalogus lichenum universalis. 

Baud !.-> Svo. Leipzig, 1921->- 


SESSION 1922-1923. 

Xofe. — Tlie following are not indexed : — The name of tlie Cliairnian at each meeting ; 
speakers wliose remarks are not reported ; and passing allusions. 

Abnormal leaves of A?h (Sprngue), 4. 
Abnihani. 11. C, el. 17; prop. 14; 

second reading. 15. 
Abroll.0.5 fsi., Opi.stljobranfliia from 

(O'Donoghiie), 50. 

Sponges i'rom (Dendy & Frede- 
rick), ^9. 

Abstracts, 51-68. 

Acari, notes on (Halbert). 13. 

Accessions to Library, 73-77. 

Acfounts, 24-26. 

Acquired characters (Kammerer), 19. 

Address. Presidential, 27-34. 

African woodlands. 13. 

Agardh, C. A., 'Aphorismi' (Jackson), 

Alcock, Miss N. L., prop. 21 ; el. 48. 

Alga; from Lahore (Ghose), 18. 

Allen, Sir James, Linnean Medal re- 
ceived for T. F. Cheeseinau, 26, 35. 

Alhvood, M. C, el. 6 ; prop. 3; .second 
time, 5. 

Alterations in Bye-laws propcsed, 2 ; 
passed, 5 ; read second time, 3. 

Altson, A. M., Lyrtus bruniiem:, egg. 
II ; its genitals, 18. 

America, South, butterflies, new di.s- 
covery of mimicry, 6. 

Anatomy of seedling Kiciiiits (Thomas), 

Anatomy of wallflowers (Scott), 50. 
Angiospermons Descent (Parkin), 14. 
Annual Report of Treasurer, 21, 24-26. 
' Aphorismi botanici ' (Jackson), 12. 
Apiuni austmie. Thou., mentioned, 8. 

sp. nov., on Gough Island. 8. 

Arunnchaiuni. S., el. 13; prop. 9; 

second reading, 1 1. 
Ash. twin-leaves of (Sprague), 4. 
Associates deceased, 22 ; t wovacancies, 2. 

Auditors elected. 17. 

Australia, \\'est, Ecbinoderms from, 10. 

Ildcil/iif /iilicrcii/osis, 18. 

Uaker. E. G., colouring of Cnrtis's FI. 
Londmensis. 17; plants on Gongli 
Island, 8. 

Balfour, Prof. I. B., death, 22; obitu- 
ary, 36. 

Bandulska, Miss H., Cuticular struc- 
tures from Middle Eocene at Bourne- 
mouth, 8. 

adm. 7 ; el. 6 ; prop, i ; second 

reading, 3. 

Banks, Sir J., visitors' books recording 
weight, 5. 

Barber, C, withdr., 22. 

Barclay, W., death, 22; el. 17; prop, 
as Associate, 13 ; second reading, 14 ; 
thanks, 19. 

Barr, R., adm. 47; el. 17; prop. 14; 
second reading, 15. 

Batesoii, Dr. VV., el. Councillor, 23 ; 
on acquired characters, 21. 

Batten, Dr. Lily, Polysiphonia, 7, 

Bauhins orchids, 4. 

Bawtree. A. W , death, 22, 

Bear Lsland lichens, 11. 

Benefactions, l'.»U3-1923, 69-72. 

Berry-Lewis, F., adm.. 7. 

Bidder, Dr. G. P., el. Councillor, 23. 

Birds' courtship (Huxley), 2. 

Blackwell, Miss E. M., adm. 11 ; el. 6; 
prop. I ; second reading, 3. 

Blagden, Sir C, and Sir J. Banks, 5. 

Bonhote, J. L. J., death, 22. 

Bonnier, Prof. G. E. M., For. Memb., 
death, 8, 22; obituary, 37. 

Botanic illustration in colour (Jack- 
son), 15; pf)stponed. 13. 



Boui-nenioiitli Middle Eocene, cuticular 
strucKires from (Bandulska), 8. 

Briquet, Dr. J. I., el. as For. IMeinb., 
17; prop. 13; .second reading, 14; 
thanks, 19. 

Britain, Calamintha bcetka in (Bugs- 
ley), 7 ; Fcstitca rubra in (Howarth), 

Britisli mosses, shown (Sherrin), 9 : 

species of Polysiphonia (Batten), 7. 
Britten, J., on Dryauder's work, 46. 
Brooks, F. T., adin. 7 ; el. 6; prop. 3 ; 

second time, 5. 
Brown, E., microscopes shown, 9. 
Browne, E. T., el. Auditor, 17. 
Bruce. Rev. F. R. C, adm. 21 ; el. 17 ; 

prop. 13; second reading, 14. 
Buffou's ' Histoire Naturelle,' pres., i. 
Bullock-Webster, Canon G. R., Chara 

hispida varieties shown. 12 ; vote of 

tiianks, 34. 
Bunny. J., adm. 7 ; el. 6 ; prop. 1 : 

second reading, 3. 
Bunyard. Ct. N., adm. 7 : el. 6 ; prop. 

3 ; second time, 5. 
Burne, R. II., el. Councillor, 23. 
Burtt-Davy, J., Transvaal Legumi- 

nosa2, 47 ; 66-68. 
Butterllies, mimicry in S. America, 6. 
Bye- Laws, accepted, 5 ; alterations read, 

2 ; second time, 3. 

Calamintha asceiiJrns, Jord., 7. 

bcetica, Boiss. in Britain (Pugs- 
ley), 7. 

Kepeta, Savi, 7, 

sylvatica, Bromf , 7. 

Caiman, Dr. W. T., comni. (Halbert), 
13; el. Auditor, 17; el. Councillor 
and Sec, 23. 

Campbell, Rev. A. J., witlulr. 22. 

Cape Orchids, velaminous roots, 47. 

Carruthers, Dr. W., death, 22; obitu- 
ary, 38. 

Caytonia shown, 65. 

Ceiluhiriue Polyzoa (Harmer), 9. 

Cl/octoceros (Turner;, 1 1 ; (Yermoloff), 

diadrma. Gran, 10. 

Chapman, R. E., adm., 14; el. 6; 
prop. I ; second reading, 3. 

Chara hispida varieties (Bullock-Web- 
ster), 12. 

Characters acquired (Kaminerer), 19. 

Cliarophyta, Indian (Groves), 18. 

Cheeseman, T. F., Linncau Medal 
awarded, 35. 

Cheiranthns Cheiri, its early anatomy 

(Scott,) 50. 
Chenopodium as food (Wilkins), 8. 

Chforops tceniopus, Meig. (Frew), 18. 
Chrj/saufhciinoii from Banksiau lier- 

barium, 2. 
Leiicanf/iciiium, Oxeye Daisy, fas- 

ciated, 50. 
Chubb, C, adm. as Assoc. 15; el. 7 

prop. 5. 
Clark, H. L., Echinoderms from W. 

Australia. 10. 
Clarke, Sir E., death, 22. 
Cleare, L. D., jun., prop. 46; second 

reading, 47. 
Coelenterates (Ferrer), 14. 
Cole, W., death, 22 ; obituary, 41. 
Colitis cdiisK oviposition (Lancum), 11. 
Colour in illustration (Jackson), 15. 
Cory, R., adm. i. 
Cotula gouc/hcnsis, Rud. Br., 8. 
Council elected, 23. 
Courtship of birds (Huxley), 2. 
Crepis, fasciated, 50. 
Crustacean plankton of English Lakes 

(Gurney), 18. 
Cunningham, J. T., on acquired 

characters, 21. 
Cuticular structures from Middle Eo- 
cene at Bournemouth (Bandulska), 

Cutler, D. W., comm. (Sandon). 46. 

Daffodil, three-flowered (Rendle), 15. 
Dahlia from Banksinn herbarium, 2. 
Dakin, Prof. W. J., comm. (O'Dono- 

ghne), 50. 
Deaths reported, 22. 
Dendy, Prof. A., Sponges from Abrol- 

hos Islands, 49. 
Descent of Angiosperms (Parkin), 

Desmids from Wales (Turner), 1 1. 
De Winton, W. E., death, 22. 
Diatoms (Yermoloff), 10. 
Dicladia, Ehrenb., 10. 
Dictionary, New Oxford, presented, i. 
Didi/mocarpus in Malaya, 47. 
Diffitalis purpurea. Foxglove, fasciated, 

Dixon, Miss A., adm. 14 : el. 6 ; prop. 

I ; second reading, 3. 
Dixon, E., three-flowered dan'odii, 15. 
Dolomites, plants froni, 13. 
Donations, 1903-1923, 69-72. 
Dryander, J., entries in Banks's visi- 
tors' book, 5 ; his work, 46. 
Dymes, T. A., seeds of Marsh Orciiids, 


Earland, A., see Heron-Allen, E., 48 ; 
New genera of Foraininifera, 48 ; 
paper postponed, 15, 



Ecliiiiodprins from \V. Auslniliii 

(Chirk), lo. ! 

Edwards, S., el. Auditor. 17. _ | 

Edwiirds, VV. N., Orchids from Oland, 3. ,, T. v., el. 48; prop. 17; second ' 

reading, 19. ! 

Egg of Lyctiis hritnncits (Altson), 1 1. 
Elephiint Isiiind, jjlauts on, S. ' 

Elwcs, II. J., death, 22 ; obituary, I 

Empetritm on Gough Island, 8. 
iii(/ritiii, L., var. rubrttm, Hen\sl., 

'EncyclopiediaBritannica' presented, i. 
Endemics (Ridley), +7. 
Eulvphia, velamiiious roots (Moss), 47. 
Exmoiitli, liatiitiiculus Ficaria with 

peculiar ilowers, 14. 

Fasciated plants (Rendle), 50. 
Fasciation of Daffodil (Rendle), 15. 
Fawcett, VV., el. 4S ; prop. 17 ; second 

reading, 19. 
Fellows deceiised. 22 ; witlidr. 22. 
Fenton, E. W., adin. 14; el. 13 ; prop. 

9 ; second reading, 1 1. 
Fern-IIouse at Kew (II ill), 9. 
Ferrer, Dr. F., Coelenterates and 

sponges, 14. 
Festuca rubra in Britain (Ilowarth), 


Findon, H., colonr-printing from wood- 
blocks, 15. 

Foraminifera of Lord Howe Island 
(Heron -Allen & Earland.^, 48. 

Foreign Member deceased, 22. 

Forests, African, 13. 

Forstera, G. Forster on, 2. 

Forstera or Forsteria in lib. Linn., 2. 

Foxglove, fa.^ciated, 50. 

Fro.xinus excelsior, twin-leaves of 
(Sprague), 4. 

Frederick, Miss L. M., sponges from 
Abrolhos Islands, 40. 

Frew, J. G. H., Ch/orops fceiiiopus, 

Fritch, Prof, F. E., romm. (Ghose), 
18 ; el. Councillor, 23. 

Frost, G. A., adm. 7; el. 6 ; otoliths 
shown, 14; prop, i ; second read- 
ing. 3- 

Fruit of Hippuria (Rendle), 15. 

Gardiner, W., ' Musci Britannici ' 

shown, 10., S. L., Alga> from Lahore, 18. 
Gilchrist, Dr. J. D. F., Plychodera, 

Gill, E. L., see Watson, D. S. M. 

Gnaphaliitin pt/ramiihtle, Thou., 8. 

(iodlerv. Col. M. J., on (nxhids, 49. 

Goodall, T. B., death, 22. 

Gooding, Dr. II., death, 20. 

Goodrich, I'rof. K. S., app. V.-Pres., 
46: cumm. (Huxley), 2. (Watson & 
Gill), 5 ; el. Couucilior, 23 ; on ac- 
quired characters, 21. 

Goiiiot/itctui/t, Khreiib.. 10. 

Gordon, Prof. W.T., on Pi^f/s, i8. 

Gough Island, plants found, 8. 

Grape on a vine-tendril. 2. 

Greenwood, W. F. N., el. 6. 

Gristhor))ia sliown, 65. 

Groves, J., Indian Charophyta, 18. 

Gullane, Pilj/^ from (Gordon), «. 

Gupta, B. L.. el. 48 ; prop. 19 ; second 
reading, 46. 

Gurney, J. 11., death, 22; obituary, 

Gurney, R., adm. 3 ; Crustacean psank- 
ton of English Lakes. 18. 

Giissow, H. T., prop. 46 : second read- 
ing. 4-- 

Gwynne-Vaughan, Prof. Dame Helen, 
comm. (Batten), 7; el. Councillor, 

Halbert, J. N., notes on Acari, 13. 
Hands, ni-e Samuel, Mrs. M., withdr., 

Ilarmer, Sir S. F.. Cellularine Polvzoa, 

8 ; el. Councillor, 23. 
Harding, H. B., adtn. i. 
Hartog, Dr. M. M., withdr. 22. 
' Hepaticse Britannic;B ' shown, 9. 
Hereof hcca, Ehrenb., lo. 
llerou-Allen, E., & A. Earland, Fora- 
minifera of Lord Howe Island, 48 ; 

paper postponed, 15. 
Hill, Dr. A. W., app. V.-Pres. 46 ; el. 

Councillor, 23 ; Tropical Fern-house 

at Kew, 9. 
Hippiiris vulgaris, fruit (Rendle), 15. 
Hogg, S , withdr. 22. 
Hollows, W. E., Ranunculus Ficaria 

witli bleached flowers, 14. 
Howard. W. O., adm. 6; Festuca rnhra 

in Britain. 7. 
Hunter, IMajor C. adm. 13 ; el. 6. 
Huxley, J. S., Courtship of birds, 2. 
Hi/drocoti/le leucocephala , Cham. &. 

■Srblecht., 8. 

Illustration in colour (Jackson). 15; 

previously postponed, 13. 
Imms, Dr. A. D., comm. (Altson). 11, 

18; —(Frew). 18. 
Indian Charophyta (Groves), iS. 



Iris K(smpferi. by coloured wood-blocks 
(Jackson), i6. 

Jiicksou. 13. Daydon, Agardli's 'Aplior- 
i.sini,' 12; botanic illustration in 
colour, 15; — jiostponed. 13: el. 
Councillor and 8ec.. 23; Forxtrria. 
2 ; Giant trees of \'ictoria, 6 ; on 
Jianks's visitorr" book, 5. 

Jackson, Sir F. J., witlidr. 22. 

Johnson, J)r. S., & Sir C. Blagden. 5. 

Kalahari region, 47. 

Kamniert-r. Prof. i'.. acquired char- 
acters, ig. 

Kerr, Dr. A. F. G-., prop. 4-. 

Kew. Fern House at (Hill). 9. 

Knight, Miss il., ei. 48 ; prop. 17 : 
second reading, 19. 

Lahore, algjx; from (Ghose), 18. 
Lakes, crustacean plankton (Gurney), 

Lancnni, F. H., oviposition by Colias 

edusa, 1 1 . 
Leaves, abnormal, of Ash (Spragne), 4. 
Leguminos:B in Trar.svaal (i5ui-it- 

Davy), 47 ; — abstr. 66-6S. 
Lely, H. V., adm. i. 
Lester-Garland, Ij. V., el. Auditor, 17: 

— Councillor, 23. 
Lewton-Brain, L.. death, 22. 
Libranaus Report, 22. 
Library Accessions, 73. 
Lichens from Spitzbergen (Paulson), 

Linne, C. v., Orchh lutiJ'oUa in CUand, 

Liune. C. v., fil., at Eanks s house, 5 : 

on Forstcra, 2. 
Linnean hb., Fors/era in, 2. 
Linnean Medal presented, 35. 
Loder, G. W. E., on Kacalypftis tree.s, 

Lomaria Burijaiui. Willd.. 8. 
Lord Howe I^land Foramiuifera 

(Heron-Allen & Earland), 41. 
Lyctns hranneus, egg (Altst)n), 11 ; its 

genitalis (Altson), 18. 

Maclvor's ' Hepaticas Britannicae,' 9. 
McGillivray, adm. 15; el. 6; prop. 3; 

second reading, 5. 
Mc Walter. Dr. J. C death, 22. 
Malaya, JJidiiniocarpus in, 47. 
Marquand, C. V. B., adm. 15. 
Ma>son, F., sjiirit specimens, 46. 
Maude, A. H., plants from Dolomites 

shown, 13; se(;onded vote of thanks, 


Meade-Waldo, E. G. B., withdr. iz. 
Meaemhryuufhciuum. spirit specimens, 

Microscopes shown which belonged to 

R. Brown, 9. 
Mimicry in S. American butterflies, 6. 
Miranda, Francis, prop. 1 1 ; second 

reading. 13. 
Mitchell-Hedges. F. A., adm. 15. 
Mitra, M., prop. 46 ; second readi!ig, 4^. 
Monckton, H. W., app. V.-l'res., 46 ; el. 

Councillor and Treasurer, 23. 
Monington, H. W., withdr. 22. 
Monro, C. C. A., el. 48 ; prop. 17 ; 

second reading, 19. 
Moss-books shown (Sherrin), 9. 
Moss, Prof. C. E., Kalahari region, 4-' ; 

on Qticreus roots, 1 8 ; Salicorniu, 

46 ; velaminous roots of orchids, 

Mukerjee, Prof. N. M., el. 48 ; prop. 

19 ; second reading, 46. 
' Musci Britannici,' shown, 10. 

Naples plankton, Chts/oceros from, 1 1. 
Nevill, Bp. S. T. D., death, 22 ; obilu- 

i"7. 44- 
Norman, J. R., el. 13 : prop. 6 ; second 

i-eading. 7. 
Nowell, W., el. 6. 

O'Donoghne, Dr. C. H., Opistho- 
branchia from Abroliios Islands, 50. 

Oflicers elected, 23. 

Oland, Orchis hififoUa from original 
station, 3. 

Oliver, F. W., on Parkin's paper, 66. 

Opisthobranchia from Abrolhos Islands 
(O'Donoghne), 50. 

Orchid, Col. M. J. Godfery on, 49. 

Orchids, yelaniinous roots, 47. 

Orchis erice/orum, Lint., 48. 

Fucksii, Druce, 48. 

incarmda, Linn., 3, 48. 

latifolia, Linn., 49. 

iiKicnInid, Linn., 4 ; seeds, 48. 

majalis, Reichb., 4 ; seeds, 49. 

O'KelU/i, Druce, 48. 

2)rceeo.v, Webst., 48. 

-pratcrnmsa, Druce, 3, 4, 48. 

/mrjMrel/a, Steph., pat. and hi., 


samhuc ill a, Jj'mn., 3. 

Ox-eye Daisy, fasciated, 50. 
Oxford ]Jictionary presented, i. 

Palceozoic Dipnoid lislies (Watson & 
I Gill), 6. 

Pantling, R., bis method of colouring 
I plates (Prain). 16. 
' Parker, Dr. W. R., thanks for gifts, i. 

L922-1923. g 


J'arkin, J., liainmcit/iis ncris witii 

aborlcrlsiameiis, 50; Sirobiliis llieory 

of Angiosperrnons J)e8cent, 14; — 

iibstr., 51-64. 
Paulson, K., liclieiiB Iroin Spitzbergen, 

1 1. 
I'eaice, Miss E. K., ndin. 15; el. 13; 

prop. 9; scpond reading, 11. 
Pearsoii.W. H., Associate deceased, 19, 

22 ; obitnary, 45. 
Peirce, J. D.. Giant trees of Victoria, 

J'hi/Uca arlwrca on Gongh Island, 8. 
Piciiarn. P. V., withdr. 22. 
]'i.</acia L(n/i»-iis, abnormal leaves, 5. 
Pi(i/s (Gordon), iS. 
Plankton, crustacean (Gnrney). 18. 

Na])les, Diatoms from, 11. 

J'ole-Kvans. wrc Thoni.-on, Mrs. M. li. 

H., willuir. 22. 
Toli/sijihiiuia. Briti.sli (Batten), 7. 
Polyzoa (Harmer), 9. 
P.iiilton, Prof. E. B., :Mimicry in 

South American butterllifs, 6. 
Prossci as author (Jackson), 12. 
Prain, Sir ]).. K. Pantling's metliod of 

colouring plates. 16. 
I'residential Address. 2--34. 
Prince Charles Foreland lichens. 11. 
]'rocter. ^liss J. B.. el. 48 ; prop. 17 ; 

second reading, 19. 
Plijchodero. cui>cii.-<h (Gilchrist). 46. 
Pugslt-y, n. W., Calamintha hctlka iu 

Britain, 7. 
Pycraft, W. P., adm. 19 ; el. 17 ; prop. 

14; second reading, 14. 

Qnercu» pedunciilata and Q. sessilijiora, 

lengt'-. of roots (Moss), 18. 
' Quest' collections (Wilkins), 8. 

Ranisbottom, J., el. Councillor and 

•Sec, 23. 
lianuvvHlns acrui, abnormal, 50. 

Ficaria with bleached flowers, 14. 

Kathbone, Miss, ' Musci Britannici,' 10. 
Reeves, J., withdi-. 22. 

Kendle, Dr. A. B., Banks's Visitors' 
book, 5 : Brown's pocket microscope, 
9: cotnni. (Wilkins) S; cohniring of 
editions of iierbals, 17: Ikihlia and 
Chri/sont/ieannii from Bankfian her- 
liariuni, z ; el. Councillor and Presi- 
flent, 23 ; fasciated Crcpis, Ox-eye 
Daisy, and Foxgloves, 50 ; fruit of 
Ili/ij/iiri.''. 51; on Parkin's j)a])er. 
66; seedling oak with long tajj-root, 
I 7 ; three- flowered Daffodil, 15 ; vine- 
tendril bearing grape, 2. 

Re])ort of Librarian, 22. 

of Treasurer. 21, 24-26. 

Kes))ondente8, custom in Scandinavia 

(Jackson). 12. 
Richnioud-Brown, L. A. M., Lady, 

el. 48; prop. 19; second reafling, 

li'iciuus, seedling anaton)y (Thomas), 

Ridley, II. N., liiuleniics. 47. 
Hotlischild, Lord. el. Councillor, 23. 
Root of .seedling oak (Reidle), 17. 
Rowetl, J. R., plants collected by, 8. 
Jluiiiex/rulescciis, Thou., 8. 

Salamandra, acquired characters (Kaui- 

nierer), 6. 
f^aliconiia in S. Africa (Moss), 48. 
Salisbury, Dr. Ji. J., el. Councillor, 23. 
•St. John-Brooks, R. T.. prop. 47. 
8alnion, C. E., colouring iu herbals, 

Samuel, afterw. Mrs. Hands, withdr. 

Sandon. H., Protozoa from Spitz- 

bergen, 46. 
Scott, Dr. D. H., comm. (Gord(jn), 18; 

early anatomy of Wallflowers, 50; 

on Parkin's paper, 65. 
Sedgwick, L. J., question of method iu 

printing. 15. 
SeefUing anatomy of Riinns (iihomvis), 

Seeds of Marsh Orchids (Dymes), 48. 
Sewell, Major R. B. S., el. 13; prop. 

6 ; second reading, 7. 
Shackleton-Rowett Exped. (Wilkins), 8. 
Sherrin, W. B., volumes of mosses, 9. 
Sikkim orchids, method of colouring 

plates, 16. 
Silica in plants (Walsh), 18. 
Simpson, IS'. D., adm. 46. 
Smith, If. II., el. 17; prop. 13; second 

reading. 14. 
Solander, D., fatal seizure, 5. 
Solomides, Z. I., el. 6 ; prop. 1 ; second 

reading, 3. 
Sitjjliora tcLrai>tcra var., on Gough Is- 
land, 8. 
Sparrman, A., For»iera, 2. 
Sphoffnitm. book of specimens shown 

(Siierrin), 9. 
Spitzhergen Lichens (Paulson), 11. 
Sponges (Ferrer), 14; from Abrolhos 

Islands 'Dendy & Frederick), 49. 
Sprague, T. A., el. Councillor, 23 ; on 

twin-leaves of Ash, 4. 
Statospores of Diatoms (Yerniolofl'), 10. 
Strobilustheory of Angiosperni Descent 

(Parkin). 14; — abslr. 51-64. 
Succulent plants preserved, 46. 
Sununerhayes, V. S., Lichens coll. b} , 

1 1. 



Swynnertoii, C. F. M., African forests, 

13 ; withdr. 22. 
Si/ndc7idrii(m, Ehrenb., 10. 

Tabor, R. J., el. Councillor, 23. 

Tendril of vine bearing a grape, 2. 

Thomas, Dr. E. A'. M., seedling anat- 
omy of liicinus, 49. 

Thomas, H. H., on Parkin's paper, 65. 

Thompson, H. S., withdr. 24. 

Tharea raniusigMma, Borv, unique 
I'ritish specimen, 9. 

Tierney, Dr. C. adm. 21 : el. 17 ; prop. 
13; second reading, 14. 

Tiilyard, ])r. R. J., wing-venation of 
Mayflies. 5 : — postponed reading, 

Tippett. Rev. W. C, el. 4S ; prop. 17 ; 

second reading, 19. 
Transvaal Leguminosie (Burtt-Davy), 

47 ; — abstr. 66-68. 
Treasurer's Annual Report, 21, 24-26. 
Trees, giant, of Victoria (Feirce), 6. 
Tri.stan da Cinilui, plants on, S. 
Troup, Prof. R. S., adm. 46; el. 13 ; 

prop. 9; second reading, 11. 
Tussock grass on Gougli Island, S. 
Tyrol, plants from. 13. 

'Vaillant's orchids, 4. 

Van der Biji, Dr. P. A., withdr. 22. 

Velaminous roots in orchids (Mossj, 

Vice-Pi'esidents appointed. 46. 

Victoria, giant trees of (Feirce), 6. 
Vine-tendril bearing a grape, 2. 
Visitors' book recording weights, 5. 

Wales, Desmids from, 11. 

Walker, A. O., Vine-tendril bearing a 

gra)ie. 2. 
congratulations to, 2 ; letter from, 

Wallace, Prof. R., withdr. 22. 
Wallflower, its early anatomy (Scott), 

Walsh, Lt.-Col. J. H. T., silica iu 
plants reduced by moulds, 18. 

Watson, Prof. D. S. M.. & E. L. Gill, 
PaliEOZoic Dipnoi, 6. 

Weiss, Prof. F. E., el. Councillor, 23. 

Wilkins, G. H., ' Quest' collections. 8. 

Wilkins, W. H., adm. 21 ; cert, read, 1; 
el. 6. 

Williams, F. N., death, 22 ; obituary, 

Wilmott, A. J., Orchis latifolia from 

Oland, 3. 
Wilson, E. A., adm. 15 ; el. 13 ; pro]). 

7 : second reading, 9. 
Wolfenden, Dr. R. N., withdr. 22. 
Woodland formations in Africa, 13. 
^^ oodward, Dr. A. S., Address, 35: 

app. V.-Fres.. 46 ; el. Councillor, 23 ; 

Linnean iMetlal presented by, 33. 

Xanthiupijxh, Ehrenb., 16. 
Vermohiff, Sir M., CluffUjccro)', 10. 


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